Bygone Beliefs Mystery, Suspense, History, Gothic, Literature, Books, Arts The dodecahedron was, to these ancient mathematicians, the most mysterious of the solids it was by far the most http://www.blackmask.com/books20c/byblf.htm
Extractions: http://www.blackmask.com PREFACE I. SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF MEDAEVAL THOUGHT II. PYTHAGORAS AND HIS PHILOSOPHY III. MEDICINE AND MAGIC ... XII. THE CAMBRIDGE PLATONISTS IN the earliest days of his upward evolution man was satisfied with a very crude explanation of natural phenomenathat to which the name "animism" has been given. In this stage of mental development all the various forces of Nature are personified: the rushing torrent, the devastating fire, the wind rustling the forest leavesin the mind of the animistic savage all these are personalities, spirits, like himself, but animated by motives more or less antagonistic to him. I suppose that no possible exception could be taken to the statement that modern science renders animism impossible. But let us inquire in exactly what sense this is true. It is not true that science robs natural phenomena of their spiritual significance. The mistake is often made of supposing that science explains, or endeavours to explain, phenomena. But that is the business of philosophy. The task science attempts is the simpler one of the correlation of natural phenomena, and in this effort leaves the ultimate problems of metaphysics untouched. A universe, however, whose phenomena are not only capable of some degree of correlation, but present the extraordinary degree of harmony and unity which science makes manifest in Nature, cannot be, as in animism, the product of a vast number of inco-ordinated and antagonistic wills, but must either be the product of one Will, or not the product of will at all.
Bygone Beliefs By H. Stanley Redgrove The dodecahedron was, to these. ancient mathematicians, the most mysterious of the solids http://www.encyclopediaindex.com/b/byblf10.htm
Untitled The Project Gutenberg EBook of Bygone Beliefs, by H. Stanley Redgrove Copyright laws are changing all over the world. The dodecahedron was, to these ancient mathematicians, the most mysterious of http://sailor.gutenberg.org/etext98/byblf11.txt
Extractions: = coordinate covalent bond. = subscripted #. brackets, and the letters are based on Adobe's Symbol font. Hebrew letters are encoded in 7H2O. On exposure to the air it loses water, and is gradually converted into basic ferric sulphate. For long, green vitriol was confused with blue vitriol, which generally occurs as an impurity in crude green vitriol. Blue vitriol is copper sulphate pentahydrate, CuSO4 + 1), and 1/2_n_ + 1). This can readily be proved by the laws of arithmetical progressions. Rather similar but more complicated and less uniform "magic squares" are attributed to PARACELSUS. Now to each planet is assigned an Intelligence or good spirit, and an Evil Spirit or demon; and the names of these spirits are related to certain of the numbers of the planets. The other numbers are also connected with holy and magical Hebrew names. AGRIPPA, and BARRETT copying him, gives the following table of "names answering to the numbers of Mars": 5. He, the letter of the holy name. 65. Adonai.
Survey Of The Qur An And Mathematical Logic 1, p. 83 The fact that great mathematical thinkers like Muhammad bin Musa al to accord with the established rules of iheritance as expounded by arabian lawyers http://www.geocities.com/freethoughtmecca/quranlogic.html
Extractions: This article will offer an introduction to some of the logical and mathematical anomalies in the Qur'an. It is our point to note that precisely these sorts of abberations are to be expected if the text is of a human origin, and we will adduce precisely that after treating these peculiarities as corroborating evidence for such a conclusion. Some readers may wonder why a survey of logic would cover mathematics. While it is not clear to us whether mathematics is a branch of logic or logic is a branch of mathematics, we are certain of two things: (1) logic is at least a bridge between mathematics and philosophy, and (2) the Qur'an has problems with both categories. For introductions to logical approaches to mathematics and mathematical approaches to logic, consider Bertrand Russell's Principia Mathematica , or Willard Van Orman Quine's Mathematical Logic
Wiz Quiz - Maths History 14) What was the nationality of the eighteenth century mathematician, Leonhard Euler? Agency; the Finnish Tourist Board and the Saudi arabian Embassy (London). http://www.worldinfozone.com/Quiz/Maths/quiz.php
IRAQ: The Glory Days Of Baghdad In these sad days for Iraq, John Gehl reminds us of one of the luminaries of its golden age the 9th century arabian mathematician and astronomer Muhammad ibn http://wais.stanford.edu/Iraq/iraq_theglorydaysofbaghdad7103.html
Extractions: Back to Index In these sad days for Iraq, John Gehl reminds us of one of the luminaries of its golden age: the 9th century Arabian mathematician and astronomer Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (?780-847), who wrote treatises that in later centuries became important source materials influencing the work of European scholars. Al-Khwarizmi was born sometime before 800 A.D. in an area not far from Baghdad and lived until at least 847. He worked as a scholar in Baghdad's "House of Wisdom," so named because it functioned as a center of study and research in the Islamic world. Foremost among al-Khwarizmi's works was his treatise Al-jabr wa'l muqabala (The Science of Transposition and Cancellation), which deals with the solution of equations. The Arabic word for transposition, al-jabar, became "algebra" in the Latin transliteration of the book's title. In addition to this treatise, al-Khwarizmi wrote works on astronomy, on the Jewish calendar, and on the Hindu numeration system. Further recognition of the historical importance of his scholarship lies in the fact that the English word "algorithm" derives from the Latin form of al-Khwarizmi's name. Al-Khwarizmi lived in Baghdad under the caliphates of al-Ma'mun and al-Mu'tasim in the first golden age of Islamic science. The caliph al-Ma'mun (813-833) supported al-Khwarizmi's preparation of a world geography based largely on Ptolemy. He also compiled a set of astronomical tables, based largely on the
Timelines Of Technology not moveable type). 850c The concept of an algorithm was developed by arabian mathematician named AlKhwarizmi. 1041-8 Pi Sheng http://www.electric-words.com/time/timetechbefore1400.html
Extractions: 4713 BC Jan 1: This is the coincidence in Egypt from which Julian Time is measured. 3800 BC: Bronze used in Middle East and China. it is about 3 times as hard as copper. 3100 BC: Upper and Lower Egypt united under Menses. The capital was at Memphis. This was the period when hieroglyphics were developed. 3100 1400 BC: The long period in which Stonehenge was layed out and built. This was Bronze Age in Britain. 2500 BC: First evidence of smelted iron used as tool in Pyramid. 2000 BC: Horses and Chariots introduced into Europe. 1800 1400 BC: Major period of the actual Stonehenge building (in three stages). 1500 BC: Iron now being used substantially by Hittites. 1500 BC: Beginning of Shang dynasty in China. The first real Chinese dynasty. It is based on bronze. 1000 BC: The Iron Age is well underway. 776 BC: The first Olympic Games is founded as a sporting and religious festival. Mythology says Hercules challenged his brothers to a running race with the prize, an olive branch. 620 BC: Draco creates the first coded laws in Athens.
Farey Series Anyway, Farey series sounds better than Haros series. Who knows perhaps some arabian mathematician anticipated Haros by a thousand years. http://www.cut-the-knot.org/blue/FareyHistory.shtml
Extractions: Recommend this site Mathematical theorems often have descriptive names like Isoperimetric Inequality or the Law of Cosines . Others bear the name of their discoverer: Euler's Formula Abelian group , or Bertrand's Paradox . However, it is a recorded part of the mathematical folklore that many theorems are misnamed [ K. O. May If Theorem X bears the name of Y, then it was probably first stated by and/or proved by Z. For example, not all mathematicians are happy with the customary attribution of Venn Diagrams to John Venn. Wilson's theorem was not proven by Wilson (1741-1793) but by J.L.Lagrange in 1770 and Stirling's formula was discovered by Abraham de Moivre. So I was not at all surprised to read in Hardy's Apology (p 81-82) the following remark concerning J. Farey of the Farey Series fame: ... Farey is immortal because he failed to understand a theorem which Haros had proved perfectly fourteen years before ... In Hardy and Wright (p 36) there appears another note The history of 'Farey series' is very curious. Theorems 28 and 29 (
Extractions: Click the link for more information. ) was an Arabian mathematician A mathematician is a person whose area of study and research is mathematics. Mathematicians not only study, but also research, and this must be given prominent mention here, because a misconception that everything in mathematics is already known is widespread among persons not learned in that field. In fact, the publication of new discoveries in mathematics continues at an immense rate in hundreds of scientific journals, many of them devoted to mathematics and many devoted to subjects to which mathematics is applied (such as theoretical computer science, physics or quantum mechanics).
Biography Of Leonardo Fibonacci His introduction of the arabian Numerals gave the Europeans an easier way to do Mathematical Mysteries, The Beauty and Magic of Numbers , by Clawson, Calvin C http://www.andrews.edu/~calkins/math/biograph/199899/biofibo.htm
Extractions: Back to the Table of Contents Biographies of Mathematicians - Fibonacci Introduction Fibonacci was known for many things. He was best known for the Fibonacci Numbers, which is a number sequence that he had discovered while solving a problem about rabbits. There is a lot more that we will talk about him and his discoveries which are now coming up. Biography From 529 until 1500 A.D. there were no big improvements in european mathematics. Except for Fibonacci, who was a great 13th century mathematician. He was born in Pisa, Italy, and was the son of a pisan merchant. Fibonacci was best known as Leonardo of Pisa. His father was also a customs officer for the North African city of Bugia. Since Fibonacci was the son of a merchant, he was able go travel freely all over the Byzantine Empire. Merchants at the time were immuned, so they were allowed to move about freely. This allowed him to visit many of the area's centers of trade. While he was there, he was able to learn both the mathematics of the scholars and the calculating schemes in popular use, at the time. Accomplishments He published a book called Liber Abaci In 1202 he published the first of his four books
TiKouka » Al-jabr Miraz Jordan. Saturday 12 July 2003. Aljabr. Filed under General. admin @ 180209. Via NewsScan The 9th century arabian mathematician and astronomer http://mactips.info/blog/index.php?p=277
TiKouka Comments (0). Saturday 12 July 2003. Aljabr. Filed under General. admin @ 180209. Via NewsScan The 9th century arabian mathematician and astronomer http://mactips.info/blog/index.php?m=200307
Extractions: Muslims have the distinction of being the pioneers in the sphere of fine arts in the world. They have patronised and actively participated in the propagation of fine arts wherever they have gone. A wrong impression has been created in the minds of our educated class by the orthodox type of people that Islam forbids all pursuits of fine arts by the Faithful-an idea which does not stand the test of historical records. The Muslims whether Spaniards or Arabs, Persians or Afghans, Turks or Indians have exhibited a lively interest in the development of fine arts which ultimately led to produce in their ranks some of the greatest exponents of these arts. According to H. G. Farmer, the celebrated writer on oriental music, "music accompanied the Arabs from the cradle to the grave, from the lullaby to the elegy. Every moment of his life seems to have had its particular musicjoy and sorrow, work and play, battle throng and religious exercise".' Arabs were the great exponents of music and according to another western critic, "The cultivation of music by Arabs in all branches reduces to insignificance the recognition of this art in the history of any other country." Under the Abbasid, Spanish and Saljuqid kings music was elevated to the rank of a science., its cultivation was officially patronised and it was recognised as a fine art. People had developed a taste for music and according to Ameer Ali, "A large literature grew up on the subject; songs were collected and classified according to their melodies and keys, and the musical instruments of the ancients were improved and new ones invented.”
Article13 The word algebra comes from the title of a book written by the ninthcentury arabian mathematician Al-Khowarizmi. In this title http://www.ex.ac.uk/~PErnest/pome12/article13.htm
Extractions: THE AHA PROBLEMS Carlos Bertha The word "algebra" comes from the title of a book written by the ninth-century Arabian mathematician Al-Khowarizmi. In this title, , the word al-jebr meant transposing a quantity from one side of an equation to another or "rejoining." Muqabala meant simplification of the resulting expression. Algebra, then, was the application of a series of techniques, including reductions, simplifications, transpositions, which manipulated mathematical expressions. The reason algebra became so powerful was because the resulting expressions applied to a large number of cases. Arithmetic, on the other hand, dealt with (and applied to) one case at a time. (Cf., Kline, p. 69) Suppose I wanted to solve for x in the following second-degree equations: x x x x x By adding 4 to each side of equation (1), we quickly obtain a much clearer expression, one that can be "solved" quite easily: x So x = 2 and x The second equation is not quite that straightforward, but a trained eye would recognize that it is equivalent to the expression x x The solutions, or "roots," will then be clear here: when
Mathematics Books A fine mix of storytelling and mathematics, Tahan tells the tale of an arabian man who dispenses his mathematical knowledge on his travels across the globe. http://www.simonsingh.net/Mathematics_Books.html
Khayyam The mathematical work entitled Discussion of difficulties in Euclid was completed in December 1077. In 1079 Khayyam translated from arabian into Persian Abu http://firetin.internet-bg.net/khayyam/khayyam.htm
Extractions: Abu-l-Fatgh Omar ibn Ibrahim Khayyam is one of the Persian encyclopaedists of the early Middle ages. As a philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, physician and a poet he is the author of several scientific works in all these fields, as well as of a tractate in music. His worldwide fame, however, is due to his unique quatrains, which bring the rubayait genre of the classic Persian literature to its zenith. He was born on 18-th May, 1048 in the town of Nishapur, or in one of its nearby settlements. According to some documents his youth passed in Nishapur, others assert that he lived and studied in the town of Balkh, and returned to Nishapur not until the last years of his life. Since 1070 till 1074 the young scientist lived in the town of Bukhara - the main cultural center of the Karakhinid state. In 1074 Khayyam moved to the town of Isfahan - the capital of the Seldjuck sultanate. He was invited there not as a poet, but as a prominent mathematician and astronomer and was put in charge of the building and equipping of an observatory. Later he headed a group of mathematicians and astronomers, whose aim was to define more accurately the calendar system used at that time. The philosopher worked in the Isfahan observatory till 1092, when the group activity and of the observatory itself was suspended. During these eighteen years spent in one of most beautiful towns of the East, along with his occupation in astronomy, Khayyam wrote one mathematical and four philosophical tractates.
A R T M A R G I N S Khorezm is at once the birthplace and part of the name of the 11 th century arabian mathematician Al-Khorezmi, from whom the word algorithm was originally http://www.artmargins.com/content/review/hilgers.html
Extractions: Georg Trogemann et al. History of Computer Devices in Russia . Braunschweig: Vieweg, 2001 Phillip Von Hilgers (Berlin) 2001 was the great moment of a space odyssey and a computer called "HAL." For everyone who likes facts as much as fiction, the year also offered the book Computing in Russia Its proper subtitle could read: "Who is afraid of minicomputers that could easily fill your apartment?" Books that claim to grapple with computers while addressing a wide range of readers are not that uncommon. Soon most of them may even deserve the attribute "very sexy." Writing about the development of computers implies today reflection on video editing, image manipulation, text processing, music production and consumption, to mention a few. There are as many books on computing, as there are innumerable ways to mix computer aesthetics with cultural realms, previously clearly differentiated. But Computing in Russia is not about those issues. The book mainly focuses on the strange time when computers were expected to do just one thing: to calculate in Russia. Maybe this is quite jejune subject matter and frankly, the great diversity of offered facts are not always easy to handle. It requires time to find central statements in the book's collection, which is quite diverse in style.
Fibonacci Numbers And Golden Section In The Higher School Fibonacci and his role in a history of mathematics as the mathematical knowledge messenger from the arabian culture to the WestEuropean mathematics. http://www.goldenmuseum.com/1702Harmony_engl.html
Extractions: Fibonacci Numbers and Golden Section in the Higher School But if we started our reform in the secondary school, where we attempted to enter the elementary information on the Fibonacci numbers, the golden section and their applications in Nature and Art, this reform should be continued in the higher educational institutions. The first proposal is to enter a small course "Harmony of systems" for the students of colleges and universities of all specialties. And ours "Virtual Museum of Harmony and Golden Section" also is some Virtual Lab and Visual Aids for such course. The program of the course "Harmony of systems" Subject 1. Introduction into the "Golden Section". What is the golden section? Geometrical definition. "Golden proportion" equation. Mathematical properties of the golden proportion Geometrical properties of the golden section. How to construct the golden section with the help of a rule and divider? The golden section and the "sacred" geometrical figures. Connection with a circumference. "Golden" rectangle. Decagon and pentagon (pentagram). Law of the "golden" cup. "Golden" triangles. "Golden" spirals. "Platonic Solids" and their connection to the golden section. Numeric characteristics of the dodecahedron and icosahedron. Subject 2.
Ti Kouka Too: Al-jabr July 12, 2003. Aljabr. Via NewsScan The 9th century arabian mathematician and astronomer Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (~780-847) wrote treatises such as Al http://mactips.blogs.com/blog/2003/07/aljabr.html
Extractions: hostName = '.blogs.com'; Main [Via: NewsScan ] The 9th century Arabian mathematician and astronomer Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (~780-847) wrote treatises such as "Al-jabr wa'l muqabala" (The Science of Transposition and Cancellation), which deals with the solution of equations. The Arabic word for transposition, al-jabar, became "algebra" in the Latin transliteration of the book's title. The English word "algorithm" derives from the Latin form of al-Khwarizmi's name. Drawing on Hindu as well as Greek sources, al-Khwarizmi adopted the Hindu numerals, including the zero. These numerals (miscalled "Arabic numerals") were introduced to Europe by Fibonacci, greatly facilitating mathematical manipulations. While some critics quibble about the originality of al-Khwarizmi's work, it is generally acknowledged that he stands in the foremost rank of mathematicians of all time. July 12, 2003 in
Ti Kouka Too: Science Archives July 21, 2003 in Science Permalink Comments (0) TrackBack. July 12, 2003. Aljabr. Via NewsScan The 9th century arabian mathematician and astronomer http://mactips.blogs.com/blog/science/
Extractions: This is neat: the Mars Rover has a Blog February 09, 2004 in Science Permalink Comments (0) TrackBack Philips Electronics is set to mass-produce a slim, book-size display panel, onto which consumers could download newspapers and magazinesthen roll up and put away. [ CNET Technology The 5-inch display can show detailed images and be rolled up into a pen-size holder. If connected to a mobile phone, it can also be used to download Web pages, a book or e-mail January 27, 2004 in Science Permalink Comments (0) TrackBack "A six-wheeled rover appeared on track Sunday to become the biggest Web draw in NASA history , just hours after it safely landed on Mars. Traffic on Web sites operated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration climbed steadily Sunday, as computer users around the world logged on to see the first images of Mars taken by the Spirit rover. To support the onslaught, NASA is relying on 1,300 servers around the world to host Web pages containing details of the Spirit mission." [Via: Lockergnome's Bits and Bytes January 09, 2004 in