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         General Relativity:     more books (100)
  1. Cosmological Relativity: The Special and General Theories of the Structure of the Universe by Moshe Carmeli, 2006-10-09
  2. Einstein's Jury: The Race to Test Relativity by Jeffrey Crelinsten, 2006-05-30
  3. Partial Differential Equations in General Relativity (Oxford Graduate Texts in Mathematics) by Alan Rendall, 2008-07-23
  4. Selections from The Principle of Relativity (On the Shoulders of Giants) by Albert Einstein, 2004-12-31
  5. General Relativity: An Introduction to the Theory of Gravitational Field
  6. Relativity: An introduction to space-time physics by Steve Adams, 1997-09-29
  7. Space and Time in Special Relativity by N. David Mermin, 1989-01
  8. Compact Stars: Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics and General Relativity (Astronomy and Astrophysics Library) by Norman K. Glendenning, 2000-06-16
  9. Relativity: The Special and the General Theory by Albert Einstein, 2005
  10. Introducing Relativity, New Edition (Introducing... S.) by Bruce Bassett, 2006-10-25
  11. Introduction to General Relativity by Gerard 't Hooft, Wei Chen, 2001-01
  12. General Relativity and the Einstein Equations (Oxford Mathematical Monographs) by Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat, 2008-08-15
  13. Essential Relativity: Special, General, and Cosmological (Texts and Monographs in Physics) by Wolfgang Rindler, 1980-11
  14. Quantum Mechanics from General Relativity: An Approximation for a Theory of Inertia (Fundamental Theories of Physics) by M. Sachs, 1986-09-30

61. Henk Van Elst -- Selected References In Relativistic Cosmology And General Relat
Online list of classic research papers in relativistic cosmology and general relativity, with links to when available.
Classic (or otherwise useful) papers in
Relativistic Cosmology and General Relativity
[A very subjective selection]
  • Spatially Homogeneous and Isotropic Cosmological Models (FLRW Models)
  • Spatially Homogeneous Cosmological Models (Bianchi Models)
  • (Linearised) Spatially Inhomogeneous Perturbations of FLRW Models
  • Spatially Inhomogeneous Cosmological Models ...
  • Entertainment GRG
    Last revision: Mon, 24-5-2004
  • 62. General Relativity Group Homepage
    The general relativity Group consists of four members of the Applied Mathematics Group, together with a number of postdoctoral research assistants and Ph.D
    Applied Homepage
    GR Homepage



    The General Relativity Group consists of four members of the Applied Mathematics Group , together with a number of postdoctoral research assistants and Ph.D students. At Southampton the major thrust of investigation is the classical theory and its application to astrophysics. The major emphasis of the group is in the increasingly important area of numerical relativity. Other topics studied include singularities and black holes, causality violation, asymptotic structure, cosmic strings, cosmology, pulsating black holes and neutron stars, instabilities in rotating stars, gravitational wave sources and the classification of metrics using algebraic computing. The general relativity group hosted the first British Gravity Meeting in March, 2001. For an overview of general relativity please visit our new GR Explorer site.

    63. Southampton GR Explorer Home Page
    An introduction to Einstein's theory of general relativity and related topics. These pages include informative text, pictures and movies.
    Welcome to the Southampton GR Explorer. On these pages you will find an overview of Einstein's theory of General Relativity and related topics. We focus on subjects that are close to the research interests of the Southampton group. A more technical description of our various ongoing research projects can be found here This site is best viewed with frames, which are not supported by your browser. You can either:
    or Internet Explorer alternatively
    Turn the frames off

    64. Lecture 24: General Relativity
    Lecture 24 general relativity. Lecture Topics. The Principal of Equivalence; Consequences of general relativity slowing of clocks;
    Lecture 24: General Relativity Astronomy 101/103 Terry Herter, Cornell University Course Home Page Index to Lectures
  • The Principal of Equivalence
  • Consequences of General Relativity
      slowing of clocks
    • curvature of space-time
  • Tests of GR
  • Escape Velocity
    • A Theory of Gravity
      • Albert Einstein
      Incorporates accelerated motions into Special Relativity

    Principle of
    Principle of Equivalence
    • Gravity and acceleration due to a force are indistinguishable.
      • In a small local environment (Must be a small enough "box")
    • This is the foundation of General Relativity.
  • 65. The 5D Space-Time-Matter Consortium
    We are a group of physicists and astronomers working on a 5dimensional version of general relativity.
    This page is maintained by Tomas Liko Last modified: July 11, 2003

    66. [physics/9908041] Gravitational Waves: An Introduction
    This paper presents an elementary introduction to the theory of gravitational waves. This article is meant for students who have had an exposure to general relativity, but results from general relativity have been derived in the appendices.
    Physics, abstract
    From: Indrajit Chakrabarty [ view email ] Date: Sat, 21 Aug 1999 12:54:07 GMT (19kb)
    Gravitational Waves: An Introduction
    Authors: Indrajit Chakrabarty
    Comments: Lecture notes presenting an elementary introduction to the theory of gravitational waves. To be submitted to Resonance, Journal of Science Education with a lesser mathematical content. For later revisions, see this http URL
    Subj-class: Physics Education; Popular Physics
    In this article, I present an elementary introduction to the theory of gravitational waves. This article is meant for students who have had an exposure to general relativity, but, results from general relativity used in the main discussion have been derived and discussed in the appendices. The weak gravitational field approximation is first considered and the linearized Einstein's equations are obtained. We discuss the plane wave solutions to these equations and consider the transverse-traceless (TT) gauge. We then discuss the motion of test particles in the presence of a gravitational wave and their polarization. The method of Green's functions is applied to obtain the solutions to the linearized field equations in presence of a nonrelativistic, isolated source.
    Full-text: PostScript PDF , or Other formats
    References and citations for this submission:
    (autonomous citation navigation and analysis) Which authors of this paper are endorsers?

    67. General Relativity
    Astronomy. 1.11 general relativity. Special gravity. The cornerstone of general relativity is something known as the principle of equivalence.
    Special relativity dealt with observers and systems that were in uniform constant motion to one another. Einstein wanted to extend this work to the general case, when a system is changing its velocity as well. This is the case when something is accelerating. By extending relativity to accelerating frames of reference, Einstein also formulated a new, and so far, the best theory of gravity. The cornerstone of general relativity is something known as the principle of equivalence . It states that the conditions present in a gravity well can be exactly reproduced by an accelerating frame of reference. Also, a frame of reference with a force acting upon it, say a force of gravity, can be counteracted by a correctly chosen and applied acceleration. Thus forces and accelerations are equivalent. So, if we can understand an accelerating space , up and down, left and right and in and out can be linked with our one dimension of time, forwards. These can be thought of as a four dimensional spacetime continuum . Anything which moves through the universe travels along straight lines within this continuum. The lines are called geodesics and although they are straight, the continuum they move through, is often curved. This curvature occurs when massive objects such as stars, planets and, on much larger scales, galaxies distort the spacetime continuum into

    68. The Cosmological Constant
    An overview of why Einstein added an extra term in general relativity, and why it is still examined.
    The Cosmological Constant
    Sean M. Carroll University of Chicago This is a short article I wrote for the Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Institute of Physics). See also The Preposterous Universe , or related reviews, lectures, and talks Here is the postscript version , and the pdf version
    Cosmological Constant
    The cosmological constant, conventionally denoted by the Greek letter , is a parameter describing the energy density of the vacuum (empty space), and a potentially important contributor to the dynamical history of the universe. Unlike ordinary matter, which can clump together or disperse as it evolves, the energy density in a cosmological constant is a property of spacetime itself, and under ordinary circumstances is the same everywhere. A sufficiently large cosmological constant will cause galaxies to appear to accelerate away from us, in contrast to the tendency of ordinary forms of energy to slow down the recession of distant objects. The value of in our present universe is not known, and may be zero, although there is some evidence for a nonzero value; a precise determination of this number will be one of the primary goals of observational cosmology in the near future.
    The Cosmological Constant and Vacuum Energy
    We live in an expanding universe: distant galaxies are moving away from us, such that the more distant ones are receding faster. Cosmologists describe this expansion by defining a

    69. PhysicsWeb - General Relativity Passes Cassini Test
    general relativity passes Cassini test 24 September 2003. In general relativity the fabric of spacetime is curved by large masses.

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    Previous News for September 2003 Next General relativity passes Cassini test
    24 September 2003 Italian astrophysicists have confirmed the predictions of Einstein's general theory of relativity with a precision that is about 50 times better than previous measurements. Bruno Bertotti of the University of Pavia and colleagues in Rome and Bologna measured how radio waves sent from the Earth to the Cassini satellite and back again were deflected by the Sun (B Bertotti et al. Nature 374). Their results, which are accurate to 20 parts in a million, agree with the predictions of general relativity.
    In general relativity the fabric of space-time is curved by large masses. This curvature is responsible for the force of gravity, and also deflects and delays any photons passing near a large mass, such as the Sun. Previous experiments have measured these effects with an accuracy of 0.1% and found them to be in agreement with the predictions of the theory. Bertotti and colleagues used a new technique to test general relativity to much higher precision. The Italian team took advantage of a chance alignment of the Earth, the Sun and Cassini - which is on its way to Saturn - that occurred in June last year. The experiment relied on Cassini's 4-metre antenna and a new ground station at the NASA Deep Space Network in Goldstone, California. Bertotti and co-workers measured a parameter called gamma that is predicted to have a value of one in general relativity.

    70. PhysicsWeb - Slingshot Test For General Relativity
    Slingshot test for general relativity 4 April 2001. Physicists are hoping to make a new test of Einstein s General Theory of Relativity

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    quick search Search the news archive.
    Previous News for April 2001 Next Slingshot test for general relativity
    4 April 2001 Physicists are hoping to make a new test of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity by measuring the effect of the Sun's gravity on a passing spacecraft. James Longuski of Purdue University and colleagues have devised a new formula to calculate the distortion of space from the deflection of a spacecraft's path as it skims the Sun (J M Longuski et al Phys. Rev. Lett. 2942). The researchers are optimistic that imminent refinements in measurement technology will allow them to carry out the most sensitive test of the theory yet. In 1915, Einstein proposed that gravity actually distorts the fabric of space. His calculations perfectly explained certain astronomical observations that Newtonian physics could not account for - such as the apparently exaggerated precession of Mercury's orbit. "General relativity is at the heart of everything in cosmology", says team member Ephraim Fischbach, "so it's very important we continue to test it to make sure its predictions are correct". The Small Interstellar Probe mission currently under consideration by NASA needs to perform a close fly-by of the Sun to gather enough momentum to propel itself outside the solar system. This 'slingshot' manoeuvre will take the craft to within 4 solar radii of the Sun. The probe's chief goal is to establish the composition of interstellar space, but Longuski and colleagues hope it will be able to include their experiment. "We can't get as precise a measurement by merely observing the planets in their orbits", Longuski told PhysicsWeb, "but we can control this experiment by selecting a trajectory for the spacecraft".

    71. Analog Models Of General Relativity
    Website for the Workshop on Analog Models for general relativity, contains links to articles related to the talks, transparencies from the talks, information
    Analog models of General Relativity
    This is the USA mirror of the homepage for the workshop on "Analog models of General Relativity". The primary website is maintained in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Homepage in Portuguese
    Workshop location and funding
    Talks ...
    Brazilian website
    Aim of the workshop:
    This workshop dealt with various "analog models" for GR. These analog models include acoustics in flowing fluids, quasi-particles in superfluids, flowing Bose-Einstein condensates, slow light in flowing fluids, nonlinear electrodynamics, the Scharnhorst effect, and more. The common theme in all these analog models is the presence of an effective Lorentzian metric that governs perturbative fluctuations and/or quasi-particles. This effective metric forces the fluctuations to exhibit many of the kinematic features of general relativity, though dynamic features [those specifically based on the Einstein-Hilbert action] typically do not carry over. It seems plausible that we might be able to construct analog horizons in the laboratory in the not too distant future. Such analog horizons are expected to exhibit Hawking radiation, but possibly without any analog of Bekenstein entropy. Analog models of GR are useful probes of Hawking radiation: Because the short-distance physics is explicitly known (atomic physics), the cutoff is physically understood-this helps clarify the role of trans-Planckian frequencies in GR, which in these condensed-matter GR analogs are replaced by "trans-Bohrian" physics.

    72. Lecture Notes On General Relativity
    This homepage contains lecture notes on the course of general relativity FX2/H97 read in the fall semester 1997 at the Physics Institute of NTNU, Trondheim
    General Relativity
    This homepage contains lecture notes on the course of general relativity FX2/H97 read in the fall semester 1997 at the Physics Institute of NTNU, Trondheim. Some parts were added later. It is still under construction (see the dates of last revision of each chapter). Some viewers do not allow to see the PS-files on the screen. However, you can download it (using the 'save'-command) and print it on a PostScript printer.

    Special relativity

    Basic concepts of general relativity

    Spherically symmetric spacetimes

    A supplementary text on lower level can be found in lecture notes on cosmology which was read in the fall semester 1999 as a part of another course. To get more information contact, please, the author.
    Readers may find interesting also other web-pages on general relativity referred at Hillman's list and Syracuse University list
    Petr Hadrava, Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 251 65 Ondrejov, Czech Republic tlf.: +420 204 620 141

    73. Differential Gometry And General Relativity
    A course from the Department of Mathematics at Hofstra University on differential geometry and general relativity.
    Introduction to Differential Geometry and General Relativity
    Lecture Notes by Stefan Waner,
    Department of Mathematics, Hofstra University
    These notes are dedicated to the memory of Hanno Rund.
    TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Preliminaries: Distance, Open Sets, Parametric Surfaces and Smooth Functions 2. Smooth Manifolds and Scalar Fields 3. Tangent Vectors and the Tangent Space 4. Contravariant and Covariant Vector Fields ... Download the latest version of the differential geometry/relativity notes in PDF format References and Suggested Further Reading
    (Listed in the rough order reflecting the degree to which they were used) Bernard F. Schutz, A First Course in General Relativity (Cambridge University Press, 1986)
    David Lovelock and Hanno Rund, Tensors, Differential Forms, and Variational Principles (Dover, 1989)
    Charles E. Weatherburn, An Introduction to Riemannian Geometry and the Tensor Calculus (Cambridge University Press, 1963)
    Charles W. Misner, Kip S. Thorne and John A. Wheeler, Gravitation (W.H. Freeman, 1973)
    Keith R. Symon

    74. SIGRAV
    The Italian Society of general relativity and Gravitation Via Carlo Alberto 10, 10100 TURIN, ITALY. The SIGRAV Executive Board. The
    Write to our Secretary Scientific Internet sites:
    McCallum Archive

    NCSA Relativity

    Center Grav. Phys.


    The Italian Society of General Relativity and Gravitation Via Carlo Alberto 10 , 10100 TURIN, ITALY The SIGRAV Executive Board The SIGRAV was founded in 1990 to contribute to the development of the researches on General Relativity and Gravitational Physics, including their mathematical, theoretical, experimental topics and their applications. T he SIGRAV Conferences. The SIGRAV Graduate Schools in contemporary Relativity and Gravitational Physics. The VIRGO-SIGRAV School on Gravitational Waves. ... SIGRAV Activities and info. What's NEW? International call for papers! here details. SIGRAV 2004 Conference in Vietri sul Mare. The poster SIGRAV 2003 Schools ... 2002 SIGRAV Prizes !

    75. General Relativity & Black Holes
    Gene Smith s Astronomy Tutorial general relativity Black Holes, All of this amounts to pretty spectacular confirmation of general relativity Theory.
    University of California, San Diego
    Gene Smith's Astronomy Tutorial
    Einstein's General Theory of Relativity The General Theory of Relativity is an expansion of the Special Theory to include gravity as a property of space. Start with this Gravity Tutorial The Equivalence Principle The Theory of Special Relativity has as its basic premise that light moves at a uniform speed, c = 300,000 km/s , in all frames of reference. This results in setting the speed of light as the absolute speed limit in the Universe and also produced the famous relationship between mass and energy, E = mc . The foundation of Einstein's General Theory is the Equivalence Principle which states the equivalence between inertial mass and gravitational mass Inertial Mass is the quantity that determines how difficult it is to alter the motion of an object. It is the mass in Newton's Second Law: F = ma Gravitational mass is the mass which determines how strongly two objects attract each other by gravity, e.g. the attraction of the earth: It is the apparent equivalence of these two types of mass which results in the uniformity of gravitational acceleration Galileo's result that all objects fall at the same rate independent of mass: Galileo and Newton accepted this as a happy coincidence, but Einstein turned it into a fundamental principle. Another way of stating the equivalence principle is that gravitational acceleration is indistinguishable from other forms of acceleration. According to this view a student in a closed room could not tell the difference between experiencing the gravitational pull of the earth at the earth's surface and being in a rocketship in space accelerating with a = 9.8 m/s

    76. General Relativity Papers
    general relativity/Atomic Theory Papers. general relativity Papers This page provides links to papers on how to simulate relativistic
    General Relativity/Atomic Theory Papers
    General Relativity Papers This page provides links to papers on how to simulate relativistic orbits, in the domains of both the very big and the very small. The first general relativity paper, entitled "A Numerical Solution of the Relativistic Kepler Problem," describes the algorithms necessary to implement Schwarzschild-type orbits. The second general relativity paper presents the results for the more complicated Kerr orbits. The Schwarzschild paper can be accessed by clicking on this link . Each GIF file contains a page from the actual journal and collectively are an attempt at seeing how such a presentation works on the web. This link will take you to the second general relativity article made available by Computers in Physics , published by the American Insitute of Physics , on a numerical application of the General Theory of Relativity, entititled "Simulating Relativistic Orbits about a Black Hole." The paper describes how to numerically simulate Kerr orbits. There, you can download (also see the link immediately below) the text and figures of the journal article in Postscript, in Adobe Acrobat's PDF format, or in a TeX ASCII text file. For those of you who want to directly access the Kerr article as GIF files, click on this link To download a PC executable of an orbit program that numerically generates Kerr (or Schwarzschild) orbits, please click on

    77. A Short Course On General Relativity
    A graduate level course which includes weak field theory, gravitational waves, radiation damping, cosmology, the Friedmann and Lemaitre dusts, singularities, black holes, the Schwarzschild metric and Kruskal's extension of it. This is a single postscript document.

    78. ThinkQuest : Library : Einstein: Man In Spacetime
    His Works, general relativity. Einstein s original form of general relativity has been verified many times since it s conception.
    Index Physical Science
    Einstein: Man in Spacetime
    Who was Albert Einstein, and why was he so great? If you don't know the answers, check out this terrific web site. An extensive time line covers his life, works, and his legacy. Read about his contributions to the study of physics, and then find out how he compares to another great genius, Newton. This is a nicely designed, well-thought-out web site that could be used in most high school physics and science classes. Visit Site 1998 ThinkQuest Internet Challenge Languages English Students Robert Conway High School, Conway, AR, United States Jenny Conway High School, Conway, AR, United States Coaches Ming-fang Conway High School Media Center, Conway, AR, United States Want to build a ThinkQuest site? The ThinkQuest site above is one of thousands of educational web sites built by students from around the world. Click here to learn how you can build a ThinkQuest site. Privacy Policy

    79. General Relativity And Cosmology For Undergraduates
    An online draft copy of an undergraduate text book by John Norbury (PDF). Relativity and Cosmology for undergraduate

    80. The Confrontation Between General Relativity And Experiment

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