Bygone Beliefs Nor was he, of course, by any means the first mathematicianthere was a long line of Greek and arabian mathematicians behind him, men whose knowledge of the http://www.sacredspiral.com/Database/alchemy/bygonebeliefs/12.html
Extractions: AN APPRECIATION IT has been said that "a prophet is not without honour, save in his own country." Thereto might be added, "and in his own time"; for, whilst there is continuity in time, there is also evolution, and England of to-day, for instance, is not the same country as England of the Middle Ages. In his own day ROGER BACON was accounted a magician, whose heretical views called for suppression by the Church. And for many a long day afterwards was he mainly remembered as a co-worker in the black art with Friar BUNGAY, who together with him constructed, by the aid of the devil and diabolical rites, a brazen head which should possess the power of speechthe experiment only failing through the negligence of an assistant..[1] Such was ROGER BACON in the memory of the later Middle Ages and many succeeding years; he was the typical alchemist, [1]The story, of course, is entirely fictitious. For further
FitzGerald owes a great deal to Euclid and other pure geometers, to the Greek and arabian mathematicians who invented our scale of numeration and algebra, to Galileo and http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/FitzGerald.html
Nostradamus - 1999 P2 Zero in Arabia is significant for another reason. It was the arabian mathematicians who introduced the sifr or cipher or numeral zero to mathematics. http://kingx.faithweb.com/nostp2.html
Extractions: It is noteworthy that roy d'Angolmois = king of Angolmois, is very similar to au chef Anglois = to the English chief. Perhaps Angolmois is Anglois moi = English me. 'The chief English in Nimes' is the word 'mine' or 'me'. Nostradamus (me) in English = Our Lady. Nimes is a port on the Mediterranean. There is a town of Salon very near Nimes, so if one journeyed too far past Salon they'd find Nimes. (N lived in Salon). Is he referring to himself? Or aid from Our Lady? Is it he who will return, as hinted by the events and astrology surrounding the opening of his grave in 1700? (he had foreseen this 145 years earlier and the skeleton had a medallion with 1700 engraved on it!). That is, thru his quatrains? See Nostra Domus in line 4 below. The Nimes reference must also figure in WWII.
Bygone Beliefs - XI Nor was he, of course, by any means the first mathematician there was a long line of Greek and arabian mathematicians behind him, men whose knowledge of the http://www.worldwideschool.org/library/books/phil/psychology/BygoneBeliefs/chap1
Extractions: by H. Stanley Redgrove Terms Contents Dedication Preface ... XII XI Roger Bacon: an Appreciation T has been said that "a prophet is not without honour, save in his own country." Thereto might be added, "and in his own time"; for, whilst there is continuity in time, there is also evolution, and England of to-day, for instance, is not the same country as England of the Middle Ages. In his own day ROGER BACON was accounted a magician, whose heretical views called for suppression by the Church. And for many a long day afterwards was he mainly remembered as a co-worker in the black art with Friar BUNGAY, who together with him constructed, by the aid of the devil and diabolical rites, a brazen head which should possess the power of speechthe experiment only failing through the negligence of an assistant.[1] Such was ROGER BACON in the memory of the later Middle Ages and many succeeding years; he was the typical alchemist, where that term carries with it the depth of disrepute, though indeed alchemy was for him but one, and that not the greatest, of many interests. [1] The story, of course, is entirely fictitious. For further particulars see Sir J. E. SANDYS' essay on "Roger Bacon in English Literature," in
Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland I do know that telegraphy owes a great deal to Euclid and other pure geometers, to the Greek and arabian mathematicians who invented our scale of numeration http://www.tcd.ie/Physics/History/Fitzgerald/GFFG-JMDC/science.php
Extractions: Local To gain some impression of the intellectual and social environment in which FitzGerald was working in the last quarter of the 19th century, and to gauge his achievement, we must understand that this was the time of the electromagnetic revolution when human life was being irrevocably transformed by the ability to deliver energy and transfer information at the flick of a switch. The tyranny of dawn and dusk, barely mitigated by 2 watt candles and gaslight was shattered by Edison's incandescent bulbs. Telegraph cables spanned continents and crossed the ocean floors conveying intercontinental chatter for a shilling a word at the speed of light . Electric tramways were introduced from the Giant's Causeway to the streets of Belfast and Dublin. Industry used electric furnaces, electric motors and electrolytic plating vats. X-rays, demonstrated at church fairs, were making their way into hospitals for medical diagnosis. In FitzGerald's memorable words, "We are harnessing the all-prevading ether to the chariot of human progress and using the thunderbolt of Jove to advance the material progress of mankind."
The Magic Of Nines This test was invented by arabian mathematicians in the 8th century, that makes this relatively new compared to other mathematics (Eg ancient Greece Egypt). http://home.c2i.net/greaker/comenius/prepare/9798/nine_2.htm
Extractions: THE MAGIC OF NINES Written by Espen Hænes Kristiansen, Magnus Kristiansen and Øystein Myksvoll Lande Through the history of mathematics it has been claimed that the number nine has some mysterious properties. To Joe Public this may seem pretty absurd. Magical possibilities is something we link to David Copperfield, and not a number. There are probably several reasons why the number 9 has earned this reputation. Here we will deal with two of them. These are practical examples of what you can use the number 9 to. The examples we will work with is called "The test of nines" and "The table of nines". "THE TABLE OF NINES" First we will show you the table of nines (multiplication), which has this special look: When we look at this table we can see the construction of it is very simple. The last number in every number is the counting from 9-0. The next number goes from 0-9 and so on. The third number also goes from 0-9, but this time each number is used 10 times. Using this technique it is possible to find all the numbers in the table of nines without calculating them. This is what is called the "beautiful table of nines". But is this special for the number 9, what about other numbers? Here are some other tables: From these results it is possible to make different conclusions. The table of nines is special, and its table is built in a very simple way. But at the same time several other numbers makes special multiplication tables. The number nine is special, but can we call it magic? In our eyes, no.
Biographies, The Scientists: A List. His work, Elements , however, was found, the arabian mathematicians having carefully preserved it for the rest of us, as western man struggled through his dark http://www.blupete.com/Literature/Biographies/Science/Scients.htm
Extractions: Ampère, André Marie Ampère, a teacher at Paris, has his permanent place in the history of science because it was his name that was given to the unit by which we measure electrical current. He had, of course, an interest in electricity; in addition, Ampère made similar investigations as did Avogadro into the nature of matter in its gaseous state. Alfven, Hannes Olof Gosta What I know of Alfven is that he was born in Sweden in 1908; and, while at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, in 1970, he won the Nobel Prize in Physics "for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics." I first bumped into Alfven when I picked up a small paperback book of his, which I very much enjoyed, Atom, Man, and the Universe, The Long Chain of Complications (San Francisco: Freeman, 1969). It was written simply and plainly for a general audience, and enables us "to view ourselves both as a part of the atomic microcosm and as part of the universe that dwarfs us." Archimedes (287-212 B.C.).
Desert Sun Online - Letters To The Editor For Wednesday, Dec. 1, 1999 concept of zero was developed, probably by Hindu mathematicians, about 600 AD, and introduced to general European usage by arabian mathematicians after 800 http://www.thedesertsun.com/news/stories/opinion/944002585.shtml
Extractions: The placement of the Pride Parade on Page 1 of the Local section acknowledges the fact that gays and lesbians do make up a growing segment of the valley and merit recognition. Gayness is not something that the general population embraces, but something that Palm Springs accepts in a live-and-let-live manner.
The Math Section Playground The arabian mathematicians inspired the famous Italian mathematician Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci(1170 1250), who found a solution for a special cubic equation http://homepage.hispeed.ch/milano/mids.htm
Algorism - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia arabian mathematicians made many contributions (including the concept of the decimal fractions as an extension of the notation, which led to the notion of the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algorism
Extractions: Algorism is the name for the Indo-Arabic decimal system of writing and working with numbers, in which symbols (the ten digits through 9) are used to describe values using a place-value system ( positional notation ), where each symbol has ten times the weight of the one to its right. This system was originally invented in India in the 6th century AD (or earlier), and was soon adopted in the Arab world. Arabian mathematicians made many contributions (including the concept of the decimal fractions as an extension of the notation, which led to the notion of the decimal point ), and the written European forms of the digits called Arabic numerals are derived from the ghubar (sand-table or dust-table) numerals used in north-west Africa and Spain. The word algorism comes from the Arabic al-Khwarizmi algorithm Views Personal tools Navigation Search Toolbox What links here Related changes Special pages This page was last modified 08:58, 15 May 2004. All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License (see for details).
Of Course They Can Concerning the first one, arabian mathematicians would make sense of N2 in thinking of N as being deprived of 2 units (and then, in the process that we now http://laurentian.ca/educ/lradford/PME 25- Research Forum.htm
Extractions: In their enlightening paper, D. Carraher, A. Schielmann and B. Brizuela ask several questions and mention some problems that have been at the core of the research conducted in the learning and teaching of algebra for many years. The central question that they ask -namely, Can Young Students Operate on Unknowns?- is rooted in the idea that novice students find it difficult to operate on unknowns. This idea, however, has been refuted experimentally and historically many years ago. Hence a more appropriate question and more in line with their research intentions would be: When can young students start operating on unknowns? Carraher et al . suggest that arithmetical operations bear an algebraic meaning and that an early contact with algebra can help infuse this meaning into the children's arithmetic. I will discuss in Section 2 of this reaction the possibilities of such an enterprise, when I will comment, from a semiotic-cultural perspective, on some salient aspects of the classroom episode. In Section 1, before mentioning some of the historical and contemporary experimental data that show that the operation on unknowns is not an intrinsic problem arising in the transition from arithmetic to algebra, I will argue that, in adopting a traditional view according to which algebra relates to arithmetic only, Carraher
ThinkQuest : Library : Mathematics History But Indian mathematians actively used symbols and they made Indoarabian numbers. They also used decimal system. Indian mathematicians thought about the http://library.thinkquest.org/22584/emh1300.htm
Extractions: Index Math An extensive history of mathematics is at your fingertips, from Babylonian cuneiforms to advances in Egyptian geometry, from Mayan numbers to contemporary theories of axiomatical mathematics. You will find it all here. Biographical information about a number of important mathematicians is included at this excellent site. Visit Site 1998 ThinkQuest Internet Challenge Languages English Korean Students Hyun-jin Jae-yun Hwang(Seoul Yo Sang), Kwan-ak Gu, Korea, South Kyung-sun Jae-yun Hwang(Seoul Yo Sang), Kwan-ak Gu, Korea, South So-young Jae-yun Hwang(Seoul Yo Sang), Kwan-ak Gu, Korea, South Coaches Jae-yun Jae-yun Hwang(Seoul Yo Sang), Kwan-ak Gu, Korea, South Jong-hyun Jong-hyun Lee(Seoul Yo Sang), Kwan-ak Gu, Korea, South Dea-won Dea-won Ko (Seoul Yo Sang), Kwan-ak Gu, Korea, South Want to build a ThinkQuest site? The ThinkQuest site above is one of thousands of educational web sites built by students from around the world. Click here to learn how you can build a ThinkQuest site.
Serials And Journals Database arabian Gulf University, Manama. English, Arabic. English summary. Arab J. Math. Arab Journal of Mathematics. The Union of Arab Physicists and mathematicians, http://www.zblmath.fiz-karlsruhe.de/MATH/serials/zbl/journals/all/a/dir?query_st
Serials And Journals Database arabian Gulf University, Manama. English, Arabic. English summary. Arab J. Math. Arab Journal of Mathematics. The Union of Arab Physicists and mathematicians, http://www.zblmath.fiz-karlsruhe.de/MATH/printer/serials/zbl/journals/all/a/dir?
Extractions: The superlative achievements of the shining stars in Islamic academic circles is little known to the world, indeed even including Muslims themselves. Muslims know some odd facts or two, such as algebra comes from al-jabr, but this is the tip of the iceberg in the overall contributions Muslims have played in the diffusion of knowledge and practice in the world today. This much-needed book fills the void, and educates of the expansive contributions made by scholars past. A tradition, perhaps now devoid and lacking in today's Islamic world, thrived in the years of our Prophet Muhammed (pbuh) and the following generations, producing boundary-less repositories of useful knowledge and erudition.
Jabir_ibn_Aflah astronomer Qutb alDin al-Shirazi, who was a pupil of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi; on the Hispano-arabian philosopher ibn Rushd mathematicians born in the same country. http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Jabir_ibn_Aflah.html
47 SOCIETY MAILING LIST ARCHIVE: November 1997 1230.30 Origin of Scheherazade Myth I think the arabian priest mathematicians and their Indian Ocean navigator ancestors knew that the binomial effect of http://www.47.net/47society/47list/47_11-97.html
Math History Resources -- Edinformatics Directory of algebra in Egypt, Babylonia, Greece, India, the arabian Penninsula, and Includes a chronology of mathematicians and mathematical works, online references http://www.edinformatics.com/math_his.htm
Extractions: See also: Sites: Ancient Geometry and Insights into Math History - Topics include background in Babylonian, Euclid, Al'Khwarizmi, pi, and trigonometry. Also has recreations and java chat. Ancient Math Papers Restored - Thanks to new imaging technology, part of the remains of a private library, owned by Roman statesman and Julius Caesar's father-in-law, may now be read. These papers were original discovered in 1752 in the town of Herculaneum. The Art of Renaissance Science - Discusses how art and architecture were influenced by mathematical concepts, such as perspective. Includes photo examples. Babylonian mathematics - An overview of mathematics within this culture. Includes a description of the numerals used and a reference to Pythagoras' theorem.
Role Of The Number Systems In Mathematics Progress The famous French mathematicians Laplas (1819 C.) expressed his enthusiasm about the these numerals and the numeral of 0 called zephirum in arabian, one may http://www.goldenmuseum.com/1104HistoryNS_engl.html
Extractions: Role of the number systems in mathematics progress Bergman's discovery has a certain relation to such the oldest mathematics branch as number systems . To access properly the importance of his discovery we should tell briefly about the number systems history and evaluate their role in mathematics progress. This history dates back to the ancient period of mathematics development. The discovery of the positional principle of a number representation is considered as the highest achievement of the ancient elementary arithmetic This discovery was made in the Babylonian mathematics. It is well known that the sexagesimal number system of the ancient Babylonians emerged about 2000 BC was the first of the familiar number systems based on the positional principle. We use the decimal number system in our daily life. It is well known that the "father" of the decimal number system is the Hindu number system emerged about the 8th century. The famous French mathematicians Laplas (18-19 C.) expressed his enthusiasm about the positional principle and decimal number system in the following words: "The idea to represent all numbers by the 9 numerals giving them, in addition to the form value, still the position value is looked as much simple that just from behind this simplicity there is difficult to understand how much it is astonishing. How it was difficult to come to this method we can see on the example of the greatest genius' of Greek's learning Archimede and Appolonius for whose this idea was hidden".