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Quarismi (790650) to produce the first treatise on arabian algebra, he equations and to fix the vocabulary simultaneously for the mathematical objects mãl

Extractions: ISEFC,Tunis - Tunisie Ahl al-Jabr (algebraists), its concepts, its types of reasoning, its stereotypes and of course its results. Research into the status of proof in Arabian algebra thus requires that we identify the types of proof specific to each system and in particular those which algebraists recognize as valid. 1.A typology of equations and their associated algorithms (some goods), jidhr, (a root) and (a given number), for relations and even for forms of reasoning. This vocabulary is familiar to any reader able to calculate with natural numbers or fractions, the operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and extraction of the square root are common practice in arithmetic. The properties of commutativity and distibutivity can be seen by analogy with those on the whole numbers. As to the new pieces of reasoning, they are indeed described. The terms which designate them are included in the title itself of the work: Kitab al-Jabr wal-Muqabala , the first al-Jabr (restoration) refers to the operation of getting rid of the negative terms appearing in one of the members of the equation and the second term al- Muqabala (opposition) is the operation of reduction of similar terms, that is, those of the same degree.

2. Area Of Circles In Ancient Egypt
Source. Mathematician. Approximation. Old Testament. . Square Root of 10. arabian, al-Kashi (1427 AD), correct to 16 places. European, Ludlph van Ceulen (Germany 1610)
http://www.andysav.free-online.co.uk/multicultural Egypt2.htm

Extractions: The Area of Circles - The Ancient Egyptian Way! The idea of 'mathematical proof' is a relatively new one. The ancient mathematicians of the past were simply satisfied if a method worked and it helped in some way with their accounts, buildings, star gazing, etc. However, the following is the closest that the ancient Egyptians came to a 'proof' of their mathematical methods. Fig. 1 shows a circle with a diameter of 9 units. It is inscribed in square of length 9 units. An octagon has been further drawn which can be seen to be a close approximation in area to the circle. Fig. 2 shows that to calculate the area of the octagon a total of 18 unit squares (9 squares from the top two triangles, and 9 from the bottom two triangles) would need to be subtracted from the square's area. Fig. 3 shows that the Egyptians decided that if they subtracted 9 unit squares from the top row of the square, and the other 9 units squares from the side column of the square, they would be left with an 8 unit square which must be a good approximation to the area of the circle. Although they understood that the corner square was subtracted twice, i.e., in total only 17 squares are subtracted, they accepted this as a reasonable degree of error.

3. 37th International Mathematical Olympiad, Bombay, India, 5th-17th July 1996, Rep
Although we are thoroughly professional in the mathematical sense, we remain amateurs in the sense of the Our 5star hotel is on the shores of the arabian Sea.
http://www.imo-register.org.uk/1996-report.html

4. Mathematics
Adventures by Malba Tahan The arabian adventures of a man with remarkable mathematical skills, which he uses to settle conflict and give wise advice

Extractions: accepts no paid advertising. We appreciate your kind donations through PayPal Donate or Amazon Honor System, and your purchases through our affiliate links. Thanks! Mathematics! click for Programming Penrose, a cat with a knack for math, takes children on an adventurous tour of mathematical concepts from fractals to infinity

5. The Man Who Counted: A Collection Of Mathematical Adventures - By Malba Tahan, P
author he claimed to have translated), it is a series of delightful ``arabian nights style tales, with each story built around a classic mathematical puzzle.
http://www.bookfinder.us/review9/0393309347.html

Extractions: Malba Tahan is the creation of a celebrated Brazilian mathematician who was looking for a way to bring some of the mysteries and delights of mathematics to a wider public. He turned out to be a born storyteller.The adventures of Beremiz Samir, The Man Who Counted, take the reader on an exotic journey in which, time and again, he summons his extraordinary mathematical powers to settle disputes, give wise advice, overcome dangerous enemies, and win for himself fame, fortune, and rich rewards. As we accompany him, we learn much of the history of famous mathematicians who preceded him; we undergo a series of trials at the hands of the wise men of the day; and we come to admire the warm wisdom and patience that earn him the respect and affection of those whos problems he resolves so astutely. In the grace of their telling, these stories hold unusual delights for the reader. Puzzle books can be tedious (unless you like that sort of thing), but not this one. First published in Brazil in 1949 by the mathematician Julio de Melo e Sousa (Tahan is the imaginary Arab author he claimed to have translated), it is a series of delightful ``Arabian nights''-style tales, with each story built around a classic mathematical puzzle. The puzzles fit into the stories so naturally that they are a necessary part of the fantasy. The hero is a Persian mathematician and mystic named Beremiz who uses his powers of calculation like a magic wand to amaze and entertain people, settle disputes, find justice and, finally, win the heart of a beautiful princess. Reading the stories is as much fun as trying to solve the puzzles. For adults and children. Amy Brunvand, Fort Lewis Coll. Lib., Durango, Col.

6. Recreational Mathematics
in the manner of the arabian Nights, a delightful and charming little book that traces the adventures of a man with remarkable mathematical skills which he
http://thinks.com/books/recmath.htm

Extractions: Home Books Just click on the title of any book that interests you and you'll be automatically linked to Amazon.com - where you'll find that many books are offered at discounts of up to 40%. If you decide to buy, your transaction will be processed safely using Secure Server Technology. Next thing you know, that new book's on your coffee table and providing hours of entertainment. The aim of the two famous authors in this virtuoso work of popularization is 'to bring to the inquisitive reader without particular mathematical background an explanation of the multitudinous ways in which the word "number" is used'. An idea of the scope may be gauged from the chapter headings: The Romance of Numbers, Figures from Figures: Doing Arithmetic and Algebra by Geometry, What Comes Next?, Famous Families of Numbers, The Primacy of Primes, Further Fruitfulness of Fractions, Geometric Problems and Algebraic Numbers, Imagining Imaginary Numbers, Some Transcendental Numbers, Infinite and Infinitesimal Numbers.

7. The History Of Pi
It is unclear whether the arabian mathematician, Mohammed ibn Musa al Khwarizmi, attempted to calculate pi, but it is clear which values he used.
http://www.math.rutgers.edu/~cherlin/History/Papers2000/wilson.html

Extractions: Rutgers, Spring 2000 Throughout the history of mathematics, one of the most enduring challenges has been the calculation of the ratio between a circle's circumference and diameter, which has come to be known by the Greek letter pi . From ancient Babylonia to the Middle Ages in Europe to the present day of supercomputers, mathematicians have been striving to calculate the mysterious number. They have searched for exact fractions, formulas, and, more recently, patterns in the long string of numbers starting with 3.14159 2653..., which is generally shortened to 3.14. William L. Schaaf once said, "Probably no symbol in mathematics has evoked as much mystery, romanticism, misconception and human interest as the number pi" (Blatner, 1). We will probably never know who first discovered that the ratio between a circle's circumference and diameter is constant, nor will we ever know who first tried to calculate this ratio. The people who initiated the hunt for pi were the Babylonians and Egyptians, nearly 4000 years ago. It is not clear how they found their approximation for pi, but one source (Beckman) makes the claim that they simply made a big circle, and then measured the circumference and diameter with a piece of rope. They used this method to find that

8. MathNet-Univ-Journals
10, arabian Journal for Science Engineering. 11, Atti del Seminario Mathematico e Fiscico. 12, Australian Mathematical Society, Gazette.
http://www.mathnet.or.kr/API/?MIval=research_univ_jour_uname&name=kms

9. Re: Is It Right To Name It Pascal's Triangle? By Randy K. Schwartz
In the arabian world, Mathematician AlKashi expand the values till n = 9 in his book Kitab-arimetik (Key to Mathematics, I supposed) in the year 1427
http://mathforum.org/epigone/math-history-list/pingbleeweld/98Aug31.142525edt.28

10. Is It Right To Name It Pascal's Triangle? By OH KIAN
In the arabian world, Mathematician AlKashi expand the values till n = 9 in his book Kitab-arimetik (Key to Mathematics, I supposed) in the year 1427
http://mathforum.org/epigone/math-history-list/pingbleeweld/uv04tvhzrk9h@forum.s

11. Keph-A-Ra - Chapter 3: The Old Kingdom
He also wrote The Division of the Scale, a mathematical discussion of music arabian culture was an indirect result of intermingling with the Khe people during
http://www.reach.net/~wbarton/usnisa/kephara/k03.html

Extractions: CHAPTER 3 : The Old Kingdom - 2700 B.C. to 2090 B.C. The "Old Kingdom", as history designated this period in earth time, refers to the six hundred and ten years which passed between the rise of the great ruling dynasties in Upper Egypt (and to a lesser extent in Lower Egypt) and coming of the "Age of Inundation." Modern historians often try to relegate pyramid building to this era, but that is in error, for at that time pyramid building was just ending. Prior to the Great Flood, the Egyptians customarily called the Lower Kingdom "The Land of the Mr." This term referred to the land of the pyramids. To be absolutely specific, the term "mr" meant the meridian triangle of the pyramid whose hypotenuse is the apothem. In essence, mr is a right triangle with one angle of 36 degrees and another of 54 degrees. This system of measure was used for all planning, surveying and geographical data in the ancient world. Pyramid building originated in Khe prior to the Atlantean holocaust. The first pyramid was built to demonstrate a point in geometry and to prove that a triangle was the basic building block of the cosmos. Like so many other nations, and perhaps with better justification, my people believed that when the gods created Earth they began with mr, from which they systematically fashioned Egypt. When they had it completed they saw that it was perfect and, again with mr blocks, fashioned Earth around it.

12. NewsScan Publishing Inc. - NewsScan Daily Archives
Today s Honorary Subscriber is the 9th century arabian mathematician and astronomer Muhammad ibn Musa alKhwarizmi (~780-847), who wrote treatises that in
http://www.newsscan.com/cgi-bin/findit_view?table=honorary_subscriber&id=672

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