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1. Universal Turing Machine -- From MathWorld
Universal turing machine. A turing machine which, by appropriate programming using a finite length of input tape, can act as any turing machine whatsoever.
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/UniversalTuringMachine.html

Extractions: A Turing machine which, by appropriate programming using a finite length of input tape, can act as any Turing machine whatsoever. In his seminal paper, Turing himself gave the first construction for a universal Turing machine (Turing 1937, 1938). Shannon (1956) showed that two colors were sufficient, so long as enough states were used. Minsky (1962) discovered a 7-state 4-color universal Turing machine, illustrated above (Wolfram 2002, p. 706). Note that the 20th rule specifies that the Turing machine should halt, as indicated by leaving the head stationary and not changing its state. Upon conversion to a 2-color machine, Minsky's universal Turing machine requires 43 states. Comparatively little more was published about small universal Turing machines until Rogozhin (1996) found examples with the numbers ( m, n

2. Some Brainfuck Fluff
By Daniel B. Cristofani. BF sources for several utility and application programs including a Universal turing machine, BF to SPARC compiler.
http://www.hevanet.com/cristofd/brainfuck/

3. Busy Beaver Turing Machine
Busy Beaver turing machine. This story starts around 1960. Tibor Rado, a professor Jeffrey Shallit. turing machine Information. For a
http://grail.cba.csuohio.edu/~somos/bb.html

Extractions: This story starts around 1960. Tibor Rado, a professor at the Ohio State University, thought of a simple non-computable function besides the standard halting problem for Turing machines. Given a fixed finite number of symbols and states, select those Turing machine programs which eventually halt when run with a blank tape. Among these programs find the maximum number of non-blank symbols left on the tape when they halt. Alternatively, find the maximum number of time steps before halting. This function is well-defined but rapidly becomes un-computable for even a small number of states and symbols. He published an article about it in 1962, but went beyond just writing about a theoretical result. With his student Shen Lin, they actually tackled the two symbol, three state problem. The study resulted in a dissertation for Lin in 1963 and an article in JACM in 1965. After the initial flurry of articles there has been several others mentioning results. The most popular is probably the August 1984 Scientific American Computer Recreations column by Dewdney. There is a PostScript handout by Jeffrey Shallit about the problem.

4. SourceForge.net Project Info - Turing And Post Machines C++
The C++programs simulate Nondeterministic/Deterministic Multitape Turing Post Machines, Universal turing machine, turing machine with faults, failures and
http://sourceforge.net/projects/turing-machine

5. Busy Beaver Turing Machine
Fivestate Busy Beaver turing machine Contender. In December, George Uhing of Bronx, NY, found a five-state turing machine that prints 1,915 1 s before halting.
http://grail.cba.csuohio.edu/~somos/busy.html

Extractions: From: csaamw@urc.tue.nl (Michiel Wijers) Date: 6 Jan 1995 10:05:09 GMT Organization: Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands Newsgroups: sci.math Re: Busy Beaver Armando Barbot Matos and Jose Paulo Leal of the Universidade do Porto, Portugal, asked on January 5th in newsgroup At the end of the March column I mentioned a new candidate for the five-state busy beaver [see "Computer Recreations," Scientific American; August 1984]. In December, George Uhing of Bronx, N.Y., found a five-state Turing machine that prints 1,915 1's before halting. The Uhing machine is reproduced in the table below. To discover what the machine will do in state B, for example, examine the row bearing that label. The row is subdivided into an upper and a lower portion listing the machine's responses to a or 1 respectively. If the machine reads a 1 on its tape, it enters state D, prints a on the tape and then moves one cell to the left. In the table H means that the machine halts. Uhing, who programs for a Manhattan optical company, decided to search for the five-state busy beaver after reading this column last August. He used a Z-80 microprocessor running an assembly-language program to oversee a second machine: A Turing-machine simulator that cost Uhing less than \$100 to build. It goes through seven million Turing-machine transitions per second. Each transition amounts to a simple lookup in a table like the one below. Uhing seems determined to find the five-state busy beaver. Does the present machine qualify? It showed up after Uhing's computer had been running for a month. As far as I know it is still running.

6. Turing Machine Simulator
You need a Javaenabled browser to run this program. Read the documentation.

7. Turing Machine Simulator -- Intro
turing machine Simulator Intro. The TM Simulator is my first substantial applet, a project I worked on over the summer to help

Extractions: The TM Simulator is my first substantial applet, a project I worked on over the summer to help me learn the language, to pass ample free time, and to have fun. It turned out to be alot more difficult than I'd expected, particularly the GUI layout aspects, but I've finally completed enough of it to make it available for public viewing, and in the process I've become moderately proficient at the non-bells-and-whistles aspects of Java. It seems to be working pretty well on the platforms where I've tested it, but do expect "unimplemented" tags and miscellaneous bugs to pop up. Please report any of the latter to me by email so I can fix them! I don't expect this program will be wildly popular with the general public, as it is not replete with cool animation, sound clips, etc....but other theoretical comp sci. geek-types out there might find it a fun toy. So, without further ado, here's a link to the applet itself . You'll probably want to read some or all of these help files first, though: Turing Machine Simulator Applet

8. A Turing Machine In Conway's Game Of Life, Extendable To A Universal Turing Mach
This is a turing machine implemented in Conway s Game of Life. Designed page. For turing machine info see The Alan Turing Internet Scrapbook.
http://rendell.server.org.uk/gol/tm.htm

9. Obiwan.uvi.edu/computing/turing/ture.htm
turing machine (C++ Simulator)Visitors 1 4 3 3 0 since Nov 09, 2002 Last Modification 2003/12/19 Here is C++ Simulator of a turing machine (TM).
http://obiwan.uvi.edu/computing/turing/ture.htm

10. Turing Machine With Faults, Failures And Recovery
1 6 4 4 since Mar 13, 2003 Last Modification 2003/06/11 Here is turing machine with faults, failures and recovery.
http://alexvn.freeservers.com/s1/turing-s.html

Extractions: [ Last Modification : 2003/06/11] - Here is Turing Machine with faults, failures and recovery http://alexvn.freeservers.com/s1/turing-s.zip The algorithm has been written by Alex Vinokur. Programming Language : C++. Any and all comments would be appreciated. Alex Vinokur alexvn@connect.to alexv@hitechclub.com http://up.to/alexvn ... http://alexvn.freeservers.com/s1/turing-s.html

11. Peter Suber, "Turing Machines I"
What is a turing machine? A turing machine is a simple but powerful computer. It is useful bangs. Programming a turing machine. Let us
http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/courses/logsys/turing.htm

Extractions: Turing Machines I Peter Suber Philosophy Department Earlham College What is a Turing Machine? A Turing machine is a simple but powerful computer. It is useful in thinking about the nature and limits of computability because its method of computation is about as simple as can be imagined. Important theoretical results about what can be computed that are expressed in the terms of Turing machines, therefore, are clearer to intuition than the same results expressed in other terms. Turing machines were conceived by Alan Turing (1912-1954) in his important paper, "On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem," Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society , 2d Series, 42 (1936) 230-65. Turing machines are one of the earliest and most intuitive ways to make precise the naive notion of effective computability. All Turing-computable functions are effectively computable; the important and indemonstrable converse (that all intuitively computable functions are Turing computable) is asserted by Church's Thesis. My exposition is based on those of George S. Boolos and Richard Jeffrey

12. Peter Suber, "Turing Machines II"
This handout will apply them to the problem of computability and prove that not all functions can be computed by a turing machine.
http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/courses/logsys/turing2.htm

Extractions: Turing Machines II Peter Suber Philosophy Department Earlham College The last hand-out on Turing machines defined the basic concepts. This hand-out will apply them to the problem of computability and prove that not all functions can be computed by a Turing machine. As in the first hand-out , my exposition is based on those of George S. Boolos and Richard Jeffrey, Computability and Logic , Cambridge University Press, second edition, 1980; Gerald Massey, "On the Pedagogy of Turing Machines," The Computers and Philosophy Newsletter , 1,1 (Sept. 1986), 6-24; and Marvin Minsky, Computation: Finite and Infinite Machines , Prentice Hall, 1967. For the proofs that follow it will help to understand how to concatenate two T programs into one. We want to put two T programs end to end to make a third program that will run flawlessly with only minor revisions. To do this we take advantage of the conventions used in the first hand-out (1) that we read inputs from left to right and (2) that canonical halts leave the scanner on the leftmost digit of the output. With these conventions we need only stick the two programs back to back. The new program will perform the work of the first one first, and use its output as the input to the second. Two minor revisions are needed in the composite program. (1) Change the command names of the second program so that none coincides with any already used. This will guarantee consistency. The easy way to do this, if both programs use numerical command names and if the first program contains n consecutively numbered commands, is to add n to the number of each command in the second program. (2) Fill in the blanks of the table of the first program, where it would have halted, with the command to go to the first line of the second program. This will insure that the composite program will not halt until the second program has run.

13. Turing Machine Simulator
Math Archives Homepage. turing machine Simulator. Santa Monica, CA 90405 jkennedy@smc.edu. The TURING program simulates the operation of a turing machine.
http://archives.math.utk.edu/software/msdos/miscellaneous/jkturing/.html

14. The Turing Machine
The turing machine. Its characteristics and behaviour qualify the turing machine as a finite state machine (FSM), or a finite automaton.
http://www.brunel.ac.uk/depts/AI/alife/al-turin.htm

Extractions: The Turing Machine In 1936, Alan Turing constructed an imaginary automaton, the Turing Machine, a theoretical concept in the mathematical theory of computability . His paper "Computing machinery and intelligence" (Turing 1950) addresses the question of machine intelligence, assessing the arguments against the possibility of creating an intelligent computing machine and suggesting answers to those arguments, proposing the Turing Test as an empirical test of intelligence. This machine can be viewed as a sophisticated tape player, with an arbitrarily extendible tape. The tape is marked off in sections, each section containing a "1", a "0" or being blank. There is a tape head, that looks at one section at a time. This tape head is capable of only three actions: Write on the tape (or erase from tape), only on the section being viewed. Change the internal state. Move the tape or 1 space, to the left or right. Its characteristics and behaviour qualify the Turing Machine as a finite state machine (FSM), or a finite automaton. Significantly, it separates information into two elements - that from its internal state, and that which is derived externally. At any particular moment in time, it is in a describable state, and between this moment and the next discrete time step, the machine reads its input from the tape, refers to rules controlling its behaviour, and considering both the input and its own current state, determines what behaviour to exhibit (i.e. erase/write on tape, move tape) and which internal state to assume next.

15. Turing Machine
turing machine e na Abébia Vadia.).
http://turing-machine.weblog.com.pt/

Extractions: Os robots falharam a missão, procuram-se humanos voluntariosos. Editor: Porfírio Silva PEQUENA HISTÓRIA DA MÁQUINA DE TURING História da Máquina de Turing Corpos e máquinas O erro de Damásio? ... Notinhas Australianas O e deus tornou-se visível... (II) entrou em greve contra a guerra, tal como declara neste post Além das reacções que estão acessíveis nos comentários que lá se encontram, eu escrevi o seguinte ao autor em causa: Que se pode fazer para convencê-lo a outra forma de expressão? Não conhece o conceito de greve de zelo? Na greve de zelo todos trabalham, mas seguem rigorosamente todos os regulamentos. Contrariamente ao que os distraídos hiper-racionalistas poderiam pensar, nas organizações humanas reais se toda a gente cumprir escrupulosamente todos os regulamentos - nada funciona! Este tipo de greve caiu um pouco em desuso, pelo menos em Portugal. Mas porque não "Deus" optar por essa forma em vez de "desaparecer"?

16. Universal Turing Machine In XSLT
Universal turing machine in XSLT. Thus, this stylesheet is a Universal turing machine and is an existence proof that XSLT 1.0 is Turing complete.
http://www.unidex.com/turing/utm.htm

Extractions: This page describes an XSLT 1.0 stylesheet that executes (i.e., interprets) the Turing machine that is described in the source TMML document. Thus, this stylesheet is a Universal Turing Machine and is an existence proof that XSLT 1.0 is Turing complete. A language is Turing complete if it is powerful enough to implement any Turing machine. It's widely believed that Turing machines are powerful enough to perform any calculation that can be performed by a modern computer program. Obtaining the Universal Turing Machine Stylesheet

TMML Home Page. This site describes the turing machine Markup Language (TMML), which is an XML language for describing turing machines.
http://www.unidex.com/turing/

Extractions: B2B Integration Solutions from Unidex Home XML Convert Professional Services Resources ... About Unidex This site describes the Turing Machine Markup Language (TMML), which is an XML language for describing Turing machines. The site provides sample TMML documents and an XSLT 1.0 stylesheet that interprets (i.e., executes) the Turing machine that is described in a TMML document. This XSLT stylesheet, which is a Universal Turing Machine, is an existence proof that XSLT 1.0 is Turing complete. This web site is organized as follows: I created TMML and the Universal Turing Machine stylesheet to have some fun and to learn more about the XSLT language. I created this site to share what I learned about Turing machines and XSLT. Please feel free to send any comments to boblyons@unidex.com

18. What Is A Turing Machine?
What is a turing machine? A turing machine is an a finite set of instructions. Such a mechanism is now known as a turing machine.
http://www.science.gmu.edu/~jsteidel/801-prj/turing.html

Extractions: "Mathematician Alan M. Turing was one of the first to propose the idea of a universal mathematics machine. Turing and Emil Post independently proved that determining the decidability of mathematical propositions is equivalent to asking what sorts of sequences of a finite number of symbols can be recognized by an abstract machine with a finite set of instructions. Such a mechanism is now known as a Turing machine. "A Turing machine can be pictured as a black box capable of reading, printing, and erasing symbols on a single, long tape or strip of paper divided by lines into square cells, or boxes. Each cell is blank or contains one symbol from a finite alphabet of symbols. "The Turing machine scans the tape, one cell at a time, usually beginning at the cell furthest to the left that contains a symbol. The machine can leave the beginning symbol unchanged, erase it, or print another in its place. If in reading the tape the machine later encounters a blank cell, then the machine has the choice of leaving the cell empty or entering a symbol. After it performs its assigned task on a given cell, the machine stops or else moves one cell to the left or right. "What the machine does to a cell and which way it moves afterward depends on the state of the machine at that instant. Like a state of mind, the machine's internal configuration establishes the environment in which a decision is made. Turing machines are restricted to a finite number of states.

19. CSC 4170 Turing Machines
turing machines. Here is a simple definition of a turing machine, showing how it can be represented as a table or as a finitestate automaton.
http://www.netaxs.com/people/nerp/automata/turing0.html

Extractions: Syllabus Previous Lecture Next Lecture Here is a simple definition of a Turing machine, showing how it can be represented as a table or as a finite-state automaton. Here is another writeup with some background information about Alan Turing. I found a nice on-line textbook for introductory computer science at the Memorial University of Newfoundland. It has fairly detailed sections on Algorithms and The Turing Machine Model of Computation The Universal TuringMachine and an Unsolvable Problem , and Other Noncomputable Problems There is a short article on Turing machines in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. TurMac 1.0.3 , from Asgard Software, is a Turing machine simulator for the Macintosh. Turing's World (also for the Macintosh) is a more sophisticated, commercial TM simulator. There are also simulators available for the Amiga , and for PCs with Windows 3.1 or Windows 95

20. CSC 4170 Universal Turing Machines II
Universal turing machines II. It s a little easier to see how to build a universal turing machine if we use a threetape turing machine.
http://www.netaxs.com/people/nerp/automata/utm6.html

Extractions: Overview Previous Next It's a little easier to see how to build a universal Turing machine if we use a three-tape Turing machine. We have already noted that a multitape Turing machine is equivalent to a standard Turing machine. In fact, once you get into the details, it's probably easier to do on a single-tape machine. We will not complete the development of a universal Turing machine, but it isn't as difficult as you might think. One of my textbooks has a complete universal Turing machine in only 23 states (and a reasonably small alphabet). I have heard of a Turing machine that implements a FORTRAN compiler. Some people have too much time on their hands.

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