Extractions: Bioterrorism is the use or threatened use of microorganisms or toxins to produce disease and/or death in humans, animals or plants. Bioterrorists undertake such actions to create fear and intimidate governments in the pursuit of idealological, political, or religious goals. Bioterrorism is insidious because biological agents are hard to detect upon covert release, they are nondiscriminate killers, and terrorists can protect themselves from the release and escape prior to the effect as it may take days to produce disease. Unlike conventional weapons, bioweapons are a relatively inexpensive means of eradicating people from an environment while preserving stuctures. At least 17 nations have offensive bioweapons programs. With the collapse of the Soviet Union and economic instability, the possibility exists that their research into weaponizing bioagents has been sold to terrorists. Weaponizing consists of processes designed to enhance delivery, stability, infectivity and/or lethality. Aerosol delivery is the most likely means of delivery for bioagents followed by water or food borne means, which are less likely due to logistics. In order to be delivered effectively by aerosol to the oral and nasal passages, particles must be very small (10 microns). They must be even smaller if they are to reach the
Howstuffworks "How Anthrax Works" This week a new anthrax scare prompted authorities to close down 11 post offices in the Washington DC area. Main Science Military How anthrax Works. http://people.howstuffworks.com/anthrax.htm
Extractions: Table of Contents Introduction to How Anthrax Works Where Does it Come From? How Does it Spread? What Happens When it Enters the Body? The Symptoms of Anthrax Diagnosis and Treatment Vaccine and Treatment Research Lots More Information The threat of anthrax as a biological weapon has become a real concern for everyone. Anthrax is a disease caused not by a virus, but rather by bacteria . There aren't any known cases of anthrax passing from one person to another, so it is considered to be noncontagious. It is still a large threat, however, because if it isn't recognized and treated quickly enough it can be deadly. Bacillus anthracis is the bacterium that causes the disease anthrax. It has historically affected herbivores like cattle, sheep or other grazing herds, but has also been a threat to humans who work with these animals and their by-products.
Extractions: Languages Spanish Portuguese German Italian Korean Arabic Japanese Time, Inc. Time.com People Fortune EW InStyle Business 2.0 CNN's bioterrorism analyst Javed Ali has written extensively for various publications, including Jane's Defence, and is the principal author of Jane's U.S. Chemical Biological Defense Guidebook. He has a background in the analysis of weapons of mass destruction, terrorism, counter-terrorism, and Middle Eastern and Asian security and political dynamics. CNN: A flurry of activity occurred yesterday. Give us your assessment of these anthrax discoveries both in Washington and New York. ALI: Those discoveries were certainly alarming, at least to the extent that we as a nation continue to experience these kinds of incidents. And now there is some indication that other nations are experiencing at least the residual effects that have gripped our country, with respect to the fear and anxiety resulting from these isolated incidents. CHAT PARTICIPANT: Are there any connections with the anthrax case in Kenya with those in the U.S.?
Ask NOAH About: Anthrax Ask NOAH About anthrax. KidsHealth The Youngest Victims anthrax May Affect Children Differently Than Adults ABC News Teens and anthrax What is anthrax? http://www.noah-health.org/english/illness/infect/anthrax.html
Extractions: Prevention ... Information Resources Transmission and Diagnosis Prevention Anthrax - FDA Anthrax: The Vaccine - Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program Questions and Answers About Anthrax Prevention and Treatment - US Dept of Health and Human Services What Every Navy Member Should Know About The Anthrax Vaccine - US Navy Care and Treatment Cipro (Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride) for Inhalation Anthrax - FDA Drug of the Moment: Cipro - Time Magazine Questions and Answers About Anthrax Prevention and Treatment - US Dept of Health and Human Services Specific Concerns Bioterrorism and Anthrax Anthrax - Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies Anthrax as a Biological Weapon - JAMA PDF File of 11 Pages)
Extractions: Jerk W. Langer Læge og videnskabsjournalist Hjemmesiden er 100% uafhængig Ingen sponsorer eller særinteresser Artikeloversigt Foredrag ... Forsiden MILTBRAND ANTHRAX - et farligt terrorvåben Af Jerk W. Langer (opdateret 19. april 2004) Hvad er miltbrand ? Miltbrand-bakterier i mikroskopet. Miltbrand også kendt som anthrax eller antrax er en infektion, der forårsages af bakterien Bacillus anthracis. Sygdommen rammer især kvæg, får, geder, kameler, antiloper og andre planteædere. Bakterien kan smitte fra husdyr til mennesker ved direkte kontakt eller via produkter fra dyr, hvilket oftest sker på landet i Sydamerika, Østeuropa, Asien, Afrika, Caribien og Mellemøsten. Miltbrand-bakterien har en særlig evne til, modsat de fleste andre bakterier, at danne sporer. Det er inaktive og meget hårdføre hvilende bakterier, som i en slags dvale kan overleve i jorden i årtier. Hvorfor frygter vi miltbrand ? 22 mennesker i USA blev smittet, og 5 døde af miltbrand i efteråret 2001. Smitten skete gennem breve, som indeholdt et pulver med miltbrand-sporer. Man havde frygtet, at miltbrand kan anvendes som biologisk våben af terrorister. Meget tyder på, at denne frygt nu blev til virkelighed, selv om ingen fik klarlagt brevenes afsender med sikkerhed. En teori er, at det drejede sig om amerikanske højreekstremister.
NPR: America Responds -- The Home Front: Anthrax Primer An anthrax Primer NPR s Science Desk Answers Some Frequently Asked Questions. Oct. 23, 2001. search More broadcast coverage of the anthrax investigation. http://www.npr.org/news/specials/response/home_front/features/2001/oct/011010.an
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Extractions: Languages Spanish Portuguese German Italian Korean Arabic Japanese Time, Inc. Time.com People Fortune EW InStyle Business 2.0 Envelopes containing suspicious powder have been found across the world GENEVA, Switzerland The World Health Organization has said the public should be vigilant but not panic in wake of anthrax cases in the United States. "The advice is to be vigilant, be cautious... (but) mass hysteria and panic is not a sensible response," a spokesman for the Geneva-based United Nations body said on Tuesday. At least 12 people have been exposed to anthrax, a potentially lethal germ, in the United States where one of the victims has died. U.S. authorities are treating the incidents as criminal attacks and have not ruled out a possible link to groups behind the suicide hijackings on September 11 in which more than 5,000 people died in the U.S.. There has also been a spate of alerts and scare elsewhere in Sweden, Germany, Switzerland, France, the UK, Australia, Brazil, Israel all of which proved to be false alarms.
Anthrax Facts anthrax. anthrax ANthracks is a bacterial disease that mainly affects animals. What is anthrax? anthrax is mainly a disease of animals. http://www.astdhpphe.org/infect/Anthrax.html
Extractions: What is anthrax? Anthrax is mainly a disease of animals. In rare cases, it can spread to people and cause life-threatening illness. What is the infectious agent that causes anthrax? Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium that lives naturally in certain types of soil. The bacterium produces spores. Spores are hardy forms of the bacterium that can survive in soil or on contaminated objects for years. Where is anthrax found? Anthrax is found worldwide but is most common in areas where people raise livestock and where public health programs are lax. Materials contaminated with anthrax spores can reach any country in the world. How do people get anthrax?
Extractions: Languages Spanish Portuguese German Italian Korean Arabic Japanese Time, Inc. Time.com People Fortune EW InStyle Business 2.0 ISLAMABAD, Pakistan (CNN) Pakistan's top health official said Saturday his agency would test three people suspected of anthrax exposure in Karachi, calling on a private laboratory that tested three envelopes for the bacteria to hand over its samples for further tests. Dr. Athar Saeed Dil said his organization, the Pakistan National Institute for Health, is the only body in the country that an confirm or deny the presence of anthrax. Earlier, the Pakistani science minister said that at least one of four suspect letters received at three locations in the country contained anthrax. No one thought to be exposed to anthrax has exhibited symptoms, he said. Science and Technology Minister Atta-ur-Rahman told CNN the letters were sent to a national newspaper, a computer company and a bank. One of the locations received two letters. ÊCNN.com Asia
Extractions: Openbook Linked Table of Contents Front Matter, pp. i-xxii Executive Summary, pp. 1-32 1 Introduction, pp. 33-39 2 Background, pp. 40-55 3 Anthrax Vaccine Efficacy, pp. 56-82 4 Safety: Introduction, pp. 83-101 5 Safety: Case Reports, pp. 102-117 6 Safety: Epidemiologic Studies, pp. 118-179 7 Anthrax Vaccine Manufacture, pp. 180-197 8 Future Needs, pp. 198-210 Appendix A Statement of Task, pp. 211-213 Appendix B Biographical Sketches, pp. 214-217 Appendix C Information-Gathering Meeting Agendas, pp. 218-226 Appendix D Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Package Inserts, pp. 227-238 Appendix E Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) Fo..., pp. 239-242 Appendix F Anthrax Vaccine Expert Committee (AVEC) Case Asse..., pp. 243-244 Appendix G DMSS Analyses Requested by the IOM Committee to A..., pp. 245-252
Extractions: Languages Spanish Portuguese German Italian Korean Arabic Japanese Time, Inc. Time.com People Fortune EW InStyle Business 2.0 BERLIN, Germany Suspect letters and packages feared to have contained anthrax have proven to be hoaxes, German officials have said. The letter and two packages were initially thought to have been contaminated with anthrax after packets of white powder found inside the envelopes proved positive. The items, sent to the eastern state of Thuringia and the northern state of Schleswig-Holsten, would have signalled the spread of U.S-style biological attacks in western Europe if they had proven positive. But the national centre for disease in Berlin control gave the official all clear on Saturday after subsequent tests. VIDEO U.S. investigators are trying to keep up with the growing number of people testing postitive for anthrax. CNN's Eileen O'Connor reports (October 31)
Redirect To Bioterrorism DASEESanthrax Special Issue, PLEASE online. They are not peer reviewed papers, but descriptions and reports of research being done on anthrax. http://www.healthfinder.gov/anthrax_bioterrorism.htm
Extractions: WASHINGTON (CNN) Almost six months after anthrax letters began turning up in the mail, the mystery of who sent those deadly missives and why persists. There has been some progress. Authorities have narrowed to about two dozen the number of labs believed capable of making the deadly spores. Scientists also have learned the anthrax spores that filled letters to Sens. Tom Daschle, D-South Dakota, and Patrick Leahy, D-Vermont, were even purer than investigators thought. The anthrax's purity and potency makes it highly unlikely the killer could have made and treated the spores in a makeshift setting, according to officials involved in the massive investigation. "There are only so many people, so many places that this can be done," said Van Harp, the assistant FBI director leading the anthrax investigation.
AAP - Anthrax/Bioterrorism Q And A . . anthrax/Bioterrorism Q and A. Updated 5/16/02. It is unwise to let children view footage of traumatic events such as news about anthrax outbreaks. http://www.aap.org/advocacy/releases/anthraxqa.htm
Extractions: Anthrax/Bioterrorism Q and A Updated: 5/16/02 Q: Is general information available about bioterrorism? A: Education is your best weapon against bioterrorism. Parents can familiarize themselves with recommendations by the AAP, and check out the Academy's " Family Readiness Kit " for disasters. It's a good idea to have a supply of bottled water, non-perishable food and other necessities put aside in case of any disaster, natural or man-made. In addition, parents can check out the CDC's web site at www.cdc.gov, or contact local public health agencies, to find out the status of preparations at different levels of government. Another informative site is run by the Center for Biodefense Studies at Johns Hopkins University, at www.hopkins-biodefense.org Q: How can I talk to my children effectively about the threat of bioterrorism? A: It is important to allow children to express their fears and concerns and to communicate to them that they are safe. Given what they may have seen on television, children need to know that parents, health care providers and the government are doing everything they can to protect children from harm. Keeping family routines intact also will help children feel safe. In addition, watching too much media coverage of bioterrorism can be traumatizing. It is unwise to let children view footage of traumatic events such as news about anthrax outbreaks. The AAP has provided more tips on communicating with your children about disasters and terrorism at www.aap.org/advocacy/releases/disastercomm.htm
Extractions: (CNN) Six months after anthrax-by-mail attacks rocked the nation, the public health community is left with a series of lessons learned. They range from tracking the trail of exposure, to identifying inhalational-anthrax treatment options and effective crisis communication when bioterrorism strikes. Take the case of Washington postal worker Leroy Richmond. The odds were against the 57-year-old living to tell his story. QUICKVOTE Six months after the initial scare, do you think an anthrax attack remains a viable threat?
Anthrax At Sverdlovsk, 1979 Programs, public attention has become intensely focused upon the threat of attack by biological agents, as the continuing reports of anthraxcontaminated mail http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB61/
Extractions: November 15, 2001 The September 11th Sourcebooks - Index In the coming days the Archive will release subsequent volumes on lessons from the Soviet war in Afghanistan, U.S. policy and planning for "Low-Intensity Conflict," CIA guidelines on the recruitment of inteligence "assets," and the use of assassination in U.S. foreign policy. Sign up for our Electronic Mailing List to get an e-mail alert each time this site is updated. Print this page Jump to the documents As noted in Biowar: The Nixon Administration's Decision to End U.S. Biological Warfare Programs The first reports emerged in October 1979 by way of a Russian-language newspaper in Frankfurt, West Germany that was close to the Soviet emigre community, which ran a brief report lacking any details about a major germ accident leading to deaths estimated in the thousands taking place in Russia.( ) New details emerged in this same paper in early 1980, with reports of an explosion in April 1979 at a secret military installation near Sverdlovsk that released a large amount of anthrax spores into the air, again with a thousand people estimated dead from the disease. There were also reports that the area had been placed under Soviet military control with extensive decontamination efforts implemented. (For these early reports, see
Extractions: Workers drain a Maryland pond Monday as part of the FBI anthrax investigation. Story Tools RELATED Anthrax at a glance Anthrax agents hunt lab equipment in pond Researcher says he'll sue over anthrax probe FBI searches scientist's home in anthrax probe ... U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases HEALTH LIBRARY All about Anthrax Health Library WASHINGTON (CNN) Authorities have finished draining a pond in Frederick, Maryland, and investigators are ready to search the sediment as part of the probe into the deadly 2001 anthrax attacks, city and law enforcement officials told CNN Thursday. Frederick's police chief was informed the draining was completed late Wednesday, said Nancy Poss, the city's public information officer. Officials estimate phase two of the operation, examining what may be left on the bottom of the pond, is expected to take several more weeks. The draining began Monday after the FBI and the Postal Inspection Service decided to do it as part of the anthrax investigation. Investigators last year received a tip that some materials possibly used in the attacks might have been dumped into the pond.
Anthrax anthrax. The anthrax bacillus Bacillus anthracis is an aerobic, Grampositive rod which forms spores on contact with oxygen. Where anthrax is common. http://www.coppettswood.demon.co.uk/anthrax.htm
Extractions: Bacillus anthracis is an aerobic, Gram-positive rod which forms spores on contact with oxygen. On culture in the laboratory long chains of square-ended bacteria are produced, giving colonies on solid media an appearance of swirling hairs (medusa-head colonies). Cultures held at 37C show the gradual appearance of one spore per bacterium, bring in the centre of the cell over a period of 12-24 hours. Spore formation is slower at lower temperatures. Anthrax naturally infects many species of grazing mammals, can also affect animals such as pigs and badgers, which cat a mixed diet by grazing and scavenging pasture, and also eating insects and small animals. Carnivores are also occasionally affected. Infection is usually by ingestion of food from spore-contaminated pasture, but is occasionally by inoculation or exchange of infected discharges from sick animals, or by consumption of heavily-infected meat.
Extractions: WASHINGTON (CNN) An employee at the U.S. Army biological lab at Fort Detrick, Maryland, has tested positive for exposure to anthrax, a spokesman said Friday. The employee, who had been previously immunized, is not sick but was put on precautionary antibiotics, base spokesman Chuck Dasey said. Low levels of anthrax spores were found in an administrative room and a service hallway outside a laboratory in one building, Dasey said. Medical assessments of employees were started after a scientist noticed a deposit on a flask in a laboratory where general anthrax research is conducted, he said. It appears any release of anthrax was accidental and was not related to terrorism, officials said. The deposit was not found in the area where tests are being done on the anthrax-laced letter that was sent to Sen. Patrick Leahy last year, Fort Detrick officials said in a written statement.
Annihilating Anthrax Go to Science@NASA home page, Annihilating anthrax. see captionFebruary 1, 2002 Unseen and odorless, a cloud of anthrax spores wafts through an office. http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2002/01feb_anthrax.htm
Extractions: Listen to this story via streaming audio , a downloadable file , or get help February 1, 2002: Unseen and odorless, a cloud of Anthrax spores wafts through an office. People inside are talking, laughing ... breathing. They have no idea something is in the air. One yawn, one gasp, one happy guffaw could be deadly. That's how bioterrorism works. But this office has a defense: Bolted to the ceiling is a curious flat box. It's made of metal, about the size of a table-top, and it's humming softly the sound of fans drawing airborne spores toward it and away from the people. The breeze is gentle but insistent. Eight cubic feet of air per minute flow into the box. Above : Anthrax spores, pictured here in a thin section micrograph , are inactive forms of the bacterium Bacillus anthracis . Such bacteria can survive for decades inside a spore's tough protective coating; they become active when inhaled by humans. [