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         History Of Physics:     more books (100)
  1. The Continuing Revolution: A History of Physics from the Greeks to Einstein, by Joseph. Agassi, 1968-01
  2. Physics in Amsterdam: A Brief History by A.J. Kox, 1990
  3. The history of physics in Finland, 1828-1918 (The History of learning and science in Finland, 1828-1918) by Peter Holmberg, 1992
  4. Resources for the history of physics: Guide to books and audio-visual materials: Guide to original works of historical importance and their translations into other languages
  5. Quantum Physics in America: The Years Through 1935 (The History of Modern Physics 1800-1950 Vol 10) by Katherine Russell Sopka, 1988-07
  6. History of Physics - 4 Vols. by G.R. Chhatwal, 1995
  7. Radar in World War II (The History of Modern Physics 1800-1950, Two volumes:Sect. A-C, and Sect. D-E w/ Appendices)
  8. A Selection of Manuscript Collections at American Repositories. National Catalog of Sources for History of Physics, Report No. 1 by Joan Nelson Warnow, 1969
  9. The History of Physics by Isaac Asimov, 1985
  10. American Physics in Transition: A History of Conceptual Change in the Late Nineteenth Century (History of Modern Physics and Astronomy) by Albert E. Moyer, 1983-01-01
  11. The Life and Times of Modern Physics: History of Physics II (Readings from Physics Today, No 5)
  12. A History of Modern Planetary Physics Hardback set: Volume 1, The Origin of the Solar System and the Core of the Earth from Laplace to Jeffreys: Nebulous Earth by Stephen G. Brush, 1997-08-13
  13. The History of Early Nuclear Physics, (1896-1931 Vity and Its Radiations) by Milorad Mladjenovic, 1992-10
  14. A History of Physics by Florian Cajori, 1962

81. Science And Human Values - Copernicus
other assumptions, they influenced thought on many matters in a most profound way today the very history and form This site maintained by physics Teacher.Org
Prof. Fred L. Wilson
Rochester Institute of Technology
Science and Human Values
Chapter 15
Overview of Copernicus
To the Greek natural philosophy, the Renaissance thinkers brought a fresh outlook, for the old views no longer entirely satisfied. In 1543, the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus published a book that went so far as to reject a basic axiom of astronomy: he proposed that the sun, not the earth, be considered the center of the universe. (He retained the notion of circular orbits for the earth and other planets, however.) This new axiom allowed a much simpler explanation of the observed motions of heavenly bodies. Yet the Copernican axiom of a moving earth was far less "self-evident" than the Greek axiom of a motionless earth, and so it is not surprising that it took more than half a century for the Copernican theory to be accepted. In a sense, the Copernican system itself was not a crucial change. Copernicus had merely switched axioms; and Aristarchus of Samos had already anticipated this switch to the sun as the center 2,000 years earlier. I do not mean to say that the changing of an axiom is a minor matter. When mathematicians of the nineteenth century challenged Euclid's axioms and developed "non-Euclidean geometries" based on other assumptions, they influenced thought on many matters in a most profound way: today the very history and form of the universe are thought to conform to a non-Euclidean geometry rather than the "commonsense" geometry of Euclid. But the revolution initiated by Copernicus entailed not just a shift in axioms but eventually involved a whole new approach to nature. This revolution was carried through in the person of the Italian Galileo Galilei toward the end of the sixteenth century.

82. Great Moments In Solar Physics 1
Great Moments in the history of Solar physics (1). 1223 BC The oldest eclipse record. 207221. Later Great Moments in the history of solar physics.
Great Moments in the History of Solar Physics (1)
1223 BC: The oldest eclipse record
Total eclipses of the Sun are arguably the most impressive astronomical phenomenon that can be observed more or less regularly with the naked eye (see slides 9 and slide 10 of the HAO slide set The Sun: A Pictorial Introduction ). They occur when the Moon reaches a point in its orbit around the Earth that lies on the line joining the Earth and Sun. By a remarkable coincidence, the Moon's angular diameter, as seen from the Earth, is almost identical to that of the Sun. The Sun's disk is then completely eclipsed, and daytime darkness falls upon the Earth for a few minutes (This physical explanation of the phenomenon was only put forth much later, in the first century BC). Like comets, solar eclipses were taken to be astrological omens of great significance. It is therefore not surprising that such a spectacular event is often mentioned in surviving written records and chronicles of ancient civilizations. The oldest eclipse record is found on a clay tablet uncovered in the ancient city of Ugarit, (in what is now Syria), with two plausible dates usually cited: 3 May 1375 BC or 5 March 1223 BC, the latter being favored by most recents authors on the topic. It is certainly clear that by the eight century BC, the Babylonians were keeping a systematic record of solar eclipses, and may even have been able to predict them fairly accurately based on numerological rules.

83. A Walk Through Time
Version history National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) physics Laboratory Time and Frequency Division (for additional information on time
A NIST Physics Laboratory Presentation The Evolution of Time Measurement through the Ages
Ancient Calendars
Early Clocks
A Revolution in Timekeeping
The "Atomic" Age
World Time Scales and Time Zones
NIST Time Services
Version History National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
Physics Laboratory

Time and Frequency Division
(for additional information on time services and standards) Note: This page can be accessed using Online: May 1995 - Last update: April 30, 2002 - cns

84. SSD History - Surface Physics
history of the Solid State Division SSD Home Table of Contents Next Page Previous Page. Surface physics. Surface physics research
History of the Solid State Division
[SSD Home]
[Table of Contents] [Next Page] [Previous Page]
Surface Physics
radiation damage and chemical properties of metal surfaces which focused on using both optical (real space) and diffraction (reciprocal space) techniques to investigate the termination of bulk defects with surfaces. Modern-day surface science was just beginning to take root during this period, and a new program, directed by Les Jenkins, was established to determine the physical and chemical properties of surfaces at the atomic scale. An initial focus of this program was on the determination of surface structure using the technique of low-energy electron diffraction. It was during this period that John Noonan and Harold Davis established a combined experimental and theoretical effort determining the surface structure of metals with unprecedented precision. Their research, starting with Cu(110), showed that surface relaxation was a natural consequence of bulk truncation and confirmed the emerging concept of multilayer relaxation at surfaces. During this same time, the first quantitative determination of excess surface density resulting from reconstruction [Au(100)] was determined using ion scattering, in conjunction with scientists from what was to become the Surface Modification and Characterization facility. Research on the electronic structure of laser-annealed surfaces led to the utilization of unique capabilities of synchrotron radiation by David Zehner and Woody White at the Tantalus storage ring at the University of Wisconsin with Dean Eastman from IBM. During this period, Zehner also initiated a collaborative research program using synchrotron radiation with Ward Plummer at the University of Pennsylvania leading to the eventual formation of a participating research team at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The initial research at this facility focused on determining the electronic structure of alloys, with a particular emphasis on high-temperature materials. The unique instrumetation demands of this research, a consequence of surface reactivity, led to the establishment of an additional collaboration with scientists from the University of Erlangen in Germany.

85. Sources For History Of Quantum Physics

86. History Of Particle Physics
We invite you to explore this history of particle physics with a focus on the scientists and thinkers who helped shape the field of particle physics.
back to history page
Particle Physics Timeline
For over two thousand years people have thought about the fundamental particles from which all matter is made, starting with the gradual development of atomic theory, followed by a deeper understanding of the quantized atom, leading to the recent theory of the Standard Model. We invite you to explore this history of particle physics with a focus on the scientists and thinkers who helped shape the field of particle physics. The four sections are arranged chronologically. You can use the index to find more information about a specific person or event. Earliest times - 1550 AD: The Ancients
1550 - 1900 AD: The Scientific Revolution and Classical Mechanics

1900 - 1964 AD: Quantum Theory

1964 - Present: The Modern View (the Standard Model)

back to history page
Sections of the History of Particle Physics were written by the physics class of 1996 of the Mountain Empire High School, Pine Valley, California, under the guidance of Susan Lafo, as indicated.

87. History Of Science And Technology--University Of Minnesota
to make use of the perspectives and methods of intellectual, institutional, social, economic, and cultural history. Tate Laboratory of physics, along the
The History of Science and Technology is a dynamic interdisciplinary field of scholarship that studies the development of science and technology in their broader cultural context. The field is growing rapidly as people realize that science and technology are themselves among the most important cultural phenomena of the modern age. The Program in the History of Science and Technology at the University of Minnesota ranks among the country's best. It offers both M.A. and Ph.D. degrees, with comprehensive opportunities for advanced research and study in history of the physical sciences, the biological sciences, and technology. Within these areas, students are encouraged to make use of the perspectives and methods of intellectual, institutional, social, economic, and cultural history.
The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer.
Comments, questions to:
Updated: 12 November, 2001

88. Quantum Mechanics History
A history of Quantum Mechanics. with no experimental basis. Planck won the 1918 Nobel Prize for physics for this work. In 1901 Ricci
A history of Quantum Mechanics
Mathematical Physics index History Topics Index
It is hard to realise that the electron was only discovered a little over 100 years ago in 1897. That it was not expected is illustrated by a remark made by J J Thomson, the discoverer of the electron. He said I was told long afterwards by a distinguished physicist who had been present at my lecture that he thought I had been pulling their leg. The neutron was not discovered until 1932 so it is against this background that we trace the beginnings of quantum theory back to 1859. In 1859 Gustav Kirchhoff proved a theorem about blackbody radiation. A blackbody is an object that absorbs all the energy that falls upon it and, because it reflects no light, it would appear black to an observer. A blackbody is also a perfect emitter and Kirchhoff proved that the energy emitted E depends only on the temperature T and the frequency v of the emitted energy, i.e. E J T v He challenged physicists to find the function J In 1879 Josef Stefan proposed, on experimental grounds, that the total energy emitted by a hot body was proportional to the fourth power of the temperature. In the generality stated by Stefan this is false. The same conclusion was reached in 1884 by

89. The American Physical Society Presents "A Century Of Physics"
The materials and images contained in the Century of physics Time Line are copyrighted and protected by the International and Pan American Copyright Conventions, and the laws of the United States and
TM Digital Watermarking Technology [

90. Usenet Physics FAQ
sci.physics frequently asked questions with answers.
Version Date: 20 th April 2004
Usenet Physics FAQ
This is the web version of the Usenet Physics FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions). Its purpose is to provide good answers to questions that have been discussed often in sci.physics and related usenet newsgroups. The articles in this FAQ are based on those discussions and on information from good reference sources. That does not mean that they are always perfect and complete. If you have corrections, updates or additional points to make please send an email to the editor, Don Koks (his cv is here ). If you want to write up an article following a news group discussion about a subject not yet covered here then feel free to send it to the editor, but please do not use this address to ask new questions. Ask them in the appropriate newsgroup instead. If you are new to the Physics newsgroups, welcome! Please read the article An Introduction to the Physics Newsgroups . It will help you find the right newsgroup for your questions and will give you other crucial advice about appropriate netiquette for these groups. Above all you should check carefully to see if your questions are answered in this FAQ before posting. This FAQ was created by Scott Chase in 1992. The web version was created, maintained and enlarged by Michael Weiss and Philip Gibbs. Others who have written for the FAQ are credited at the top of the items they submitted while many more who have made smaller contributions have been thanked privately.

91. Physics & Engineering Book Breakthrough! Electromagnetic Field Theory And More.
book review Book that challenges fundamental principles of modern electromagnetic field theory and unveils a new model for electromagnetic masses as they move from the point of origin out into space.
Physics and engineering
book breakthrough!
Michael Faraday said: Electrotonic State L James Clerk Maxwell said: Albert Einstein said: John William Carr said: "Practically all modern formulations
of electromagnetic field theory are incorrect."
The Physics of Electromagnetic Masses,
Including the Derivation of E=mc
from a Point Source by John William Carr
  • Carr demonstrates how all electromagnetic particles and fundamental building blocks of matter have mass, including what we call neutrinos, light and energy. He refers to these fundamental building blocks as electromagnetic masses
  • Albert Einstein demonstrated theoretically from out in space that E=mc . Carr also derives E=mc , but from a point source or point of origin. This finding is unprecedented
  • Carr correlates the four equal parts of energy with Einstein and supports the plausibility of a unified field theory
  • Why do the mathematical formulations used in modern e.m. theory not always jibe with what is measured in the field or the laboratory?
  • Carr asks an entire industry to "wipe the slate clean." He totally

92. Physics Central
Explains how physics is part of the everyday world. Answer questions on how things work and describes the latest research.
Ancient Navajo thought contains many parallels more...
PhysicsCentral selected as one of the Eisenhower National Clearinghouse Digital Dozen DisplayVote11848(true);
Major League


news media assistance
Our top picks for the best physics web sites... Want to know how something works? Essays and Excerpts by physicist authors. Follow our Buckyball Guide more...
link to us!
Ask physicist Lou Bloomfield more...

93. School Of Physics At Georgia Tech
Welcome to the web site of the School of physics at Georgia Tech! The School of physics, located in the city of Atlanta, offers a dynamic environment for research and education in many areas of physics.
Site Map
Graduate Studies Research ... Faculty Search Featured Research Physics of Rydberg Plasmas
Academics Graduate Studies Research ... International Journal of Theoretical Physics
Phone: Fax:
Address: 837 State Street, Atlanta,
GA 30332-0430 USA
If you have any questions or comments concerning this site, please contact The words Georgia Institute of Technology, Georgia Tech, Yellow Jackets, Ramblin' Wreck, Buzz and the graphics that represent each are all federally registered marks owned by the University System of Georgia. The word Tech is registered within the state of Georgia.
Notwithstanding any language to the contrary, nothing contained herein constitutes nor is intended to constitute an offer, inducement, promise, or contract of any kind. The data contained herein is for informational purposes only and is not represented to be error free. Any links to non-Georgia Tech information are provided as a courtesy. They are not intended to nor do they constitute an endorsement by the Georgia Institute of Technology of the linked materials.

94. Cardiff University - Department Of Physics And Astronomy
Includes information about the department, admissions, teaching, research, and local resources.

The School

Staff List
Transit of Venus On 8th June 2004 a transit of Venus will be observed from Earth when Venus comes directly between the Sun and our planet and it will be seen to move across the bright solar disk. No-one currently living on the planet has ever witnessed this spectacle as it last happened in 1882. Scientists at the School of Physics and Astronomy will be recording the transit and we hope to show still shots from that recording on this page from the 8th June. To watch a live webcast of the event, visit or tune in to the programme on BBC2 featuring Dr Paul Roche and Dr Lucie Green from Cardiff University who will be reporting live from Egypt and the Royal Greenwich Observatory. The transit will start at around 6.19am British Summer Time and end around 12.23pm. If you want to get prepared, don't miss the FREE morning session by Dr Lucie Green to be given at the Centre for Lifelong Learning on Saturday 5th June, from 10.30-12.30. No booking is required. For more info visit:

95. PEERS - Physics Encyclopedia Of E-Mail Records
Searchable directory of physicists. From The Institute of physics Publishing, UK Contact us Online Services Submit Your Details ... Help PEERS is a FREE service from Institute of Physics Publishing. It provides a moderated global e-mail directory of people working in science; a place where you can search for peers, colleagues or any useful contacts in your chosen scientific field.
Advanced Search
Search the Directory
Our search engine allows you to perform a variety of searches across the PEERS directory, from simple keywords to complex Boolean expressions.
Submit Your Details
Everyone is invited and indeed encouraged to add their details to our fast-growing list. To include your details in the directory, all you need do is complete this form
Update Your Details
A form is available to update your details at any time.
The directory is moderated to make sure that only individuals working in appropriate positions and establishments are added to the directory. With the service growing all the time we are keen to receive any comments or suggestions that you may have. You may want enhancements to the search engine or a facility to sort the directory by specific fields. Whatever you want, we want to hear from you - please contact the moderator at

96. AIP Author Finder: Guide To Author Names
Compilation of physics authors that have published in American Institute of physics journals.
Welcome to the PhysicsFinder's Author Index. To browse the author index, choose the first three letters of the last name of the author you would like to find. The link you choose will bring you to a page that lists all authors that have contributed to American Institute of Physics journals within that letter set.
Aab Aag Aak Aal ... Azz
Ba Baa Bab Bac ... Byv
C-F Caa Cab Cac ... Czy
Da- Daa DaB Dab ... Dzy
E Ea- Eac Ead ... Ezz
Fa Faa Fab Fac ... Fyt
Gaa Gab Gac Gad ... Gzy
Ha Haa Hab Hac ... Hyy
I I-C Iac Iaf ... Izz
Ja Jaa Jab Jac ... Jzo
Ka Kaa Kab Kac ... Kyz
La La- Laa LaB ... Lyz
Ma Maa Mab Mac ... Myu
Na Naa Nab Nac ... Nze
O O-O Oak Oan ... Ozz
Paa Pab Pac Pad ... Pyz
Qad Qai Qam Qas ... Qvi
Ra Raa Rab Rac ... Rzy
Sa Sa- Saa Sab ... Szy
Ta Taa Tab Tac ... Tzv
U Uan Uba Ube ... Uzz
Vaa Vab Vac Vad ... Vyv
Waa Wab Wac Wad ... Wyt
Xan Xao Xap Xav ... Xyu
Ya Ya- Yaa Yab ... Yzu
Zaa Zab Zac Zad ... Zyw AIP Publishing Center
Suite 1N01, 2 Huntington Quadrangle, Melville, NY 11747-4502
Any use beyond individual research or private study is governed by the PhysicsFinder

97. 2000 CP Physics Conference
The Conference will focus on experimental and theoretical aspects of CP violation in elementary particle physics. It will consist of plenary sessions only, aimed at giving a complete picture of what is presently known and of the future progress in the field, both theoretically and experimentally.
CPconf 2000
International Conference
On CP Violation Physics

September 18-22, 2000
Ferrara, ITALY

Photo Credit: Ferrara, The Castle
Click To Enter

98. Intertheory Relations In Physics
Discussion of theory reduction in science; by Robert Batterman from the Stanford Encyclopedia.
version history

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
A B C D ... Z
This document uses XHTML-1/Unicode to format the display. Older browsers and/or operating systems may not display the formatting correctly. last substantive content change
Intertheory Relations in Physics
Many issues in the philosophy of science concern the nature of theories and certain relations that may obtain between them. Typically, one is interested in the degree to which a successor to a given theory "goes beyond" (both descriptively and explanatorily) the theory it succeeds. Most often these issues are framed in the context of reductive relations between theories. When does a theory T T ? How is one to understand the nature of this reduction relation? Interestingly, there are two distinct, yet, related ways of understanding the reductive relationship between T and T
1. Philosopher's Sense of Reduction
Most contemporary discussions of reductive relations between a pair of theories owe considerable debt to the work by Ernest Nagel. In

99. Advanced Placement Digital Library In Biology, Phy
An NSF funded Rice University Digital Library project that hosts free reviewed online resources, linked to the content outline, for AP and PreAP teachers and students of Biology, physics and Chemistry.
Portal Home Home Search APDL Biology ... About the Project
Account Login
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Welcome to APDL Welcome to Rice University's Advanced Placement Digital Library . Funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation's National Science Digital Library Program , APDL is a collection of Internet resources that have been reviewed for their educational merit in an AP* or Pre-AP* classroom. Advanced Placement* (AP) teachers and students will find resources linked to the AP content outlines, published by the College Board , in biology, physics, and chemistry. APDL only hosts those resources that are reviewed and approved by the APDL review panel . Resources are selected based on their educational merit in an AP or Pre-AP classroom. APDL welcomes your input to make this site more usable for AP teachers and students. *AP and the Advanced Placement Program are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board and Pre-AP is a trademark of the College Board.
Upcoming Events Chemistry Readers Professional Night
Summary: "APDL will be presented at the Chemistry Readers Professional Night."

View an music which a priori is conceived only subjectively.
MUSIC AND PHYSICS By the music passions enjoy themselves... Friedrich Nietzsche Visitors (Sep 2000) videopi [PARIS] [bird] [RER] [CV] ... [VERSION EN ESPANOL] The music is an art in wich you combine the sounds to produce an esthetic impression. Physics is an exact science. It studies the general properties of the bodies and the laws which tend to modify their state or their movement without modifying their nature. [Audio and acoustics related web sites] Periodic phenomena Vibrating cords and sound pipes Physics of the acoustic guitar ... Physics and psychophysics of music Thanks to Mr. Gerard Cohen-Solal, profesor at research at the university Montpellier 2 Sign Guestbook View Guestbook Pierre Klemas Acoustic engineer Special thanks for the Homepage hospitality to: Geocities

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