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         Paradox:     more books (100)
  1. The Vienna Paradox: A Memoir by Marjorie Perloff, 2004-05
  2. The Intimacy Paradox: Personal Authority in the Family System by Donald S. Williamson, Donald Williamson, 2002-07-03
  3. On Life & Other Paradoxes: Aphorisms and Little Stories from Bert Hellinger by Bert Hellinger, 2002-07
  4. Paradox of Organizational Change: Engineering Organizations With Behavioral Systems Analysis by Maria E. Malott, 2003-05
  5. The Paradox of Democratic Capitalism: Politics and Economics in American Thought by David F. Prindle, 2006-07-24
  6. Paradoxes of Power: U.s. Foreign Policy in a Changing World (International Studies Intensives) by David Skidmore, 2007-02-14
  7. Visionary's Handbook : Nine Paradoxes That Will Shape the Future of Your Business by Watts Wacker, Jim Taylor, 2001-08-01
  8. Paradox and Counterparadox: A New Model in the Therapy of the Family in Schizophrenic Transaction by Luigi Boscolo, 1995-09-28
  9. Happiness Paradox (Reaktion Books - Focus on Contemporary Issues) by Ziyad Marar, 2004-01-04
  10. Terminal Paradox: The Novels of Milan Kundera by Maria Nemcova Banerjee, 1992-01
  11. Incompleteness: The Proof and Paradox of Kurt Godel (Great Discoveries) by Rebecca Goldstein, 2005
  12. The Liar Paradox and the Towers of Hanoi: The Ten Greatest Math Puzzles of All Time by Marcel Danesi, 2004-08-27
  13. The Populist Paradox by Elisabeth R. Gerber, 1999-07-01
  14. Paradox Rey by Pio Baroja, 1988-06

101. Zeno's Race Course, Part 1
Thoughtful lecture notes for discussing this paradox, presented by S. Marc Cohen.
  • The Paradox Zeno argues that it is impossible for a runner to traverse a race course. His reason is that Physics Why is this a problem? Because the same argument can be made about half of the race course: it can be divided in half in the same way that the entire race course can be divided in half. And so can the half of the half of the half, and so on, ad infinitum So a crucial assumption that Zeno makes is that of infinite divisibility : the distance from the starting point ( S ) to the goal ( G ) can be divided into an infinite number of parts.
  • Progressive vs. Regressive versions
    How did Zeno mean to divide the race course? That is, which half of the race course Zeno mean to be dividing in half? Was he saying (a) that before you reach G , you must reach the point halfway from the halfway point to G ? This is the progressive version of the argument: the subdivisions are made on the right-hand side, the goal side, of the race-course. Or was he saying (b) that before you reach the halfway point, you must reach the point halfway from S to the halfway point? This is the
  • 102. LaRose, Eastin, & Gregg/Reformulating The Internet Paradox: Social Cognitive Exp
    Reformulating the Internet paradox Social Cognitive Explanations of Internet Use and Depression by Robert LaRose, Ph.D.; Matthew S. Eastin, and Jennifer Gregg
    Reformulating the Internet Paradox:
    Social Cognitive Explanations of Internet Use and Depression
    by Robert LaRose, Ph.D.; Matthew S. Eastin, and Jennifer Gregg
    LaRose, R., Eastin, M. S., Gregg, J. (2001). Reformulating the Internet paradox: Social cognitive explanations of Internet use and depression. Journal of Online Behavior Abstract The Internet Paradox study (Kraut et al., 1998) found evidence of a causal link between Internet use and depression, but it may have been specific to novice Internet users. The relationship between Internet use, social support and depression was reformulated drawing on social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1997) to account for the possible influence of self-efficacy, Internet-related stress, and perceived social support. A path analysis revealed a link between Internet use and depression, but one mediated by self-efficacy and the expectation of encountering stressful situations on the Internet. A path also was found linking Internet use to decreased depression through the use of e-mail exchanges with known associates to obtain social support. The Paradoxical Internet Paradox The Internet paradox study (Kraut et al., 1998), part of the HomeNet project at Carnegie Mellon University, provided important preliminary evidence of the possible harmful effects of Internet use. The paradox was how a "social technology" used primarily for interpersonal interaction could increase social isolation and thereby decrease psychological well-being among its users. Internet use was associated with increases in loneliness and depression and tended to increase stress in a sample of 169 persons who received free computers and Internet access over a period of one to two years. These results seemed paradoxical indeed to thosethe researchers and their sponsors among themwho viewed the Internet as a vibrant new means of social interaction through the use of e-mail, newsgroups, and chatrooms. To explain the paradox, the researchers reasoned that superficial relationships (weak ties) formed online displaced meaningful (strong tie) relationships in the real world.

    103. Quantum Physics (journal)
    Papers about the Smarandache Hypothesis that there is no speed barrier in the universe, SRMTheory of constructing arbitrary speeds from zero to infinite, Smarandache Sorites paradox.
    Quantum Physics Welcome to the miraculous micro-world of Quantum Physics!
    Read about:
    - Smarandache Hypothesis that there is no speed barrier in the universe:

    [in English],

    [em Português];

    - Sorites Smarandache Paradox that our visible world is composed by a totality of invisible particles;
    - SRM-Theory that it is possible to construct arbitrary speeds from zero to infinite.

    Your feedback is important to us. My Favorite Links: Charles Ashbacher Technologies Quantum Physics Minh Perez (Rehoboth, Box 141, NM 87322, USA) Name: Email:

    104. Paradox Band - Main Index Page -, L.A. Band, Free MP3 Downl
    Official site for an alternative rock band from Los Angeles, California. Includes pictures, audio downloads, show dates, and a band biography.

    105. The Reusability Paradox
    The Reusability paradox. In which it is demonstrated that the automated assembly of certain types of learning objects is not possible
    The Reusability Paradox
    In which it is demonstrated that the automated assembly of
    certain types of learning objects is not possible
    The Reusability, Collaboration, and Learning Troupe at Utah State University
    The problem with this trend is manifest in the degree to which the LEGO metaphor confines and controls the way people think about learning objects. Wiley (2000) discusses a number of problems with the LEGO metaphor and recommends an alternative. Here we consider only one of the difficulties previously identified with the LEGO metaphor.
    • Any LEGO block is combinable with any other LEGO block
    The implicit assumption propagated by the metaphor is that any learning object should be combinable with any other learning object. Because learning objects so designed are technically interoperable, the reasoning goes, computers can perform the labor-intensive work of combination. This ambition is typified in the IEEE’s Learning Technology Standards Committee’s Learning Objects Metadata Working Group 1997 purpose statement, which includes the following point. To enable computer agents to automatically and dynamically compose personalized lessons for an individual learner (LOM, 2001).

    106. The Fermi Paradox: An Approach Based On Percolation Theory
    The Fermi paradox An Approach Based on Percolation Theory. The absence of such extraterrestrial civilizations visiting Earth is the Fermi paradox.
    Published in Journal of the British Interplanetary Society , London, Volume 51, page 163-166 (1998).
    Originally presented at the NASA Symposium "Vision-21: Interdisciplinary Science and Engineering in the Era of Cyberspace" (NASA CP-10129), Mar. 30-31, 1993, Westlake, OH U.S.A.
    The Fermi Paradox: An Approach Based on Percolation Theory
    Geoffrey A. Landis
    Ohio Aerospace Institute
    NASA Lewis Research Center, 302-1
    Cleveland, OH 44135 U.S.A.
    Abstract If even a very small fraction of the hundred billion stars in the galaxy are home to technological civilizations which colonize over interstellar distances, the entire galaxy could be completely colonized in a few million years. The absence of such extraterrestrial civilizations visiting Earth is the Fermi paradox. A model for interstellar colonization is proposed using the assumption that there is a maximum distance over which direct interstellar colonization is feasable. Due to the time lag involved in interstellar communications, it is assumed that an interstellar colony will rapidly develop a culture independent of the civilization that originally settled it. Any given colony will have a probability P of developing a colonizing civilization, and a probability (1-P) that it will develop a non-colonizing civilization. These assumptions lead to the colonization of the galaxy occuring as a percolation problem. In a percolation problem, there will be a critical value of the percolation probability, Pc. For P<Pc, colonization will always terminate after a finite number of colonies. Growth will occur in "clusters," with the outside of each cluster consisting of non-colonizing civilizations. For P>Pc, small uncolonized voids will exist, bounded by non-colonizing civilizations. When P is on the order of Pc, arbitrarily large filled regions exist, and also arbitrarily large empty regions.

    107. Fermi's Paradox
    A couple of possible resolutions to the question of galactic colonization.
    Fermi's Paradox
    If technology continues to improve, we can easily conceive of colonizing the entire galaxy in less then 100 million years. For example, one can conceive of many man made probes sent to a host of other stars. Some will find environments suitable for human life and could clone humans (and other animals and plants) from onboard DNA samples. Another possibility is that artificial intelligence will develop an exploratory desire and produce machines that can replicate themselves. These machines could travel to neighbouring stars. Those that find solar systems with enough raw materials could go about manufacturing replicas of themselves (or improvements thereof). These daughter probes could then be sent to further multitudes of stars and in a short time the entire galaxy would be completely colonized by these so called Von Neumann probes. Most of the stars in the galaxy are more than a billion years older than the Sun. If life and civilizations are common throughout the galaxy then they should have colonized the galaxy long ago. Where are they? This is known as Fermi's paradox. Fermi's paradox relies on the assumption that civilizations (as we know them) have a desire to colonize (or at least explore) the Galaxy.
    • Team 1 resolves Fermi's paradox by arguing that we don't see evidence for aliens because other technological civilizations have no desire to colonize or explore the Galaxy (do we have such a desire?) or that the physical limitations behind space travel have made colonization impossible.

    108. Chaotic Paradox Digital Photography...
    landscape cemetery - black white - portrait - expressive - animals - nature - architecture - digital art - wallpaper. updates
    landscape cemetery portrait expressive landscape cemetery portrait expressive ... X

    109. Paradox Jungle :: Home
    South africas biggest drum n bass production duo get the paradox jungle treatment in this interesting interview . All content copywright paradox Jungle 2003.

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    110. Math Forum: Zeno's Paradox
    Zeno s paradox. A Math Forum Project paradox 1 The Motionless Runner. A runner wants to run a certain distance let us say 100 meters - in a finite time.
    Zeno's Paradox
    A Math Forum Project Table of Contents: Famous Problems Home The Bridges of Konigsberg
    The Value of Pi

    Prime Numbers
    ... Links
    The great Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea (born sometime between 495 and 480 B.C.) proposed four paradoxes in an effort to challenge the accepted notions of space and time that he encountered in various philosophical circles. His paradoxes confounded mathematicians for centuries, and it wasn't until Cantor's development (in the 1860's and 1870's) of the theory of infinite sets that the paradoxes could be fully resolved. Zeno's paradoxes focus on the relation of the discrete to the continuous, an issue that is at the very heart of mathematics. Here we will present the first of his famous four paradoxes.
    Zeno's first paradox attacks the notion held by many philosophers of his day that space was infinitely divisible, and that motion was therefore continuous. Paradox 1: The Motionless Runner A runner wants to run a certain distance - let us say 100 meters - in a finite time. But to reach the 100-meter mark, the runner must first reach the 50-meter mark, and to reach that, the runner must first run 25 meters. But to do that, he or she must first run 12.5 meters. Since space is infinitely divisible, we can repeat these 'requirements' forever. Thus the runner has to reach an infinite number of 'midpoints' in a finite time. This is impossible, so the runner can never reach his goal. In general, anyone who wants to move from one point to another must meet these requirements, and so motion is impossible, and what we perceive as motion is merely an illusion.

    111. Sundial Services International Inc.
    Consulting company developing utilities for users of Delphi and paradox databases.
    Site Updated February 7, 2004 Professional Services Software Products Sundial's professional services division provides expert consultation, software design, and software completion services featuring:
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    • Database-driven web site design and e-commerce
    Your application or ours, we get the job done on time! Other Links Database Utilities (downloadable for immediate results!)
  • The world's best maintenance tool for 16-bit or 32-bit Paradox/BDE databases and Delphi/C++Builder applications! Since 1996. When your have a lot of complicated reports, Journalist makes it simple! Is your member/donor/etc. database in Paradox? Why start from scratch?
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    You will LOVE the convenience! "Your databases CAN do what you want!" "ChimneySweep®" and other Sundial product-names are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sundial Services. All other product-names are the trademarks of their respective owners and their use does not imply endorsement.
  • 112. - Excerpt From 'The Paradox Of Choice'
    Excerpt from The paradox of Choice By Barry Schwartz. Chapter One. Let s Go Shopping. The foregoing is excerpted from The paradox of Choice by Barry Schwartz.
    document.write(''); Cars Jobs Travel Education ... Weather Movies Movies home Box office report Summer movies DVD releases Music Music home On the Verge Top albums Top singles ... Listen Up TV TV home Nielsen ratings Critic's Corner 'American Idol' Books Books home Top 150 books Summer books Open Book ... Daily haiku contest Columnists Columnists home Robert Bianco Peter Johnson Whitney Matheson ... Craig Wilson More Life People Crosswords Media Mix Pop Candy ... Talk Today Posted 1/16/2004 12:56 PM Click Here Today's Top Life Stories O.J. Simpson says media convicted him Stones bassist gets guitar back Lohan's dad arrested on assault charge Ben Affleck hospitalized for bronchitis ... What's this?
    Buy and sell tickets to premium and sold out events Search a region for events between two dates: Keywords Location Select a region Atlanta Baltimore/Washington D.C.

    113. Chronos Shrugged: The World Of Time Travel
    Introduction, myth, psychology, abstracts, ethics, experts, science, analysis, paradox, fun stuff, bibliography and links.

    114. The St. Petersburg Paradox
    By Robert M. Martin, Dalhousie University.
    version history

    Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
    A B C D ... Z
    This document uses XHTML-1/Unicode to format the display. Older browsers and/or operating systems may not display the formatting correctly. last substantive content change
    The St. Petersburg Paradox
    The St. Petersburg game is played by flipping a fair coin until it comes up tails, and the total number of flips, n, determines the prize, which equals $2 n . Thus if the coin comes up tails the first time, the prize is $2 = $2, and the game ends. If the coin comes up heads the first time, it is flipped again. If it comes up tails the second time, the prize is $2 n n P(n) Prize Expected payoff
    1. Decreasing Marginal Utility
    Bernoulli responded to this problem with the observation that the calculations err by adding expected payoffs in dollars, whereas what should be added are the expected utilities of each consequence. He proposed the widely-accepted principle that (roughly speaking) money has a decreasing marginal utility, and suggested that a realistic measure of the utility of money might be given by the logarithm of the money amount. Here are the first few lines in the table for this gamble if utiles = log($): n P(n) Prize Utiles Expected Utility The sum of expected utilities is not infinite: it reaches a limit of about 0.60206 utiles (worth $4.00). The rational gambler, then, would pay any sum less than $4.00 to play.

    115. The Twin Paradox
    The twin paradox. This site uses animations to explain the twin paradox of special relativity. Background. Notes on the pole in the barn paradox.
    The twin paradox
    This site uses animations to explain the twin paradox of special relativity. Background . Einstein's theory of Special Relativity makes several predictions, some of which seem counter intuitive. These predictions relate to different inertial frames of reference with a constant relative velocity v . The effects are only noticeable when v is a substantial fraction of c, the speed of light. Time dilation refers to the observation that measurements of elapsed time between events occuring at the same position as measured in one frame (the 'proper time' between those events) are less than those made by an observer in another frame moving at v with respect to the first. In other words, moving clocks seem to run slow. Length contraction refers to the observation that measurements of length of an object made within a frame in which the object is stationary (the object's 'proper length') are larger than those made by an observer in another frame moving at v with respect to the first. In other words, moving objects appear to contract in the length of their relative motion. Special Relativity is thus counter-intuitive, at least to people unaccustomed to measuring objects moving at speeds approaching c. Because of this, very many people have attempted to prove that it is wrong.
      Why is time dilated?

    116. Red House Bed And Breakfast
    A charming Adirondack farmhouse on the banks of paradox Brook located on 400 acres of private land on the west end of paradox Lake. Includes photos, map, and directions. House Bed and Breakfast.htm

    117. The Birthday Paradox
    LOGO, The Birthday paradox. Philip J. Erdelsky. July 4, 2001. Please small. For this reason, the problem is often called the Birthday paradox.
    The Birthday Paradox
    Philip J. Erdelsky
    July 4, 2001
    Please e-mail comments, corrections and additions to the webmaster at A favorite problem in elementary probability and statistics courses is the Birthday Problem: What is the probability that at least two of N randomly selected people have the same birthday? (Same month and day, but not necessarily the same year.) A second part of the problem: How large must N be so that the probability is greater than 50 percent? The answer is 23, which strikes most people as unreasonably small. For this reason, the problem is often called the Birthday Paradox. Some sharpies recommend betting, at even money, that there are duplicate birthdays among any group of 23 or more people. Presumably, there are some ill-informed suckers who will accept the bet. The problem is usually simplified by assuming two things:
  • Nobody was born on February 29.
  • People's birthdays are equally distributed over the other 365 days of the year. One of the first things to notice about this problem is that it is much easier to solve the complementary problem: What is the probability that N randomly selected people have all different birthdays? We can write this as a recursive function: Obviously, for N = 1 the probability is 1. For N>1, the probability is the product of two probabilities:
  • 118. Vagueness And The Sorites Paradox - An Evolving Resource
    A resource for philosophers and other researchers, including a bibliography on vagueness, plus lists of online articles, homepages of people working in the area and related external resources.
    Home Articles Bibliography Philosophers ... Feedback
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    It is clear that every sentence in our language ’is in order as it is’. That is to say, we are not striving after an ideal, as if our ordinary vague sentences had not yet got a quite unexceptionable sense, and a perfect language awaited construction by us. - On the other hand it seems clear that where there is sense there must be perfect order. So there must be perfect order even in the vaguest sentence. For remember that in general we don't use language according to strict rules - it hasn't been taught us by means of strict rules, either. We, in our discussions on the other hand, constantly compare language with a calculus proceeding according to exact rules. Ludwig Wittgenstein There is no clear definition - and indeed still no general consensus among philosophers - about what vagueness is or what the word 'vague' means. The phenomenon and the problems it has caused philosophers (sporadically, at least) for so many centuries are best brought out by considering the

    119. AlterNet: The Starbucks Paradox
    The Starbucks paradox. By Kim Fellner, ColorLines April 27, 2004. It was November 1999 in Seattle and the US global justice movement had taken to the streets.

    120. EPR Description
    A somewhat technical review of the EPR paradox and the Aspect experiment which was designed to test it.
    from a deterministic point of view Shown below is a diagram of the Aspect experimental setup. The Hidden Variable Theory says that nature is deterministic and, despite what may be predicted by Quantum Mechanics, particles always have a definite position. What happens to the photons which are produced in this experiment? When a blue photon is produced at the source, if it travels to the left down path A , then it will be blocked by the filter along that path. If, on the other hand, it travels down path B , it will pass through the filter and travel to the polarization analyser PA The polarization of the photons produced by the source are oriented randomly. Using quantum mechanics alone, we cannot make any predictions about this polarization. But, there are aspects of the theory (hidden variables) which ensure that the photon must have a definite value of polarization. So, half the time our blue photon will pass through the filter and the other half of the time it will be deflected by the filter. It is important to note two things at this point. First, the photon is EITHER deflected by the filter OR it passes through the filter; one or the other, never both. Secondly, the direction which the photon takes depends

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