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         Relativity:     more books (100)
  1. Relativity: Special, General, and Cosmological by Wolfgang Rindler, 2006-06-01
  2. Gravity from the Ground Up: An Introductory Guide to Gravity and General Relativity by Bernard Schutz, 2003-11-30
  3. ABC of Relativity (Bertrand Russell Paperbacks) by Bertrand Russell, 2001-09-01
  4. Ontological Relativity by Willard Quine, 1977-04-15
  5. A Theory of Relativity by Jacquelyn Mitchard, 2002-04
  6. Advanced General Relativity (Cambridge Monographs on Mathematical Physics) by John Stewart, 1993-11-26
  7. Relativity in Rotating Frames: Relativistic Physics in Rotating Reference Frames (Fundamental Theories of Physics)
  8. Mathematica for Theoretical Physics: Electrodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity, and Fractals by Gerd Baumann, 2005-08-16
  9. Einstein's 1912 Manuscript on the Special Theory of Relativity by Hanoch Gutfreund, 2004-05-17
  10. Introduction to Special Relativity by Robert Resnick, 1968-01-01
  11. Special Relativity (Springer Undergraduate Mathematics Series) by N.M.J. Woodhouse, 2007-04-02
  12. Einsteins Relativity and the Quantum Revolution: Modern Physics for Non-Scientists, 2nd Edition (Teaching Company) (4 DVD Set, Course # 153)
  13. Einstein Theory of Relativity: A Trip to the Fourth Dimension by Lillian Rosanoff Lieber, 2008-07
  14. Einstein's General Theory of Relativity: With Modern Applications in Cosmology by Oyvind Gron, Sigbjorn Hervik, 2007-05-04

61. NOVA Online/Einstein Revealed/Relativity (Lightman Essay)
The author describes relativity.
The possibility that stars could collapse to form black holes was first theoretically "discovered" in l939 by J. Robert Oppenheimer and H. Snyder, who were manipulating the equations of Einstein's General Relativity. The first black hole believed to be discovered in the physical world, as opposed to the mathematical world of pencil and paper, was Cygnus X-1, about 7000 light years from earth. (A light year, the distance light travels in a year, is about six trillion miles.) Cygnus X-1 was found in 1970. Since then, a dozen excellent black hole candidates have been identified. Many astronomers and astrophysicists believe that massive black holes, with sizes up to ten million times that of our sun, inhabit the centers of energetic galaxies and quasars and are responsible for their enormous energy release. Ironically, Einstein himself did not believe in the existence of black holes, even though they were predicted by his theory.
Beginning in 1917, Einstein and others applied General Relativity to the structure and evolution of the universe as a whole. The leading cosmological theory, called the big bang theory, was formulated in 1922 by the Russian mathematician and meteorologist Alexander Friedmann. Friedmann began with Einstein's equations of General Relativity and found a solution to those equations in which the universe began in a state of extremely high density and temperature (the so- called big bang) and then expanded in time, thinning out and cooling as it did so. One of the most stunning successes of the big bang theory is the prediction that the universe is approximately ten billion years old, a result obtained from the rate at which distant galaxies are flying away from each other. This prediction accords with the age of the universe as obtained from very local methods, such as the dating of radioactive rocks on the earth.

62. Kluwer Academic Publishers - General Relativity And Gravitation
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63. Pittsburgh Relativity Group
Welcome to the Pittsburgh relativity Group Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Pittsburgh. relativity at Pitt People, Preprints and Ph. D. Thesis
Welcome to the Pittsburgh Relativity Group
Department of Physics and Astronomy

University of Pittsburgh
A member of the Binary Black Hole Grand Challenge Alliance
The GRACE Workshop at the Albert Einstein Institute
The 4 th Eastern Gravity Meeting at Duquesne University
Public Relations Links

Pittsburgh Post-Gazette Science Article
Ripples in Space and Time (PSC article)
Pitt Magazine
Luis Lehner receives the APS Nicholas Metropolis Award
New York Times Science article on the inauguration of LIGO's Louisiana site Working documents and Animations Documentation for the Cauchy-Characteristic Matching Module Experiments with boundary conditions in the ADM code Relativity at Pitt People Preprints and Ph. D. Thesis Relativity Around the World Living Reviews and a USA Mirror Site The LIGO project, Matters of Gravity arXiv Preprint Archives MacCallum's Address List, News Archives and Conference List John Baez's This Week's Finds in Mathematical Physics General Science Information What's New Science News Projects in Scientific Computing at the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center The New York Times Science Articles Scientific Journals Publishers American Physical Society(APS) American Institute of Physics(AIP) Institute of Physics (IOP) General Relativity and Gravitation (GRG) Kluwer Homepage Academic Press Progress of Theoretical Physics Journal Citation Reports Assorted Information Comments or questions? E-mail to

64. Alternative Physics
Commonsense alternative explanations of so called relativity effects and many other phenomena. MS Word format.
This page is in the phase of reconstruction. Until I fix it, you can: DOWNLOAD WORD DOCUMENT
Alternative physics based on particles' internal energy model

Sorry for the inconvenience. Hopefully, the page will be up soon. Miodrag (on May the 30th, 2000.)

65. Unit 56
UNIT 56. THE SPECIAL THEORY OF relativity. Written for students in the USC SelfPaced Astronomy Courses. ESSAY The Special Theory of relativity. by JL Safko.
Written for students in the USC Self-Paced Astronomy Courses
Learning Objectives and References are in the Study Guide. Sample Questions are on the web at
ESSAY The Special Theory of Relativity
by J. L. Safko
A. Principle of Relativity
Newton's theory of gravity, first studied in Unit 3, is intimately related to his concept of space and time. He considered space and time to be absolute concepts which existed independently of the material universe. Space was a stage in which the planets and stars existed. As time passed, the objects in the material universe evolved against the fixed background of space. Newton also formalized the concept of the inertial frame (or inertial coordinate system). A coordinate system (or coordinate frame) is a grid of rods and clocks at rest with respect to each other that spans a region of space. A simplified drawing of a coordinate system is shown in Fig. 56-1. Using this coordinate system we can describe events. Events are things that can be located at a particular place in space and that occur at a given time. The flashbulb firing on your camera would be an example of an event. The measurement of an event is determining the position and time of an event. We also term this measuring the coordinates of an event. An inertial frame (or an inertial coordinate frame) is a coordinate system in which Newton's first law holds. Newton's first law, as given in Unit 3, is that in the absence of outside forces any body moves with constant velocity. Any coordinate system moving with constant velocity with respect to an inertial system is also an inertial system. These inertial frames were assumed by Newton to be of infinite extent. They covered the entire universe. According to Newton, once you know any inertial frame, you know them all, since each differs from another by a constant velocity.

66. Relativity
relativity The theory of special relativity (or special relativity for short) was established in 1905 by the famous physicist Albert Einstein at the age of 26.
The theory of special relativity (or special relativity for short) was established in 1905 by the famous physicist Albert Einstein at the age of 26. Special relativity is of importance in the realm of high relative velocities. It has been thoroughly verified on numerous occasions and has always stood up to the critical tests. Special relativity is now a tool at work, almost daily, in the scientists' calculations and laboratories. For users: 18 +
Credits: Produced by Nobel e-Museum in collaboration with Tommy Ohlsson Published with
the support of CONTACT RATE THIS TELL A FRIEND First published May 15, 2001
Last modified February 23, 2004 The Official Web Site of The Nobel Foundation

67. Spacetime Wrinkles
Major advances in computation are only now enabling scientists to simulate how black holes form, evolve, and interact. Learn about relativity and its predictions through text and video files at this site.
In 1905, Albert Einstein published his famous Special Theory of Relativity and overthrew commonsense assumptions about space and time. Relative to the observer, both are altered near the speed of light: distances appear to stretch; clocks tick more slowly. A decade and a year later, Einstein further challenged conventional wisdom by describing gravity as the warping of spacetime, not a force acting at a distance. Since then, Einstein's revolutionary insights have largely stood the test of time. One by one, his predictions have been borne out by experiment and observation. But it wasn't until much later that scientists accepted one of the most dramatic ramifications of Einstein's theory of gravitation: the existence of black holes from whose extreme gravity nothing, not even light, can escape. Major advances in computation are only now enabling scientists to simulate how black holes form, evolve, and interact. They're betting on powerful instruments now under construction to confirm that these exotic objects actually exist. You might like to take a two-minute video tour of this exhibit's contents. However, the Quicktime movie is rather large (12.3 MB!), so be patient when downloading. It could take several minutes. (Further information on downloading movies can be obtained from the

68. Redirect To Modern Relativity Modernrelativity Special General Black Hole Mass E
modernrelativity special general relativity black hole mass energy Einstein wormhole time travel Schwarzschild modern light Aclubierre warp.
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69. Clyde Davenport's Home Page
Summary and application as it relates to electromagnetic theory and special relativity.
Clyde Davenport's Home Page
If your browser does not log on automatically, Please click here for the frameless version of this Web site.

70. NOVA Online/Einstein Revealed/Relativity (Lightman Essay)
relativity and the Cosmos. General relativity was the first major new theory of gravity since Isaac Newton s, more than two hundred and fifty years earlier.
Relativity and the Cosmos
by Alan Lightman
In November of 1919, at the age of 40, Albert Einstein became an overnight celebrity, thanks to a solar eclipse. An experiment had confirmed that light rays from distant stars were deflected by the gravity of the sun in just the amount he had predicted in his theory of gravity, General Relativity. General Relativity was the first major new theory of gravity since Isaac Newton's, more than two hundred and fifty years earlier.
Einstein became a hero, and the myth building began. Headlines appeared in newspapers all over the world. On November 8, 1919, for example, the London Times had an article headlined: "The Revolution In Science/Einstein Versus Newton." Two days later, The New York Times' headlines read: "Lights All Askew In The Heavens/Men Of Science More Or Less Agog Over Results Of Eclipse Observations/Einstein Theory Triumphs." The planet was exhausted with World War I, eager for some sign of humankind's nobility, and suddenly here was a modest scientific genius, seemingly interested only in pure intellectual pursuits.
What was General Relativity? Einstein's earlier theory of time and space, Special Relativity, proposed that distance and time are not absolute. The ticking rate of a clock depends on the motion of the observer of that clock; likewise for the length of a "yard stick." Published in 1915, General Relativity proposed that gravity, as well as motion, can affect the intervals of time and of space.

71. PhysicsWeb - A Quantum Leap For Cosmology
A theory that unites quantum mechanics and general relativity claims that there was no first moment in time, but it still agrees with the predictions of classical cosmology.

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Physics in Action: November 2001 A theory that unites quantum mechanics and general relativity claims that there was no first moment in time, but it still agrees with the predictions of classical cosmology.
It's in the stars
One of the most challenging problems in modern physics is the application of quantum theory to the universe as a whole. Progress in this area has been plagued by two types of problem: conceptual and technical. The conceptual problems arise from the old difficulties of interpreting quantum theory. The standard interpretations require that the measuring instruments and observers are outside the quantum system described by the wavefunction. In the late 1950s, however, Hugh Everett proposed an interpretation of quantum theory that might apply to systems that include the observers and measuring instruments, but the adequacy of such interpretations has remained controversial to this day. The technical problems are no less severe or fundamental. Ever since the pioneering work of Bryce DeWitt, Charles Misner and others in the 1960s, quantum cosmology has basically been studied by applying quantum theory to simple models of the universe. These models typically assume that the universe is completely homogeneous. As a result they only have a few degrees of freedom - the radius of the universe and the value of one or more matter fields. One then makes a quantum-cosmological model by quantizing these simple descriptions of the universe.

72. Seven Dimensional (and Up) Einsteinian Hyperspherical Universe
Updated material from the archived Cosmology Review site written in cooperation with UNC. A conceptualization in plain English of an eternal, dual, periodic universe model according to Special and General relativity.
Seven Dimensional (and up) Einsteinian Hyperspherical Universe
In Plain English (Auto translate via AltaVista
by Samuel A. Cox, BS; MSEd.
    Where are those one or two orders of magnitude of mass necessary to give us the universe we observe? Why is the universe accelerating outward? Why is the early universe observed to be dominated by Black Holes? How is order created, conserved and preserved in the cosmos? Why can matter only exist on a microscopic singular foundation? These and many, many other observations and questions are answered by this quasi-static "Geometric Universe" model, in which the dimensional parameters of cosmology are logically adjusted to better fit the mathematical dualism of General Relativity. This site consists of descriptive material and informal, non technical discussion of the profound implications of Singularity, Duality and Periodicity in a General Relativity Cosmology Model based on ... hyperspherical space with seven large dimensions; two/ sphere, Schwarzschild geometry and a single process but periodic time dimension. The model features a discrete, massive quantum Planck Realm, dual 3-space "hemispheres" with submicroscopic, and macroscopic, (astronomical) singular/photonic antipodes, inverse mapping with cosmological time separation, a photon based frame of reference system- and "time reversal" without an inverse process! Palikir, Pohnpei; November 25, 1999; Site Constructed August 2, 2000

73. Einstein World
Devoted to Albert Einstein. It contains a biography, pictures, relativity information, intelligence information and letters he has written.
Einstein World



Other links of interest Want to know your IQ? Click here
Want to buy books on Einstein? Click here
Scientific American's Official web site. Click here
Pictures Relativity ... Links
Einstein World
This page contains almost everything you could ever want to know about Albert Einstein. Use the links on the left and on the top to navigate through the site. Albert Einstein is named Time Magazine's Man of the Century! Click here to read about it.
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Feel free to use any images that you want. Please DO NOT steal the biography or intelligence section and pass it off as your own. This site was created by G.B. using the Site Aid v1.3 HTML editor.

74. Physics Virtual Bookshelf: Relativity
relativity. MassEnergy Equivalence html pdf, A small document discussing how E = mc 2 arises in the Special Theory of relativity.
Relativity The listings are in roughly the order in which these topics might be taught. Topic Description Author Format Special Theory of Relativity: html pdf The Special Relativity document by Professor Key that is the next listing largely concentrates on the effects predicted by the theory, such as time dilation, length contraction, etc. This document is considerably longer than Professor Key's, and tends to concentrate more on the worldview suggested by the theory. (157k/310k) David M. Harrison html and pdf Special Theory of Relativity A discussion of the postulates of special relativity and their consequences, from a first year physics course that uses minimal mathematics; the entire set of materials from the course is available by clicking here Anthony W. Key html Inertial Frames of Reference html pdf A brief summary of the concept of Inertial Frames of Reference in Newtonian and Einsteinian Physics. (25k/35k) David M. Harrison

75. Spacetime Wrinkles Glossary
electrodynamics. Certain problems in the manifestation of these laws prompted Einstein to formulate and publish his theory of Special relativity in 1905.
Back Map Information Expo Home
Accretion Disk
In a binary system containing a star and a compact object (white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole) gas may flow from the star to the compact object. According to the theoretical model, the gas will spiral in and fall to the surface of the compact object creating a flow of matter in the shape of a disk. It is generally believed that this model explains many features of X-ray pulsars Apparent Horizon
When matter falls inward to form a black hole it is not always easy to see where the event horizon might be. It might appear at one time that a light ray is capable of escaping but infalling matter might eventually prevent it from doing so. The apparent horizon is a surface on which outgoing light rays are just trapped, and cannot expand outward. It is a stronger condition than the event horizon, and the apparent horizon always lies inside the event horizon, or coincides with it. This situation is analgous to a man running through a corridor filled with doors. He is trying to run outward, but the doors are closing in sequence from the outside in. How many doors will he be able to pass through before he is blocked by a closed door? The door that is closest to him that is currently closed is analgous to the apparent horizon. The door that he will actually reach before he cannot travel further is analogous to the event horizon. Arc Second
The size of a celestial object expressed in terms of the angle that it covers (or "subtends") when viewed from Earth. For example, the moon subtends an angle of 1/2 a degree. One degree of arc is defined as equivalent to 60 minutes of arc (or "arc minutes"). Arc minutes are further divided into arc seconds, such that there 60 x 60 or 3600 arc seconds per degree. So the moon's apparent size can also be expressed as 1/2 degree x 3600 = 1800 arc seconds. If the the distance to an object is also known, then its angular size can be used to calculate its diameter in miles or kilometers.

76. 2001: A Spacetime Odyssey
Two theories revolutionized the 20th century view of space and time Einstein's General Theory of relativity and Quantum Mechanics. Their union has spawned elementary particle theories with extra spacetime dimensions, the inflationary model of bigbang cosmology, dark matter in the universe, radiation from quantum black holes and the fuzzy spacetime geometry of superstrings and M-theory.
Conference Home Scientific Program Schedule of Talks Students ... MCTP
Inaugural Conference of the
Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics
May 21-25, 2001
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Two theories revolutionized the 20th century view of space and time: Einstein's General Theory of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. Their union has spawned elementary particle theories with extra spacetime dimensions, the inflationary model of big-bang cosmology, dark matter in the universe, radiation from quantum black holes and the fuzzy spacetime geometry of superstrings and M-theory. These developments, derived from the 19th century mathematics of Riemannian geometry and Lie groups, have in their turn inspired new directions in the pure mathematics of topology and knot theory. In view of the mission of the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics to provide a venue for interdisciplinary studies in the mathematical sciences, this Inaugural Conference will bring together Astronomers, Cosmologists, Particle Physicists and Mathematicians to share their different perspectives on the 21st century view of spacetime.
Invited speakers include:
John Bahcall (IAS)
Jacob Bekenstein (Jerusalem)
Stanley Deser (Brandeis)
Paul Frampton (UNC, Chapel Hill)

77. Relativity And FTL Travel Homepage
Phys Trek, relativity FTL, Intro, _. relativity AND FTL TRAVEL. The relativity and FTL Travel FAQ was created mainly for the newsgroup.
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RELATIVITY AND FTL TRAVEL The "Relativity and FTL Travel" FAQ was created mainly for the newsgroup. Much of it contains solid information about relativity (written mainly for the lay-person), while one important part discusses why relativity tends to forbid faster than light travel. It explains why no fictional and/or theoretical idea for FTL Travel can itself get around both the problems discussed without "special provisions". The "Introduction to the FAQ" will give much more information about the FAQ and its various parts. Be sure to check it out so you can decide which parts of the FAQ you might actually want to read/download. If you are interested in other information concerning relativity, be sure to check out the

78. General Relativity
General relativity. Einstein s 1916 paper on General relativity. In 1916 Einstein expanded Grappling With relativity. In the decade after
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General Relativity
Einstein's 1916 paper
on General Relativity

In 1916 Einstein expanded his Special Theory to include the effect of gravitation on the shape of space and the flow of time. This theory, referred to as the General Theory of Relativity , proposed that matter causes space to curve.
JPEG Image
Embedding Diagrams
Picture a bowling ball on a stretched rubber sheet.
GIF Image
The large ball will cause a deformation in the sheet's surface. A baseball dropped onto the sheet will roll toward the bowling ball. Einstein theorized that smaller masses travel toward larger masses not because they are "attracted" by a mysterious force, but because the smaller objects travel through space that is warped by the larger object. Physicists illustrate this idea using embedding diagrams Contrary to appearances, an embedding diagram does not depict the three-dimensional "space" of our everyday experience. Rather it shows how a 2D slice through familiar 3D space is curved downwards when embedded in flattened hyperspace. We cannot fully envision this hyperspace; it contains seven dimensions, including one for time! Flattening it to 3D allows us to represent the curvature. Embedding diagrams can help us visualize the implications of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity.
The Flow of Spacetime
Another way of thinking of the curvature of spacetime was elegantly described by Hans von Baeyer. In a prize-winning

79. Home Page: Jose Fernando Mendes, Universidade De Aveiro
Information about research, namely on random networks. Also presents classes online Statistical physics, computational physics, and mechanics and relativity.

Biography Publications Projects ...

home page

I am a theoretical physicist working on Statistical Physics. My research, in the last years, focus mainly in the study of the structure and the evolution of communications networks, the World Wide Web, the Internet, biological networks, etc. Other interests are related with: granular media, self-organized criticality, non-equilibrium phase transitions, deposition models,etc. In fact, my last research on networks has inumerous applications and is a realization of a general principle: popularity is attractive
Statistical physics

Time Table

Research (all)
Research (Networks)

Gazeta de Fisica (SPF)
Mapa Campus UA FCT (Projects) CiteSeer Complexity Digest Useful Links USA maps Research Mendes Group My talks 2003 My talks 2004 Self-organized Criticality ... Last 5 papers Links... Theoretical and Computational Physics (Univ. Aveiro) TIPTOP Citations of JFFM Maps (Yahoo) ... Latex Symbols "I didn't arrive at my understanding of the fundamental laws of the universe through my rational mind" - A. Einstein "I think the next century will be the century of complexity." - Stephen Hawking

80. The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
An assessment of linguistic determinism and linguistic relativity. With reference to the legacies of Wilhelm von Humboldt and Sigmund Freud.
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
'He gave man speech, and speech created thought,
Which is the measure of the universe' - Prometheus Unbound,
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis as we know it today can be broken down into two basic principles: linguistic determinism and linguistic relativity
Linguistic Determinism: A Definition
Linguistic Determinism refers to the idea that the language we use to some extent determines the way in which we view and think about the world around us. The concept has generally been divided into two separate groups - 'strong' determinism and 'weak' determinism. Strong determinism is the extreme version of the theory, stating that language actually determines thought, that language and thought are identical. Although this version of the theory would attract few followers today - since it has strong evidence against it, including the possibility of translation between languages - we will see that in the past this has not always been the case. Weak determinism, however, holds that thought is merely affected by or influenced by our language, whatever that language may be. This version of determinism is widely accepted today.
Wilhelm von Humboldt: The 'Weltanschauung' Hypothesis.

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