Extractions: SEVERAL PROOFS OF THE TWIN PRIMES AND GOLDBACH CONJECTURES James Constant math@coolissues.com Proof of Goldbach's Conjecture, the Prime Number Theorem, and Euclid's Logic Provide Proofs of the Twin Primes Conjecture. Proof of the Twin Primes Conjecture Provides Proof of Goldbach's Conjecture Theorem There are infinitely many twin primes. Proof of the Twin Primes Conjecture Using Proofs of Goldbach's Conjecture or Using the Prime Number Theorem The twin primes conjecture (TPC) suggests that there is an infinite number of primes a and b with a difference , i.e., a - b = 2. Goldbach's conjecture (GC) suggests that every even number greater than is the sum s of two prime numbers a and b , i.e., a + b = s where s is even GC is proved by the author herein below and elsewhere For prime numbers a,b,c a - b = (a + c) - (b + c) even integer and thus, generally, a - b = 2k k = integer and since a + b is an even number a + b = 2n Now, using (2) and (3) results in a = n + k and b = n - k which say that for every single value of k primes a and b are separated by an interval and occur as numbers n + k and n - k . Suppose that n ,n ,n , . . . ,n
Conjecture 3. Twin Prime's Conjecture Problems Puzzles Conjectures. Conjecture 3. Twin Prime's Conjecture. If we define dn as dn = pn+1 pn, is easy to see that d1=1 and dn=even for n 1. Now, its believed that "for n 1, dn=2 infinitely often" ( Ref. 2, p. Therefore, if this the Mr Liu's argument is correct then also the twin primes conjecture has been proved. http://www.primepuzzles.net/conjectures/conj_003.htm
Extractions: Conjectures Conjecture 3. Twin Prime's Conjecture If we define d n as : d n = p n+1 - p n , is easy to see that d =1 and d n Now, that " for n>1, dn=2 infinitely often" (Ref. 2, p. 19). This is the "Twin prime Conjecture", which can be paraphrased this way : "There are infinite consecutive primes differing by 2". SOLUTION Mr Liu Fengsui has sent (3/9/01) an argument that proves - according to him - the well known and named " k-tuple conjecture " This conjecture can be expressed the following way (see Therefore, if this the Mr Liu's argument is correct then also the Twin Primes conjecture has been proved. As you soon will discover this argument is close related to the Liu's approach to the prime numbers definition, approach that has been exposed in detail in the Problem 37 of these pages. What follows is Mr Liu's argument. I should strongly point out that the most that Mr. Liu
Goldbach Conjecture And Twin Primes Conjecture Proved Goldbach Conjecture and twin primes conjecture proved. post a message on this topic. post a message on a new topic. 18 Sep 1999 Goldbach Conjecture and twin primes conjecture proved, by Paul Bruckman. 18 Sep 1999 http://mathforum.com/epigone/sci.math.research/spouphumzhah
The Proof Of Goldbach Conjecture, Twin Primes Conjecture And Other The Proof of Goldbach Conjecture, twin primes conjecture and Other Two Propositions By creating a new method, the author proved the wellknown world's baffling problems Goldbach conjecture, twin http://rdre1.inktomi.com/click?u=http://citebase.eprints.org/cgi-bin/citations?i
Extractions: Dictionaries: General Computing Medical Legal Encyclopedia Word: Word Starts with Ends with Definition In 1919 Viggo Brun Viggo Brun (October 13, 1882 - August 15, 1978) was a Norwegian mathematician. He was born in Lier and died in Drøbak. His best known contribution is that he showed that the sum of reciprocals of twin primes converges to a sum now called Brun's constant. He proved that by means of devising an improvement over Legendre's version the sieve of Eratosthenes. Click the link for more information. showed that the sum of the reciprocals of the twin primes A twin prime is a prime number that differs from another prime number by two. Except for the pair (2, 3), this is the smallest possible difference between two primes. Some examples of twin prime pairs are 5 and 7, 11 and 13, and 821 and 823. (Sometimes the term twin prime is used for a pair of twin primes; an alternative name for this is prime twin It is unknown whether there exist infinitely many twin primes, but most number theorists believe this to be true. This is the content of the Twin Prime Conjecture. A strong form of the Twin Prime Conjecture, the Hardy-Littlewood conjecture, postulates a distribution law for twin primes akin to the prime number theorem.
Problem 3.- Erdos Conjecture **. Roberto Botrugno has detected (17/10/2000) a relationship between theErdös conjecture and the twin primes conjecture. In his own words http://www.primepuzzles.net/problems/prob_003.htm
Extractions: Problems Problem 3.- Erdos Conjecture N = n - 2 k k Similar to the Pomerance observation, Erdös observation got a simple relation "crowded" with primes. This conjecture has been empirically verified until 2 by Uchiyama Yorinaga Do you wan to try to extend the range ? Or to prove that there is no other numbers ? Can you construct a similar interesting question like or related with this of Erdös (Ref. 2, p. 42) Solution At last, a first strong hit on this problem. Imran Ghory has produced (15/9/2000) an almost-solution to this conjecture showing that any further solution larger than 105 - if any - must end in 5, using an extremely simple reasoning. So the Conjecture is now reduced to deal with only one type of numbers. This is his e-mail: "I've managed to almost to prove Problem 3 (Erdos Conjecture), but I'm stuck at the final hurdle; in developing the proof I've managed to show that any further solutions have to be multiples of 165. By the same technique lad(n)=9, 9-(2^2) and for lad(n)=1, 1-(2^4) will mean that in the formula n-2^k, k has a value which means that the formula results in a multiple of 5.
Twin Primes Conjecture twin primes conjecture. There exist an infinite number of positive integersp with p and p+2 both prime. See the largest known twin prime section. http://db.uwaterloo.ca/~alopez-o/math-faq/node63.html
TwinPrimeConjecture Twin prime conjecture twin primes conjecture (English). Definition level2. The conjecture that there are infinitely many sets of twin primes. http://thesaurus.maths.org/mmkb/entry.html?action=entryById&id=891
The Anti-Divisor 1)+ )script /head /html Click here for the output Infinitenumber of twin primes conjecture The base number x for http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~perry/maths/primegen.htm
Extractions: The Anti-Divisor [Home] Anti-divisor theory can be used to generate the prime numbers. The theory goes like this: A number is prime iff cad[k,k+1]=0 (cad represents Common Anti-Divisors). This can be seen from the derivation of anti-divisors from 2n-1, 2n and 2n+1. So, if a number y can be written as y-a=(2a+1)b, then it follows that y+1 shares a CAD with y (e.g. 22 is 3.7+1, so 23 is 3.7+2, and both cad[22,23] contains 3. Or, 17=3.5+2, 18=3.5+3, so cad[17,18] contains 5.) A number therefore is prime iff it is not expressible as (2ab+a+b)+(2ab+a+b+1). This is fairly obvious, this equals 4ab+2a+2b+1, which equals (2a+1)(2b+1), and so represents the set of all odd composites. An odd number not in the composites is prime. And so, if a number y is not generated in an exhaustive mapping of 2ab+a+b, then 2y+1 is prime. Here is the program: Click [here] for the output: Twin Primes This can also be used to derive the twin primes, and also offers insight to prove that there are an infinite number of twin primes. An number x with only even anti-divisors forms a twin prime pair (2x-1,2x+1). This is obvious from the fact that both 2x-1 and 2x+1 must be prime, otherwise the number would contain an odd anti-divisor.
Twin Primes Conjecture / Prime Sieve twin primes conjecture / Proof via Prime Sieve Method. Welcome to TwinPrimes Conjecture / Proof via Prime Sieve Method The Prime http://members.aol.com/SciRealm/TwinPrimes.html
Extractions: Note: This work is not finished, but if you notice errors or have comments, please let me know. Twin Primes Conjecture / Proof via Prime Sieve Method The Prime Sieve is a constructive method or algorithm for finding prime numbers. This document will analyze the method in some detail, hopefully adding to our mathematical knowledge.
References About The Twin Primes Conjecture By Pbruckman1496 references about the twin primes conjecture by pbruckman1496. reply tothis message post a message on a new topic Back to sci.math.research http://mathforum.org/epigone/sci.math.research/meequangzex
Goldbach Conjecture And Twin Primes Conjecture Proved a topic from sci.math.research Goldbach Conjecture and twin primes conjectureproved. post a message on this topic post a message on a new topic http://mathforum.org/epigone/sci.math.research/spouphumzhah
Progress In Number Theory. No.1 to be solved of the form prove there are an infinite number of primes of the form These include The Infinite Number of twin primes conjecture and The http://www.fidn.org/pint/lres/lres.html
Extractions: Logical Resonance. (Mills) 2001. Logical Resonance (LR) is the name for an application of the Chinese Remainder Theorem (of Sun Tsu). Discovered by Dr. Paul Mills Ph.D (F.I.D.N Director) in 2001. Notes by Paul Mills: 'LR was the fruit of my research on a specific number theory problem. The solution of Goldbach's Conjecture. '2n can always be expressed as the sum of 2 primes.' (Not, 'the sum of 2 odd primes is always an even integer' which is obvious!). Yet these different logical statements can be described by the same algebraic equation 2n = p+q. This gives a clue to the method. It is possible to uncover mathematical truth by a process of logical deduction and not just algebraic manipulation of equations. My goal was to try and discover an already existing mathematical mechanism that helped this process of logical deduction. It was the unique solution from the Chinese Remainder theorem that proved to be the solution. If my 'hypothesis' could be inserted into a CRT 'machine' so that it formed a valid inference using the CRT, then the hypothesis would be the unique solution and therefore logically true. It is the fact that the CRT admits a unique solution that enables LR to work. If the 'hypothesis' was just one solution among many to the inference then it could not be deduced as actually existing as true in reality. It would remain a 'hypothetical' solution.
F. Conjectures (Math 413, Number Theory) The twin primes conjecture Prime Gaps. Def Twin primes are a pair ofprimes of the form n , n +1. Examples are n = 3, 5, 11, 17, 29, http://www.math.umbc.edu/~campbell/Math413Fall98/Conjectures.html
Extractions: F. Conjectures Number Theory, Math 413, Fall 1998 A collection of easily stated number theory conjectures which are still open. Each conjecture is stated along with a collection of accessible references. The Riemann Hypothesis Fermat Numbers Goldbach's Conjecture Catalan's Conjecture ... The Collatz Problem Def: Riemann's Zeta function, Z(s), is defined as the analytic extension of sum n infty n s Thm: Z( s )=prod i infty p i s , where p i is the i th prime. Conj: The only zeros of Z( s ) are at s s Thm: The Riemann Conjecture is equivalent to the conjecture that for some constant c x )-li( x c sqrt( x )ln( x where pi( x ) is the prime counting function. Def: n is perfect if it is equal to the sum of its divisors (except itself). Examples are 6=1+2+3, 28, 496, 8128, ... Def: The n th Mersenne Number, M n , is defined by M n n Thm: M n is prime implies that n n is perfect. (Euclid)
Brun's Constant of all primes is divergent. Had this series diverged, we would havea proof of the twin primes conjecture. But since it converges http://www.fact-index.com/b/br/brun_s_constant.html
Extractions: Main Page See live article Alphabetical index In 1919 Viggo Brun showed that the sum of the reciprocals of the twin primes (pairs of prime numbers which differ by two) converges to a sum now called Brun's constant for twin primes and usually denoted by B Sloane 's in stark opposite contrast to the fact that the sum of the reciprocals of all primes is divergent. Had this series diverged, we would have a proof of the twin primes conjecture . But since it converges, we do not yet know if there are infinitely many twin primes. His sieve was refined by J.B. Rosser, G. Ricci and others. By calculating the twin primes up to 10 (and discovering the infamous Pentium FDIV bug along the way), Thomas R. Nicely heuristically estimated Brun's constant to be 1.902160578. The best estimate to date was given by Pascal Sebah in , using all twin primes up to 10 There is also a Brun's constant for prime quadruplets . A prime quadruplet is a pair of two twin prime pairs, separated by a distance of 4 (the smallest possible distance). The first prime quadruplets are (5, 7, 11, 13), (11, 13, 17, 19), (101, 103, 107, 109). Brun's constant for prime quadruplets, denoted by B , is the sum or the reciprocals of all prime quadruplets: with value: This constant should not be confused with the Brun's constant for cousin primes , prime pairs of the form ( p p + 4), which is also written as
The Music Of Primes Bridges explains one of the great prime number mysteries in his first date withEnglish Literature professor, Barbara Streisand The twin primes conjecture. http://www.musicoftheprimes.com/films.htm
Extractions: top The cube Six characters wake up inside a complicated system of interconnected cubes. Some of the rooms are trapped. They soon discover that if the number of the room is a prime number then the room contains a deadly trap. The primes are the key to their survival [link to prime number cicadas] http://www.cubethemovie.com
Prime Numbers to prime numbers. Some unsolved problems The twin primes conjecturethat there are infinitely many pairs of primes only 2 apart. http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/HistTopics/Prime_numbers.html
Extractions: Prime numbers and their properties were first studied extensively by the ancient Greek mathematicians. The mathematicians of Pythagoras 's school (500 BC to 300 BC) were interested in numbers for their mystical and numerological properties. They understood the idea of primality and were interested in perfect and amicable numbers. You can see more about these numbers in the History topics article Perfect numbers By the time Euclid 's Elements appeared in about 300 BC, several important results about primes had been proved. In Book IX of the Elements Euclid proves that there are infinitely many prime numbers. This is one of the first proofs known which uses the method of contradiction to establish a result. Euclid also gives a proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic: Every integer can be written as a product of primes in an essentially unique way.
Sci.math FAQ: Unsolved Problems Collatz Problem * Goldbach s conjecture * twin primes conjecture _Names of large numbers http://www.faqs.org/faqs/sci-math-faq/unsolvedproblems/
Extractions: Help others by sharing your knowledge Newsgroups: sci.math alopez-o@neumann.uwaterloo.ca hv@cix.compulink.co.uk (Hugo van der Sanden): To the best of my knowledge, the House of Commons decided to adopt the US definition of billion quite a while ago - around 1970? - since which it has been official government policy. dik@cwi.nl (Dik T. Winter): The interesting thing about all this is that originally the French used billion to indicate 10^9, while much of the remainder of Europe used billion to indicate 10^12. I think the Americans have their usage from the French. And the French switched to common European usage in 1948. gonzo@ing.puc.cl alopez-o@barrow.uwaterloo.ca Rate this FAQ N/A Worst Weak OK Good Great Are you an expert in this area? Share your knowledge and earn expert points by giving answers or rating people's questions and answers! This section of FAQS.ORG is not sanctioned in any way by FAQ authors or maintainers. Questions strongly related to this FAQ: what are some unsolved problems by Dylan McDonald (11/3/2003) Choose 4 prime numbers such that adding the first of them equals the fourth, for example:...
John Quiggin: What I'm Reading, And More The twin primes conjecture doesn t count as a big maths question? Or has it beensolved? So I think RH is in a class above the twin primes conjecture. http://www.johnquiggin.com/archives/001384.html
Extractions: Main Riemann's zeta function by HM Edwards (includes translation of Riemann's original paper as an Appendix) . What with A Beautiful Mind and the proof of Fermat's Last Theorem a few years back, the Riemann hypothesis is the last big maths question accessible to amateurs like myself. It's hard going though - heaps of complex analysis applied to concepts as simple as those of prime numbers and factorials. In fact, the zeta function is a relatively simple modification of the factorial n!, extended from positive integers to complex numbers in general, and the Riemann hypothesis says that all zeros of this function lie on a given line. With a bit more work I hope to understand this better, and will try to post or link to a good explanation. Meanwhile, Sunday being the day of religious observance in Australia, I finally did something about the change of religion I announced last year, taking the family out to the Gabba. I'm pleased to report an exciting victory by the Brisbane Lions over the Hawthorn Hawks, 14.9 (93) to 11.15 (81). As a neophyte, I was happy,if surprised, to learn that my new club song is to the stirring tune of La Marseillaise .This set me thinking about other possibilities -perhaps the Horst Wessel Lieder would fit Carlton and Rupert Murdoch's rugby league teams could use The Star-Spangled Banner TrackBack The twin primes conjecture doesn't count as a big maths question? Or has it been solved? I don't think it's a particularly important question - esp compared to the Riemann hypothesis which I'm told does matter for lots of other things - but then again Fermat's theorem wasn't that relevant to many other questions.