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1. Aerospaceweb.org | Q And A - NACA 4-Digit Airfoil Equations
I was searching for airfoil geometry, and came across equations for NACA 4 Early aircraft designers had experimented with a number of diferent shapes and just
http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/airfoils/q0100.shtml

Extractions: Search The Web This Site for NACA 4-Digit Airfoil Equations I was searching for airfoil geometry, and came across equations for NACA 4-Digit airfoils. I found this formula for calculating the airfoil thickness, but I don't understand how to derive it. Please let me know how to understand this equation or if there is a book describing where it comes from: T(X)=10*TC[0.2969(X/C)^0.5-0.126(X/C)-0.3537(X/C)^2+0.2843(X/C)^3-0.1015(X/C)^4] In addition, how were the parabolic equations used to calculate the mean camber line derived? Why do they have boundary conditions at x=0, x=p, and x=c? - Yasser The majority of this question was already addressed in a previous question we answered on the NACA airfoil series . In particular, we introduced the equations describing the thickness and camber lines of the Four-Digit Series. Refer to the link for a more detailed discussion of what a Four-Digit Series airfoil is and how to compute its coordidnates, but the three principal equations are repeated below for the sake of this answer. The thickness and camber of such airfoils are computed as follows: where

2. Aerospaceweb.org | Aircraft Museum - Su-17 'Fitter'
Western sources originally believed the Su17 was nothing more than an experimental aircraft with a crude attempt at variable geometry wing technology.
http://www.aerospaceweb.org/aircraft/attack/su17/

Extractions: The Su-17 attack plane was a development of the Su-7, a rugged attack fighter with swept wings dating back to 1955. To improve the range of the Su-7, Sukhoi modified the aircraft with pivoting swing-wings to produce the Su-17. Western sources originally believed the Su-17 was nothing more than an experimental aircraft with a crude attempt at variable geometry wing technology. However, the modified design proved so successful that the Soviet Union decided to proceed with a production model, the Su-17M. The Su-20 and Su-22 are related designs with less sophisticated avionics built for export to friendly nations. Production of the Su-17 lingered on until 1990, and the remaining examples will likely be replaced by versions of the Su-25 and Su-27 Data below for Su-17M 'Fitter-C'

3. Dassault Falcon Aircraft / Aircraft / Falcon Philosophy
ACHIEVING HIGH/LOWSPEED COMPATIBILITY THE VARIABLE geometry AIRFOIL. During the initial design of a business aircraft, the decisive factor in choosing the
http://www.falconjet.com/aircraft/falcon_philosophy_aerodynamics.jsp

4. Su-24 Fencer
SUKHOI Su24. NATO reporting name Fencer. TYPE Two-seat variable geometry battlefield bomber , reconnaissance and EW aircraft. PROGRAMME
http://www.danshistory.com/su24.html

Extractions: PROGRAMME: Design started 1964 under Yevgeniy S. Felsner, Pavel Sukhoi's successor, to replace Il-28 and Yak-28 attack aircraft; T-6-1 prototype, first flown June 1967 and now at Monino, had fixed delta wings with downswept tips, and four Koliesov auxiliary booster motors mounted vertically in fuselage for improved take-off performance; T-6-2IG variable geometry prototype chosen for production; first flight January 1970; by 1981, delivery rate 60-70 a year; production of Su-24M/MR/MP continues. LANDING GEAR: Hydraulically retractable tricycle type, with twin wheels on each unit; main units retract forward and inward into air intake duct fairings; steerable nose unit retracts rearward. Oleo-pneumatic shock absorbers. Trailing-link main units; KT-172 mainwheel tyres size 950 x 300 mm, pressure 12.15 bars (176 lb/sq in); KN-21 nosewheel tyres size 600 x 200 mm, pressure 9.1 bars (132 lb/sq in); KT-69.430 brakes on mainwheels, with IA-58 anti-skid units; mudguard on nosewheels; two cruciform brake-chutes, each 25 m2 (269 sq ft). POWER PLANT: Two Saturn/Lyulka AL-21F-3A turbojets, each 75.0 kN (16,865 lb st) dry and 109.8 kN (24,690 lb st) with afterburning; fixed engine air intakes. Four internal fuel tanks, capacity 11,700 litres (3090 US gallons; 2574 Imp gallons), can be supplemented by two 2000 litre (528 US gallon; 440 Imp gallon) external tanks under fuselage and two 3000 litre (792 US gallon; 660 Imp gallon) tanks under wing gloves. Pressure and gravity fuelling. Probe-and-drogue flight refuelling capability, including operation as buddy tanker. Oil capacity 24 litres (6.35 US gallons; 5.25 Imp gallons).

5. Tu-26 Backfire
TUPOLEV Tu22M (Tu-26) NATO reporting name Backfire. TYPE Twin-engined variable geometry medium bomber and maritime reconnaissance/attack aircraft.
http://www.danshistory.com/backfire.html

Extractions: NATO revealed the existence of a Soviet variable geometry bomber programme autumn 1969; prototype observed July 1970 on the ground near Kazan manufacturing plant, western Russia; confirmed subsequently as twin-engined design by Tupolev OKB; at least two prototypes built, with first flight estimated 1969, up to 12 pre-production models by early 1973, for development testing, weapons trials and evaluation; production has been 30 a year. DESIGN FEATURES: Capable of performing nuclear strike, conventional attack and anti-ship missions; low-level penetration features ensure better survivability than for earlier Tupolev bombers; not expected to become ALCM carriers, although used for development launches, deployment of RKV-500B (AS-16 'Kickback') short-range attack missiles in Tu-22Ms has increased significantly their weapon carrying capability. Low/mid-wing configuration; large-span fixed centre-section and two outer steering sleeves variable from 20 degrees to 65 degrees sweepback; no anhedral or dihedral, but wing section so thin that outer panels flex considerably in flight; leading-edge fence towards tip of centre-section each side; basically circular fuselage forward of wings, with ogival dielectric nosecone; centre-fuselage faired into rectangular section air intake trunks, each with large splitter plate and assumed to embody complex variable geometry ramps; no external area ruling of trunks; all-swept tail surfaces, with large dorsal fin.

6. Butterworth-Heinemann - Civil Jet Aircraft Design - Case Studies
In selecting the type of flap and its geometry for a projected aircraft it is useful to understand what previous/existing aircraft have used and achieved.
http://www.bh.com/companions/034074152X/case-studies/default.htm

Extractions: A good example of the use of the data (A, B and C) in aircraft design is given in the case study described in Chapter 16 of the book. This study is concerned with the design of a small regional jet to replace ageing aircraft currently used by airlines. Although these old aircraft are relatively cheap to buy (or lease) they are expensive to operate due to the old technologies used in their original manufacture. The study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of designing a 70 seat aircraft incorporating advanced technology in airframe and engine designs. The description below shows how the study used data from this Website to progress the design. The table and figure numbers refer to Chapter 16 of the book. Fig. 16.9 Suggested Applications In selecting the type of flap and its geometry for a projected aircraft it is useful to understand what previous/existing aircraft have used and achieved. Data A can be interrogated to show the type of flap used on specimen aircraft. A graph showing values of aircraft maximum lift coefficient against wing sweepback angle is shown in Chapter 6 (Figure 6.11, page 118), and further details are given in Chapter 8 (pages 167-9). Example 2 (Mass estimation) To determine the mass components for the initial estimation of aircraft maximum take-off mass (MTOM) it is necessary to assume a value for the aircraft empty mass fraction. To assist in this process it is helpful to plot this ratio against MTOM using data of specimen aircraft taken from Data A. Such a plot is shown in Chapter 7 (Figure 7.3, page 130).

7. X31 Aircraft Configuration
The aircraft is a supersonic aircraft with canards instead of a horizontal tail to control the pitch of the aircraft. The geometry modeled includes the wings
http://www.centaursoft.com/examples/aerospace/x31/

Extractions: The X31 is an experimental aircraft developed to test ultra-high maneuverability via the use of thrust vectoring. The aircraft is a supersonic aircraft with canards instead of a horizontal tail to control the pitch of the aircraft. The geometry modeled includes the wings, fuselage, tail, canards, engine inlet and the engine outlet. View Mesh Surface Mesh Hybrid Mesh - Isometric View Hybrid Mesh - Planar View The final grid contains: 996834 Total Nodes 2670521 Total Elements 1536906 Prisms 21989 Pyramids 1111626 Tetrahedra 107257 Total Boundary Faces 380 Panels 15 Boundary Groups 23126 faces in group: Fuselage 1799 faces in group: Farfield 15105 faces in group: Symmetry 7176 faces in group: Canard 636 faces in group: Canopy 7336 faces in group: Vertical Tail 5852 faces in group: Horizontal Half Tail 309 faces in group: Engine Outlet 627 faces in group: Engine Outlet Passage 157 faces in group: Engine Inlet 4361 faces in group: Engine Inlet Passage 4768 faces in group: Inboard Hardpoint 4621 faces in group: Outboard Hardpoint 24879 faces in group: Wing 6505 faces in group: Forewing All images shown have been produced using FieldView from Intelligent Light

8. Experimental Supersonic Wing-Body Configuration
Experimental Supersonic WingBody Configuration. This geometry represents flow over an experimental supersonic aircraft. For simplicity
http://www.centaursoft.com/examples/aerospace/afwal/

Extractions: This geometry represents flow over an experimental supersonic aircraft. For simplicity, only the wing and the fuselage have been modeled. A symmetry plane was used so that only half the geometry needed to be modeled. View Mesh Aircraft Surface Mesh Hybrid Mesh The final grid contains: 71454 Total Nodes 203056 Total Elements 97964 Prisms 723 Pyramids 104369 Tetrahedra 14471 Total Boundary Faces 4 Boundary Groups 10397 faces in group: Aircraft 343 faces in group: Outlet 3187 faces in group: Symmetry 544 faces in group: Farfield All images shown have been produced using FieldView from Intelligent Light

9. USGS Spectroscopy Lab - AVIRIS Geometry Corrections, Rectification
with the roll, pitch yaw, velocity and direction changes in the moving aircraft. the equations for such a system using first principles and simple geometry.
http://speclab.cr.usgs.gov/PAPERS/aviris.geom.1998a/aviris.geom5.html

Extractions: USGS Spectroscopy Lab From: Geometric Correction of AVIRIS Imagery Using On-Board Navigation and Engineering Data Roger N. Clark, K. Eric Livo and Raymond F. Kokaly, Summaries of the 7th Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop , R.O. Green, Ed., JPL Publication 97-21 Jan 12-14, pp57-65, 1998. by Roger N. Clark, K. Eric Livo and Raymond F. Kokaly Introduction From 1989 through 1997 the NASA Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has been flown on multiple flights on an ER-2 aircraft at approximately 20 km altitude (e.g. see Vane et al ., 1984, Porter and Enmark, 1987, Chrien et a l., 1990). At the USGS, AVIRIS data have been used to make materials maps (e.g. see our web site http://speclab.cr.usgs.gov) but registration to a map base using classical control point registration methods with n-term polynomial or rubber sheeting image warping techniques has not fulfilled our expectations or needs, despite significant investment in people time. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory AVIRIS Data Facility delivers numerous engineering, aircraft state, and Global Positioning System (GPS) data sets that can be used to facilitate geometrical rectification of the imagery. Using the JPL data, combined with Digital Elevation Models (DEM), which can crudely, but adequately, be derived from atmospheric absorptions in the AVIRIS data, complete geometric correction appears possible. This paper derives the equations and compares the magnitudes of effects of the ER-2 plane motions on the AVIRIS imagery using example 1995 data over Arches National Park.

10. Aircraft Performance - Weight, Geometry, Lift And Drag Properties.
aircraft Performance Weight, geometry, Lift and Drag Properties. Weight. aircraft geometry. A typical aircraft planform layout is shown below.
http://www.ae.su.oz.au/aero/perf/perf_ac.html

Extractions: maximum landing weight. It is not simply a matter of adding the components together to obtain a final answer for the aircraft weight. For example it may be necessary to remove fuel weight so that additional payload may be carried while still maintaining the requirement of a maximum take-off weight. For stability and hence flight safety considerations an accurate "weight and balance" calculation should be performed prior to the flight of the aircraft. In flight the aircraft weight will change as fuel is burnt by the propulsion system or possibly dumped in an emergency situation.

11. Untitled Document
and requirements on the left and aircraft characteristics on the top, the second with aircraft characteristics on the left and aircraft geometry on top, and
http://www.mae.ncsu.edu/courses/Mae478-479/team3/webpage/conceng.htm

Extractions: Ideation was the initial "brainstorming" activity to obtain a list of all possible configurations, important points and options for the design in each design section. Little regard is shown in the first part of this step towards feasibility and "cause-and-effect"; Team Scirocco proposed over 200 ideas initially. After the entire team had exhausted every idea they could think of, those ideas deemed infeasible, impractical or otherwise too unlikely were eliminated. For brevity, the results of Team Scirocco's Ideation phase have been omitted from the website. The results of the Ideation stage of Concurrent Engineering are next divided into a number of categories equal to the different sections of design, i.e. Aerodynamics, Propulsion, Structures, etc. This not only gives each respective team member foresight regarding their options for handling relevant design tasks and requirements, but it gives the entire team imaginative shape to the evolving aircraft design. The result of the Affinity Diagram stage is an organized list of the configurations, important points and options devised in the preceding Ideation stage; these results can be found here (~ 93 kilobyte PDF, right click to save, get

12. A Week At The Zenith Aircraft Factory
A geometry teaches relates her experience after spending a week with an aircraft manufacturer.
http://www.zenithair.com/misc/week@zac.html

Extractions: Math Instructor, Mexico High School, Mexico, Missouri [Linda Kirchner spent a week at the Zenith Aircraft factory in August 1997 to learn more about "real life" applications for geometry and math]. As a high school geometry teacher I long to bring workplace applications into my classroom, so I spent a week at the Zenith Aircraft factory in Mexico, Missouri . Three things stand out after having completing a week at Zenith Aircraft: the shop test, the workmanship, and the work atmosphere. Potential employees at Zenith Aircraft must first take a shop test. First thing on Monday morning the shop foreman laid aside some tools, various pieces of sheet metal and a drawing I was to build. The test is designed to demonstrate the ability to measure, drill and rivet. But more than that, Zenith wants to verify that you can problem solve, ask questions, and use resources. Ninety percent of the applicants who take the test fail to construct the item. Some walk away without even trying! I was relieved to know I passed and could have been placed in the "consider-for-hire" category! After completing the test, I worked with various Zenith personnel throughout the week. The workers were glad to see a teacher trying to bring useful, meaningful work to the classroom. The employees are real craftsmen, making certain all parts built are within tolerance. The tolerance, I found, was frequently 0.0005 mm. On some items produced the tolerance was

13. Bin/csh -f Setenv FG_ROOT /home/m-seligSim/work/FlightGear
path=Models/geometry/Asw20.mdl prop/sim/model/zoffset-m=-.0 prop/sim/model/pitch-offset-deg=0 if not using enable-auto-coordination edit aircraft.dat
http://www.aae.uiuc.edu/m-selig/apasim/Aircraft-uiuc/00-runfgfs.html

Extractions: #!/bin/csh -f setenv FG_ROOT /home/m-seligSim/work/FlightGear/ # default #flightsim-0.7.8/src/Main/fgfs enable-fullscreen time-offset=-08:00:00 disable-intro-music #~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ # The command lines below are specific to FGFS ver 0.7.8 and work on linux. # The syntax is different for DOS, and some options have changed for FGFS 0.7.9. # See the FGFS users manual for more info. http://www.flightgear.org/Docs/

14. KITPLANES - Design Aircraft Like A Pro!
geometry Module. This module is a fullcapability computer aided design (CAD) system for drawing the aircraft s external surfaces.
http://www.kitplanes.com/features/content/dar.html

Extractions: The weight module allows accurate calculation of c.g. location. D ARcorporation of Lawrence, Kansas, has come out with a PC-based aircraft design software package that brings professional-level design capabilities to those without DOD-level budgets. A recipient of a NASA Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) grant, DARcorporation spent more than three years developing its software family of aircraft design tools. The AAA program is based on the time-proven design methods contained in Dr. Jan Roskam's textbooks, Airplane Design Parts I through VIII and Airplane Flight Dynamics Parts I and II . These books are the pillars of aircraft design courses taught to aerospace engineering undergraduates at most major universities. My dog-eared copy of Airplane Aerodynamics and Performance by Roskam is still on my shelf and sees frequent use over 12 years after earning my undergraduate and graduate degrees in aerospace engineering. They are timeless and invaluable references. And they are references that a user of the AAA program has instant access to during the computer-aided design process.

15. NTL Catalog: Format And Basic Geometry Of A Perspective Display Of Air Traffic F
Subject Keywords Display devices; Projective geometry; Perspective; aircraft instruments; Space perception. Abstract The design
http://ntl.bts.gov/card_view.cfm?docid=1343

16. Halfbakery: 3 Axis Variable Geometry Wings
My idea takes great inventions like variable geometry wings F111, F-14, Mig-23 shapes of the wings and positioning of the wings on the aircraft at differnt
http://www.halfbakery.com/idea/3_20Axis_20Variable_20Geometry_20Wings

Extractions: couldn't there just be manipulation of drag through secretion of substances from pore like openings in the skin of the plane's wing? Thus changing the performance of the wing? How would the "shoulder" structure of the plane work, wouldn't it weigh too much to be carried in a plane? Peticelli , Oct 16 2003

Download Full Text (27.62 MB PDF file). Title Computational Aeroelastic Analysis of aircraft Wings Including geometry Nonlinearity Author TIAN, BINYU Degree PhD

18. AAHS Book Reviews - PROJECT CANCELED
a preface and appendices in 235 pages covering rochet and jet propelled fighters, helicopters, bombers, and transport, as well as variable geometry, aircraft.
http://www.aahs-online.org/BkReviews/Proj_Canceled.htm

Extractions: Aviation Book Reviews PROJECT CANCELED: British Aircraft that Never Flew This 8.5x11" book has 13 chapters plus a preface and appendices in 235 pages covering rochet and jet propelled fighters, helicopters, bombers, and transport, as well as variable geometry, aircraft. This includes the TSR-2 Bomber. There are photographs, diagramsand drawings of numerous advanced aviation concepts that could have made the British aviation industry a definite power tobe reckoned with in the post WWII economy. The author further implies that the American post WWII boom in aviation was a direct result of the vacuum created by the British Labour Party taking Britain effectively out of the aviation business. The book is interesting and illustrates advanced design thinking of the British aeroengineers of the time and the short-sighted parsimony of some British politicians. It is possible that when the plastic model aircraft companies run low on the prolific "what if..." German designs of WWII, another series of "what if..." model airplane kits could be based on the proposed British designs now resting on the scrap heap of history.

19. Aircraft Hangar With Digiray Mobile System
Below the left wing Digiray s Reverse geometry Xray® (RGX®) tube is under the wing. -stress the aircraft structure by drilling.
http://www.digiray.com/hangar/

20. Geometry In The Constellations The ER-2
students experience with exploring their night sky and seeing the geometry that exists in Background NASA is currently using an aircraft known as the ER2 to
http://www.ed.arizona.edu/ward/Twinkle/twinkle.html

Extractions: When learning geometry, students should investigate, explore, and experiment with everyday objects and other physical materials. Activities that encourage children to draw, visualize, and compare shapes in various positions will help develop their spatial sense. The NCTM Standards also emphasize making links across the curriculum. This activity integrates astronomy and mathematics in a creative way, providing students experience with exploring their night sky and seeing the geometry that exists in the various constellations.

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