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         General Relativity:     more books (100)
  1. General Relativity, Astrophysics, and Cosmology (Astronomy and Astrophysics Library) by A.K. Raychaudhuri, S. Banerji, et all 2003-11-14
  2. Relativity; The special and the general theory, a popular exposition : Auth. trans. by R.W. Lawson by Albert Einstein, 1961
  3. Introduction To General Relativity by Ronald Adler, 1965
  4. Recent Developments in General Relativity
  5. General Relativity And Gravitation: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference, RDS Convention Centre, Dublin, 18-23 July 2004
  6. Group Theory and General Relativity: Representations of the Lorentz Group and Their Applications to the Gravitational Field by Moshe Carmeli, 2000-12-15
  7. Warped Spacetime, the Einstein Equations, and the Expanding Universe: A Calculus-based Introduction to General Relativity (Undergraduate Texts in Contemporary Physics) by Avi Rabinowitz, 2009-01
  8. Relativity (Great Ideas of Science) by Judith Herbst, 2006-12
  9. Introduction to General Relativity (Pure & Applied Physics) by Ronald Adler, 1975-06
  10. Recent Developments in Gravitational Physics: Proceedings of the 15th SIGRAV Conference on General Relativity and Gravitational Physics (Institute of Physics Conference Series)
  11. Einstein: A Hundred Years of Relativity by Andrew Robinson, 2005-10-01
  12. Principles of Quantum General Relativity by Eduard Prugovecki, 1995-01
  13. Recent Developments in General Relativity by S. Et. Al. Bazanski, 1962
  14. Introduction to General Relativity And the Cosmological Constant Problem by Marcelo Samuel Berman, 2007-04-30

101. Nothingness In The Void
Theory of black holes and general relativity.
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102. Remarks On General Relativity
Remarks on general relativity. Michael Fowler University of Virginia. general relativity and the Global Positioning System. Despite
Remarks on General Relativity
Michael Fowler
University of Virginia
Physics 252 Home Page
Link to Previous Lecture

In Einstein's little book Relativity: the Special and the General Theory , he introduces general relativity with a parable. He imagines going into deep space, far away from gravitational fields, where any body moving at steady speed in a straight line will continue in that state for a very long time. He imagines building a space station out there - in his words, "a spacious chest resembling a room with an observer inside who is equipped with apparatus." Einstein points out that there will be no gravity, the observer will tend to float around inside the room.
But now a rope is attached to a hook in the middle of the lid of this "chest" and an unspecified "being" pulls on the rope with a constant force. The chest and its contents, including the observer, accelerate "upwards" at a constant rate. How does all this look to the man in the room? He finds himself moving towards what is now the "floor" and needs to use his leg muscles to stand. If he releases anything, it accelerates towards the floor, and in fact all bodies accelerate at the same rate. If he were a normal human being, he would assume the room to be in a gravitational field, and might wonder why the room itself didn't fall. Just then he would discover the hook and rope, and conclude that the room was suspended by the rope.
Einstein asks: should we just smile at this misguided soul? His answer is no - the observer in the chest's point of view is just as valid as an outsider's. In other words

103. Faster Than Light Versus MINKOWSKI And ARISTOTLE Space-time
Only static FLRW cosmologies comply with general relativity and with global energy conservation.
Faster Than Light versus Minkowski and Aristotle space-time
Plus vite que la lumière dans l'espace-temps absolu d'ARISTOTE
Cliquez ci-dessus pour une traduction Française de la page web ci-desous
Theoretical physics (preferred links)
Bernard Chaverondier Professeur agrégé de mécanique
Abstract :
If Special Relativity is formulated within the framework of Aristotle space-time and if the relativistic boost invariance of any phenomenon which satisfies this symmetry is interpreted as an intrinsic property of this phenomenon rather than a very property of space-time itself, Special Relativity is compatible with possible causal links between space-like separated events, with a realistic interpretation of the wave function and with an interpretation of Alain Aspect experiment [1], [2] as an action at a distance.
1 Faster Than Light interaction propagation and Minkowski space-time Bells inequalities violation [3], seemed to have been confirmed by Alain aspect experiment. This strongly suggests quantum collapse to be a non local phenomenon. Indeed, when interpreted as an objective phenomenon, the wave function collapse caused by a quantum measurement is an instantaneous action at a distance. Now, instantaneous actions at a distance and faster than light propagation of interactions don’t satisfy all of the symmetries of the Poincaré group, because they conflict with the relativistic boost invariance. Some authors like John G. Cramer have resurrected the time symmetric Feynman-Wheeler absorber theory. So have done too Hoyle and Narlikar but within the context of a Steady State or Quasi Steady State cosmology

104. Interactive Experiments In Gravity
contains documents and interactive Java applets which explore aspects of both Newton s theory of universal gravitation and Einstein s general relativity.
Interactive Experiments in Gravity
This directory contains documents and interactive Java applets which explore aspects of both Newton's theory of universal gravitation and Einstein's general relativity. The first two installments in the series are now available.
Bending Spacetime in the Basement
We live our entire lives within the Earth's gravitational field, yet rarely if ever do we experience the universality of gravitation: that every object in the universe attracts and is attracted by every other. This page presents a "basement science" experiment which reveals the gravitational attraction between objects less than a kilogram in mass. Knowledge in antiquity suggesting gravitation was universal is discussed, and the feasibility of an experimental test using only materials and techniques of the era is explored.
Orbits in Strongly Curved Spacetime
Close-in orbits around compact massive objects such as neutron stars and black holes trace out paths drastically different from the ellipses of Kepler's Laws. Since the velocity of an orbiting object cannot attain or exceed the speed of light, Einstein's general relativity predicts a different energy curve, resulting in precession absent in Newton's theory. This page includes an interactive applet that lets you explore such orbits and explains the theory behind them.
by John Walker

105. Lecture Notes On General Relativity - S. Carroll
The notes as a whole are available as grqc/9712019. Lecture Notes on general relativity. Sean M. Carroll. Enrico Fermi Institute University
The notes as a whole are available as gr-qc/9712019
Lecture Notes on General Relativity
Sean M. Carroll
Enrico Fermi Institute
University of Chicago
, 5460 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 December 1997 Abstract. These notes represent approximately one semester's worth of lectures on introductory general relativity for beginning graduate students in physics. Topics include manifolds, Riemannian geometry, Einstein's equations, and three applications: gravitational radiation, black holes, and cosmology. Individual chapters, and potentially updated versions, can be found at Table of Contents
For a postscript version of the article, click here

106. General Relativity
general relativity. The basic theory which underlies our current concepts of space, time, matter, and energy, is Einstein s General Theory of Relativity (GR).
Next: Reference Frames Up: The Science Enabled by Previous: The Science Enabled by
General Relativity
The fabric of the universe is described by different theories of gravity. The basic theory which underlies our current concepts of space, time, matter, and energy, is Einstein's General Theory of Relativity (GR). Other theories which are extensions or alternatives to GR show deviations from GR at levels which are at or below the accuracies of current measurements. The accuracies of the proposed SIM will allow various measurement to be made which will test GR against these other theories to an extent never before possible. The relativistic parameter would be determined to one to two orders of magnitude higher accuracy than is presently possible. Such an accuracy would make a definitive distinction between GR and some alternative proposals. With the level of accuracy of SIM, the quadrupole moment of the solar interior, generated by a high angular velocity in the interior, might be detectable. Frame dragging from the rotation of the sun and planets would be detectable. The size of the effects of MACHOs passing in front of stars would allow a determination of the mass of the MACHOs, just at the 1 as level, (c.f. Miyamoto and Yoshii, Astron.J.,110, 1427 August 1995).

107. General Relativity Sinks Submarine: Gravity Solves Paradox Raised By Einstein's
general relativity sinks submarine. But special relativity, unlike general relativity, does not include the spacebending effects of gravity.
updated at midnight GMT search nature science update advanced search
General relativity sinks submarine
Gravity solves paradox raised by Einstein's theory.
30 July 2003 PHILIP BALL A sub would sink near the speed of light. A Brazilian physicist has resolved a paradox thrown up by Einstein's theory of relativity According to the theory, objects travelling at close to the speed of light appear to get shorter when viewed by stationary observers. But from the viewpoint of those on the moving object, the observers - who are receding at close to the speed of light - appear shortened instead. Other dimensions remain the same. When these notions are applied to a submarine just below the water's surface, an inconsistency seems to arise. Spectators on an anchored ship would see the submarine shrink as it moves parallel to the surface at near-light speed. The resulting density increase would sink the vessel. The submarine crew would see the opposite: water rushing past them would contract and get denser, making the submarine more buoyant and causing it to rise. Relativity insists that both viewpoints are equally valid - so does the sub sink or swim?

108. Hisaaki Shinkai's General Relativity Links
His general relativity Links. Updated 2004/5/9. I am maintaining a list of general relativity related services available on the Internet.
His General Relativity Links
Updated : 2004/6/1 I am maintaining a list of General Relativity related services available on the Internet. Here you will find a list of resources, including Please note that there is NO LINKS to the so-called introductory , commercial, or popular-oriented sites from this page.
Please also note that all these links were picked up by my personal interests. Frame version is also available. The Hunger Web-Site at the U.N. This is an intersting service. If you click on the obvious button on the web-page, somewhere in the world a hungry person gets a meal to eat at no cost to you. The food is paid for by corporate sponsors. All you do is go to the site and click. But one is only allowed one click per day so you may want to spread the word to others (from AA Oct 4, 99).

109. [gr-qc/0304052] Developments In General Relativity: Black Hole Singularity And B
An outline of the recent achievements in our understanding of the nature of the singularity inside a rotating black hole. This presentation also addresses the questions Can we see inside a black hole? and Can a falling observer cross the singularity without being crushed?
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology, abstract
From: Igor Novikov [ view email ] Date ( ): Mon, 14 Apr 2003 12:24:13 GMT (11kb) Date (revised v2): Tue, 15 Apr 2003 17:35:14 GMT (12kb)
Developments in General Relativity: Black Hole Singularity and Beyond
Authors: Igor D. Novikov
Comments: 13 pages
At the 20-th Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics there was a plenary talk devoted to the recent developments in classical Relativity. In that talk the problems of gravitational collapse, collisions of black holes, and of black holes as celestial bodies were discussed. But probably the problems of the internal structure of black holes are a real great challenge. In my talk I want to outline the recent achievements in our understanding of the nature of the singularity (and beyond!) inside a realistic rotating black hole. This presentation also addresses the following questions: Can we see what happens inside a black hole? Can a falling observer cross the singularity without being crushed? An answer to these questions is probably "yes".
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110. General Relativity Tests
Tests of general relativity. There are three classic tests of general relativity bending of starlight by gravity; precession of the
Tests of General Relativity There are three classic tests of General Relativity:
  • bending of starlight by gravity precession of the perihelion of Mercury gravitational redshift
Eddington first observed the bending of light by a gravitational field in 1919, during a solar eclipse. The telegram reproduced below reports the observations made on a subsequent eclipse in 1922. Recent Hubble Space Telescope pictures illustrate it dramatically. This picture shows lensing of distant objects by a galaxy. The explanation follows. There is another interesting gravitational lens here: galaxy cluster lens These two objects represent a new distant class of quadruple, or cross-shaped, gravitational lenses which might eventually provide astronomers with a powerful new "magnifying glass" for probing a variety of characteristics of the universe. The two gravitational lenses were discovered in about 100 fields of sky imaged by Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The first cross-shaped lens was discovered serendipitously by Eric Ostrander while processing HST images for the Medium Deep Survey, a Hubble key project led by Richard Griffiths. A second fainter and smaller lens was identified a few weeks later by Myungshin Im. Each configuration is in the form of four faint blue images situated symmetrically around a much brighter red elliptical galaxy. The distinctive cross-like pattern around an elliptical galaxy makes them unambiguous quadruple lens candidates, even before spectroscopic observations, which are typically used to confirm lenses.

111. [gr-qc/9804039] Quantum Geometry And Black Holes
Nonperturbative quantum general relativity provides a possible framework to analyze issues related to black hole thermodynamics from a fundamental perspective.
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology, abstract
From: Kirill Krasnov [ view email ] Date ( ): Fri, 17 Apr 1998 18:14:15 GMT (72kb) Date (revised v2): Thu, 4 Feb 1999 06:14:52 GMT (72kb)
Quantum Geometry and Black Holes
Authors: Abhay Ashtekar Kirill Krasnov (Penn State)
Comments: 21 pages, 4 figures, published in `Black Holes, Gravitational Radiation and the Universe', Essays in honor of C.V. Vishveshwara, Ed. B.R. Iyer and B. Bhawal, Kluwer, Netherlands
Report-no: CGPG-98/4-2
Non-perturbative quantum general relativity provides a possible framework to analyze issues related to black hole thermodynamics from a fundamental perspective. A pedagogical account of the recent developments in this area is given. The emphasis is on the conceptual and structural issues rather than technical subtleties. The article is addressed to post-graduate students and beginning researchers.
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. Einstein s theory of general relativity is a cornerstone of modern physics....... Gravity An Introduction to Einstein s general relativity Gravity An Introduction to Einstein s general relativity. Oct 03.

113. General Relativity
A laymen's guide to the theory of general relativity.
Forward Back Up Map ... Information
General Relativity
Einstein's 1916 paper
on General Relativity

In 1916 Einstein expanded his Special Theory to include the effect of gravitation on the shape of space and the flow of time. This theory, referred to as the General Theory of Relativity , proposed that matter causes space to curve.
JPEG Image
Embedding Diagrams
Picture a bowling ball on a stretched rubber sheet.
GIF Image
The large ball will cause a deformation in the sheet's surface. A baseball dropped onto the sheet will roll toward the bowling ball. Einstein theorized that smaller masses travel toward larger masses not because they are "attracted" by a mysterious force, but because the smaller objects travel through space that is warped by the larger object. Physicists illustrate this idea using embedding diagrams Contrary to appearances, an embedding diagram does not depict the three-dimensional "space" of our everyday experience. Rather it shows how a 2D slice through familiar 3D space is curved downwards when embedded in flattened hyperspace. We cannot fully envision this hyperspace; it contains seven dimensions, including one for time! Flattening it to 3D allows us to represent the curvature. Embedding diagrams can help us visualize the implications of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity.
The Flow of Spacetime
Another way of thinking of the curvature of spacetime was elegantly described by Hans von Baeyer. In a prize-winning

114. | General Relativity
general relativity Turn, turn, turn Apr 15th 2004 From The Economist print edition. A new satellite will test Einstein s magnum opus

Before beginning this brief article, dealing with the essential features of general relativity, we have to postulate one thing Special Relativity is supposed
This is the English translation of a Web Page originally written in French , by Nymbus , who also provided the translation. I have posted it here at my own Website, with some minor personal additional comments. The content has been left untouched. Any comments or questions should be addressed to . At times, this Web Page alludes to concepts from Einstein’s Special Relativity Theory. Minor editing, the Space-Time Compression description, and the Conclusions were provided by Ken Wright. Reference: NOTE: The above reference link appears to be no longer active.
Before beginning this brief article, dealing with the essential features of General Relativity, we have to postulate one thing: Special Relativity is supposed to be true. Hence, General Relativity lies on Special Relativity. If the latter were proved to be false, the whole edifice would collapse. In order to understand General Relativity, we have to define how mass is defined in classical mechanics.
The Two Different Manifestations of Mass: First, let’s consider what represents mass in everyday life: “It’s weight.” In fact, we think of mass as something we can weigh, as that’s how we measure it: We put the object whose mass is to be measured on a balance. What’s the property of mass we use by doing this? The fact that the object and Earth attract each other. To be convinced of it, just go in your garage and try to raise your car! This kind of mass is called “gravitational mass.” We call it “gravitational” because it determines the motion of every planet or of every star in the universe: Earth’s and Sun’s gravitational mass compels Earth to have a nearly circular motion around the latter.

116. Relativity Group
detection, the formation, evolution and nature of largescale structure in the Universe, alternative forumlations of general relativity, gravitational wave
Relativity Group
Department of Physics and Astronomy
5, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3YB, 029-20874458, Fax: 4056 About Our Group People Research Pubications ... Meetings
Our Involvement in
For prospective
Undergrads Postgrads PostDocs Tutorial Vacancies





LISA ... posters Organisation Organogram Milestones Analysis Plan GEO Committees Sensitivities Expected pdf ps AdvLIGO txt ... eps Working IFOs GEO LIGO Hardware Explorer Weber Tape Archive Software Chirp Injection ps pdf Triana ... LAL T he Relativity group is one of the largest research groups in the Department. The group has been in existence for over three decades and is still strongly supported. Our research interests include the origin and nature of both the micro-wave and gravitational wave backgrounds in the early universe and their detection, the formation, evolution and nature of large-scale structure in the Universe, alternative forumlations of general relativity, gravitational wave data analysis, analytical and numerical studies of isolated and binary black holes, gravitational radiation reaction, etc. The group has strong links and collaborative research with other relativity groups world over and a member of many international gravitational wave projects including the British-German GEO600 , the American LIGO science collaboration and the Euro-American laser interferometer space antenna (LISA) project. Black Holes and Gravitational Waves B Resources PhysNews Archives SPIRES PhysRevD ... Dictionary Institutions AEI B'ham Hannover IGR ... Soton Projects

117. Weyl
One of the first people to combine general relativity with the laws of electromagnetism
Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl
Born: 9 Nov 1885 in Elmshorn (near Hamburg), Germany
Click the picture above
to see eight larger pictures Show birthplace location Previous (Chronologically) Next Biographies Index Previous (Alphabetically) Next Main index
Hermann Weyl Hilbert . After submitting a doctoral dissertation He attempted to incorporate electromagnetism into the geometric formalism of general relativity. Weyl published (1913) which united analysis, geometry and topology . He produced the first guage theory in which the Maxwell electromagnetic field and the gravitational field appear as geometrical properties of space-time. From 1923-38 he evolved the concept of continuous groups using matrix representations . With his application of group theory to quantum mechanics he set up the modern subject. He also made contributions on the uniform distribution of numbers modulo 1 which are fundamental in analytic number theory More recently attempts to incorporate electromagnetism into general relativity have been made by John Wheeler, Kaluza and others. These theories, like Weyl's, lack the connection with quantum phenomena that is so important for interactions other than gravitation.

118. Special And General Relativity Theory (Albert Einstein)
general relativity published in 1916. Eleven years original theory. A preeminent feature of general relativity is its view of gravitation.
The notion of relativity is not as revolutionary as many believe. In fact, spatial relativity is part of our everyday experience. Spatial relativity, also called Galilean relativity in honor of Galileo who first formulated the concept of relative motion, is often confused with Einstein's theories. Galileo simply described the fact that an observer in motion sees things differently from a stationary observer, because he has a different spatial coordinate system, or "reference frame" in relativity speak. It may sound more complicated than it actually is. Consider the following example: Galilean relativity: the train example (courtesy of Stephen Hawking). Two people riding on a train from New York to San Francisco play a game of ping-pong in the sport compartment of the train. Lets say, the train moves at 100 km per hour (= 27.8 m/s) and the two players hit the ball at a speed of two meters per second. In the reference frame of the players, the ball moves back and forth at this particular speed. For a stationary observer standing beside the railroad, however, things look quite different. In his reference frame the ball moves at 29.8 m/s when it is played forward in the direction where the train is heading, while it moves at 25.8 m/s in the same direction when it is played backwards. Thus he doesn't see the ball moving backward at all, but always moving towards San Francisco. For an observer in outer space, things look again totally different because of the Earth's rotation, which is opposite to the train's movement; therefore the outer space observer always sees the ball moving East.

119. Riemann
Although he died before the development of general relativity, his work in nonEuclidean geometries is very important to studying a curved spacetime.
Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann
Born: 17 Sept 1826 in Breselenz, Hanover (now Germany)
Died: 20 July 1866 in Selasca, Italy
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to see three larger pictures Show birthplace location Previous (Chronologically) Next Biographies Index Previous (Alphabetically) Next Main index
Bernhard Riemann 's father, Friedrich Bernhard Riemann, was a Lutheran minister. Friedrich Riemann married Charlotte Ebell when he was in his middle age. Bernhard was the second of their six children, two boys and four girls. Friedrich Riemann acted as teacher to his children and he taught Bernhard until he was ten years old. At this time a teacher from a local school named Schulz assisted in Bernhard's education. In 1840 Bernhard entered directly into the third class at the Lyceum in Hannover. While at the Lyceum he lived with his grandmother but, in 1842, his grandmother died and Bernhard moved to the Johanneum Gymnasium Legendre 's book on the theory of numbers and Bernhard read the 900 page book in six days. Gauss Gauss did lecture to Riemann but he was only giving elementary courses and there is no evidence that at this time he recognised Riemann's genius. Stern, however, certainly did realise that he had a remarkable student and later described Riemann at this time saying that he:-

120. 10th Conference On General Relativity And Relativistic Astrophysics
10th Conference on general relativity and Relativistic Astrophysics. University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario. May 2831, 2003.
10th Conference on General Relativity and Relativistic Astrophysics
University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario
May 28-31, 2003
Eric Poisson Department of Physics
University of Guelph
Registration ...
Local information
The 10th Canadian Conference on General Relativity and Relativistic Astrophysics will take place at the University of Guelph, Ontario, in the spring of 2003. As with all other conferences in this series, the purpose of this meeting is to bring together the members of the Canadian and international relativity community for scientific exchange. The meeting is intended to be broad, and will cover many relevant areas including mathematical and observational cosmology, algebraic computing, relativistic astrophysics, numerical relativity, and approaches to quantum gravity (including string theory). The conference will take place on the campus of the University of Guelph. Guelph is a small city in Southern Ontario, conveniently located within 45 minutes' travel time from Toronto's Pearson Airport. Registration and a reception will take place in the early evening of Wednesday May 28, 2003

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