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         William Of Ockham:     more books (100)
  1. Ockham - Philosophical Writings: A Selection by William Ockham, 1990-03
  2. William of Ockham: A Short Discourse on Tyrannical Government (Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought) by William of Ockham, 1992-09-25
  3. William of Ockham: 'A Letter to the Friars Minor' and Other Writings (Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought) by William of Ockham, 1995-10-27
  4. William Ockham (Publications in Medieval Studies) by Marilyn McCord Adams, 1987-11
  5. Passions in William Ockham's Philosophical Psychology (Studies in the History of Philosophy of Mind) by Vesa Hirvonen, 2010-11-02
  6. Quodlibetal Questions: Volumes 1 and 2, Quodlibets 1-7 (Yale Library of Medieval Philosophy Seri) by William of Ockham, 1998-05-25
  7. Ockham's Theory of Propositions (Pt. 2) by William Ockham, 1998-01-30
  8. Summa Logicae: Theory of Terms Pt. 1 by William of Ockham, 1975-05-27
  9. The Political Thought of William Ockham (Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought: Third Series) by Arthur Stephen McGrade, 2002-08-08
  10. 14th-Century Philosophers: William of Ockham, Gersonides, Catherine of Siena, Ramon Llull, Pietro D'abano, Thomas Bradwardine, Jean Buridan
  11. William Ockham. Volume II. Publications in Medieval Studies by Marilyn McCord Adams, 1987
  12. William Ockham's View on Human Capability (European University Studies Series Xxiii Theology) by Sheng-chia Chang, 2010-04-03
  13. Basis of Morality According to William Ockham by Lucan Freppert, 1988-06
  14. A Translation of William of Ockham's Work of Ninety Days (Texts and Studies in Religion)

Visit New Advent for the Summa Theologica, Church Fathers, Catholic Encyclopedia and more. Catholic Encyclopedia W william of ockham. A. B. C In his controversial writings william of ockham appears as the advocate of secular absolutism
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William of Ockham
Fourteenth-century Scholastic philosopher and controversial writer, born at or near the village of Ockham in Surrey, England, about 1280; died probably at Munich, about 1349. He is said to have studied at Merton College, Oxford, and to have had John Duns Scotus for teacher. At an early age he entered the Order of St. Francis. Towards 1310 he went to Paris, where he may have had Scotus once more for a teacher. About 1320 he became a teacher (magister) at the University of Paris. During this portion of his career he composed his works on Aristotelean Avignon in 1328, but managed to escape and join John of Jandun and Marsilius of Padua, who had taken refuge at the Court of Louis of Bavaria. It was to Louis that he made the boastful offer, "Tu me defendas gladio; ego te defendam calamo". In his controversial writings William of Ockham appears as the advocate of secular absolutism. He denies the right of the popes to exercise temporal power, or to interfere in any way whatever in the affairs of the Empire. He even went so far as to advocate the validity of the adulterous marriage of Louis's son, on the grounds of political expediency, and the absolute power of the State in such matters. In philosophy William advocated a reform of Scholasticism both in method and in content. The aim of this reformation movement in general was simplification. This aim he formulated in the celebrated "Law of Parsimony", commonly called "Ockham's Razor": "Entia non sunt multiplicanda sine necessitate". With this tendency towards simplification was united a very marked tendency towards skepticism a distrust, namely, of the ability of the human mind to reach certitude in the most important problems of philosophy. Thus, in the process of simplification he denied the existence of intentional species, rejected the distinction between essence and existence, and protested against the Thomistic doctrine of active and passive intellect. His skepticism appears in his doctrine that human reason can prove neither the immortality of the soul nor the existence, unity, and infinity of

2. British Academy - William Of Ockham: Dialogus
william of ockham Dialogus. LATIN TEXT AND ENGLISH TRANSLATION. edited by John Kilcullen, George Knysh, Volker Leppin, John Scott and Jan Ballweg.
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3. William Of Ockham [Internet Encyclopedia Of Philosophy]
The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. william of ockham (d. 1347). Table of Contents (Clicking on the links below will take you to that part of this article).
William of Ockham (d. 1347) Table of Contents (Clicking on the links below will take you to that part of this article)
Life William of Ockham, the Franciscan school man, nominalist, and " doctor invincibilis
Back to Table of Contents
Writings There is no complete edition of the works of Ockham, which can serve as an indicator of the disfavor into which he fell by his rebellious attitude. Although the numerous manuscripts and early printed editions testify to the interest which was felt in his writings. Under the head of philosophical works may be named the Expositio aurea et admodum utilis super totam artem veterem . This work, in the form of commentaries on Aristotle and Porphyry, contains Ockham's logic, epistemology, metaphysic, Summa logices, Qucestiones in octo libros physicorum, Summultv in libros physicorum, and two or three works still unprinted. The principal theological work is Quoestiones et decisiones in quatuor libros sententiarum . The first book is much fuller than the other three and is frequently found in manuscripts independent of them. This leads us to believe that Ockham published it before the other three and on a much larger scale. Other theological treatises are the Centiloquium theologicum , "embracing almost the whole of speculative theology under one hundred conclusions," which gives a interesting collection of instances of what rational theology might consider possible.

4. Ockham & Nominalism
Paper on the nominalist theologian.
William Of Ockham and the Death Of Universals
Neal Magee
illiam of Ockham, one of the most notable thinkers of his day (and a century afterward), was in on the ground level of what has become, to many Modern thinkers, quite an upsetting occurrence. He probably never anticipated his dream coming true: the death of universals. The fact that they are dead is no surprise to modern scholars who have tended not to trust these structures anymore, whatever they may look like, and even shy away from using the word "universal." Contemporary Postmodern philosopher Jean-François Lyotard equates universals with "metanarratives": overarching and universally applicable maxims (equally applicable through time and space), i.e. truth, knowledge, ethics, or God. In fact, Lyotard defines postmodernity as "incredulity towards metanarratives," and has been working hard within a band of intrepid thinkers to make sure they never return.( ) Below is a discussion of the framework of this occurrence, focusing on the theology, metaphysics and epistemology of William of Ockham. I hope to briefly describe his understanding of the power of God, place his view of universals in a wider philosophical context, and explore his empirical epistemology and rejection of realism. Finally, I want to connect his beliefs with their repercussions, as formulated by the Protestant Reformer Martin Luther.

5. William Of Ockham
Occam (12871347) was one of the most important philosophers of the Middle Ages. By Paul Vincent Spade.
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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
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William of Ockham
  • 1. Life
    1. Life
    Ockham led an unusually eventful life for a philosopher. As with so many medieval figures who were not prominent when they were born, we know next to nothing about the circumstances of Ockham's birth and early years, and have to estimate dates by extrapolating from known dates of events later in his life. Ockham's life may be divided into three main periods.
    1.1 England (c. 1287
    Ockham was born, probably in late 1287 or early 1288, in the village of Ockham (= Oak Hamlet) in Surrey, a little to the southwest of London. He probably learned basic Latin at a village school in Ockham or nearby, but this is not certain. Around 1310, when he was about 23, Ockham began his theological training. It is not certain where this training occurred. It could well have been at the London Convent, or it could have been at Oxford, where there was another Franciscan convent associated with the university. In any event, Ockham was at Oxford studying theology by at least the year 1318-19, and probably the previous year as well, when (in 1317) he began a required two-year cycle of lectures commenting on Peter Lombard's Sentences

6. The Ecole Glossary
william of ockham. A logician and proponent of nominalism, william of ockham originated Ockham's razor, a philosophical paring tool that prefers the simplest theory that will explain the observable
The Ecole Glossary
William of Ockham A logician and proponent of nominalism, William of Ockham originated Ockham's razor, a philosophical paring tool that prefers the simplest theory that will explain the observable data. Born c. in Surrey, William was a Franciscan who taught at Oxford until the chancellor John Lutterell accused him of teaching suspect doctrine. John XXII appointed a commission which found 51 propositions questionable but which did not condemn the lecturer. William revised these, and while he was at Oxford and Avignon, he wrote commentary on the Organon of Aristotle and the Sentences of Peter Lombard. William accepted the teachings of the Spiritual Franciscans, who believe that Christ and his Apostles held all property in common and, therefore, poverty was essential to the church. John XXII did not accept these ideas, and William came to see him as a pseudo-pope. William, with two leaders of the Spiritual Franciscans, fled in to the protection of Louis of Bavaria, a papal enemy. John excommunicated William and the others. After John's death in , William sought to reconcile himself with the Roman church; the outcome of these efforts is not known. William died, possibly of the plague, in Munich c.

7. Robert Wagner - About William Of Ockham
Biography of this philosopher.
Robert Wagner
about William of Ockham
William of Ockham also called W ILLIAM O CKHAM , Ockham also spelled O CCAM , byname V ENERABILIS I NCEPTOR OCTOR INVINCIBILIS c. Early life After his early training, Ockham took the traditional course of theological studies at the University of Oxford and apparently between 1317 and 1319 lectured on the Sentences Sentences (a commentary known as Ordinatio inceptor baccalaureus formatus. Ockham continued his academic career, apparently in English convents, simultaneously studying points of logic in natural philosophy and participating in theological debates. When he left his country for Avignon, Fr., in the autumn of 1324 at the pope's request, he was acquainted with a university environment shaken not only by disputes but also by the challenging of authority: that of the bishops in doctrinal matters and that of the chancellor of the university, John Lutterell, who was dismissed from his post in 1322 at the demand of the teaching staff. theologicus logicus is Luther’s term). On the one hand, with his passion for logic he insisted on evaluations that are severely rational, on distinctions between the necessary and the incidental and differentiation between evidence and degrees of probability – an insistence that places great trust in man’s natural reason and his human nature. On the other hand, as a theologian he referred to the primary importance of the God of the creed whose omnipotence determines the gratuitous salvation of men; God’s saving action consists of giving without any obligation and is already profusely demonstrated in the creation of nature. The medieval rule of economy, that "plurality should not be assumed without necessity," has come to be known as

8. Occam's Razor
of the medieval English philosopher and Franciscan monk william of ockham (ca. 12851349). Like many Franciscans, William over the issue. William was excommunicated by Pope John
Robert Todd Carroll

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Occam's razor
" Pluralitas non est ponenda sine neccesitate " or "plurality should not be posited without necessity." The words are those of the medieval English philosopher and Franciscan monk William of Ockham (ca. 1285-1349). Like many Franciscans, William was a minimalist in this life, idealizing a life of poverty, and like St. Francis himself, battling with the Pope over the issue. William was excommunicated by Pope John XXII. He responded by writing a treatise demonstrating that Pope John was a heretic. What is known as Occam's razor was a common principle in medieval philosophy and was not originated by William, but because of his frequent usage of the principle, his name has become indelibly attached to it. It is unlikely that William would appreciate what some of us have done in his name. For example, atheists often apply Occam's razor in arguing against the existence of God on the grounds that God is an unnecessary hypothesis. We can explain everything without assuming the extra metaphysical baggage of a Divine Being. William's use of the principle of unnecessary plurality occurs in debates over the medieval equivalent of psi.

9. 20th WCP: Russell, Strawson, And William Of Ockham
Russell, Strawson, and william of ockham. Sharon Kaye. Dalhousie University. ABSTRACT Realism and conventionalism generally establish the parameters of debate over universals.
Medieval Philosophy Russell, Strawson, and William of Ockham Sharon Kaye
Dalhousie University ABSTRACT: Realism and conventionalism generally establish the parameters of debate over universals. Do abstract terms in language refer to abstract things in the world? The realist answers yes , leaving us with an inflated ontology; the conventionalist answers no Realism and conventionalism are commonly taken to be the primary contenders in the debate over universals. Does abstract language refer to abstract things in the world? The realist answers yes, leaving us with an inflated ontology, the conventionalist answers no, leaving us with subjective categories. In this paper I would like to defend a third possibility which aims to preserve objectivity without multiplying objects. It is nominalism, in the original, medieval sense of the word or more specifically, in the Ockham sense of the word. Willard Quine once remarked that "the nominalists of old . . . object to admitting abstract entities at all, even in the restrained sense of mind-made entities." supposition theory did have its advantages, one of which was the way that it clarified the disagreement between realists and antirealists over meaning and reference. We need to see what each of these linguistic concepts amounts to for Ockham in order to see how he explains abstract language.

10. Nonconformist Church History: William Of Ockham (1285-1347/9)
A Nonconformist reading of his theology.
William of Ockham
(1285 - 1347 or 1349)
b. 1285, Ockham, Surrey, England d. 1347 or 1349, Munich, Bavaria The Pope can be convicted of heresy, if he solemnly defines an error against the faith and asserts that it should be held by Christians. The small village of Ockham, a few miles from the place where the A3 meets the M25 today, was the birthplace of one of the most influential of all mediæval thinkers, William of Ockham. He was among the first to produce reasoned arguments against the mediæval patterns of church doctrine and authority, seeking to return to the patterns found in the New Testament. Today, his name lives on in "Occam's razor," the name given to a logical principle that simplicity is preferable to complexity.
As a young man, William became a Franciscan friar. William's education among the Franciscans included logic, a subject that became a lifelong interest for him. Later, William studied theology at Oxford University, and by his early thirties, he was lecturing there on the Four Books of Sentences of Peter Lombard, a leading 12

11. Ockham
william of ockham. Born 1288 in Ockham william of ockham s early Franciscan education concentrated on logic. He studied theology at
William of Ockham
Born: 1288 in Ockham (near Ripley, Surrey), England
Died: 9 April 1348 in Munich, Bavaria (now Germany)
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William of Ockham 's early Franciscan education concentrated on logic. He studied theology at Oxford and between 1317 and 1319 he lectured on the Sentences , the standard theology text used in universities up to 16 C. His opinions aroused strong opposition and he left Oxford without his Master's Degree. He continued studying mathematical logic and made important contributions to it. He considered a three valued logic where propositions can take one of three truth values. This became important for mathematics in the 20 th Century but it is remarkable that it was first studied by Ockham 600 years earlier. Ockham went to France and was denounced by the Pope. He was excommunicated and in 1328 he fled seeking the protection of Louis IV in Bavaria (Louis had also been excommunicated!). He continued to attack papal power always employing logical reasoning in his arguments. Article by: J J O'Connor and E F Robertson List of References (22 books/articles) A Quotation Mathematicians born in the same country Other Web sites
  • Dave Beckett
  • The Catholic Encyclopedia
  • Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
    (Chronologically) Next Biographies Index Previous (Alphabetically) Next Main index
    History Topics

    Societies, honours, etc.
  • 12. William Of Occam
    william of ockham, born in the village of Ockham in Surrey (England) about 1285, was the most influential philosopher of the 14th century and a controversial
    William of Ockham, born in the village of Ockham in Surrey (England) about 1285, was the most influential philosopher of the 14th century and a controversial theologian. He entered the Franciscan order at an early age and took the traditional course of theological studies at Oxford. Strong opposition to his opinions from members of the theological faculty prevented him from obtaining his Master's degree. His teaching had also aroused the attention of Pope John XXII, who summoned him to the papal court in Avignion (France) in 1324. The charges against him were presented by Jogh Lutterell, the former chancellor of the university of Oxford. Ockham was never condemned, but in 1327, while residing in Avignion, he became involved in the dispute over apostolic poverty. When this controversy reached a critical stage in 1328, and the Pope was about to issue a condemnation of the position held by the Franciscans, Ockham and two other Franciscans fled from Avignion to seek the protection of Emperor Louis IV, the Bavarian. They followed the emperor to Munich (Germany) in 1330, where Ockham wrote fervently against the papacy in a series of treatises on papal power and civil sovereignty. The medieval rule of parsimony, or principle of economy, frequently used by Ockham came to be known as

    13. Notes To William Of Ockham
    Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Notes to william of ockham Citation Information. Notes. Notes to william of ockham Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
    Notes to William of Ockham
    Citation Information
    For an account of Ockham's life, including a discussion of how these dates are calculated in Ockham's case, see Wood [1997], Chap. 1. For further details of Ockham's life, see Courtenay [1999]. The technical term is second son.) Ockham's accuser may have been John Lutterell, who had been Chancellor at the University of Oxford for a while. Recall that the Papacy at this time, together with all the offices and bureaucracy that went with it, was not located in Rome, but at Avignon, a moderate-sized town in southeastern France, on the Rhone River. It was there between 1309 and 1377. It is not certain that Ockham had ever actually been ordered to stay in Avignon. Michael of Cesena later on claimed that this was an utter fabrication (Wood [1997], p. 10 n. 21). Note that Ockham was excommunicated for his actions , not for his views. Lesser Treatise on Logic Tractatus minor logicae ) and Primer of Logic Elementarium logicae There are two doubtful exceptions, the

    14. Medieval Philosophy
    A study of Duns Scotus, william of ockham and other fourteenth century philosophers, and of medieval elements in Descartes and other early modern philosophers. Course notes by R.J. Kilcullen.
    Teaching Materials on Medieval Philosophy
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    15. William Of Ockham.
    william of ockham Ockham s razor William Ockhams razor William of Occam Occam s razor William Occams razors Artificial Intelligence AI Inductive Inference II
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    16. Targets Of The Inquisition William Of Ockham
    william of ockham (12851347) william of ockham, one of the Doctors of the Church, lived in

    17. William Of Ockham
    william of ockham (12851349). William came from Ockham which is near Guildford, SW of London, just off junction 10 of the M25 with the A3.
    William of Ockham (1285-1349).
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    William came from Ockham which is near Guildford, S.W. of London, just off junction 10 of the M25 with the A3. Medieval spelling was "rubbery" and while the village is now named `Ockham', the spelling `Occam' is frequently used in connection with W. W is often credited with making a statement to the effect of, ``if two theories explain the facts equally well then the simpler theory is to be preferred'', but see below. This principle is widely known as `Occam's Razor'.
    All Saints Church, Ockham.
    All Saints Church, Ockham, Surrey, contains a (recent) stained-glass window and statue of W'. The church dates from 13C. Behind the church is a gate into the private grounds of Ockham Park. The estate used to be owned by the Lovelace family, as in Ada Lovelace . The original house was destroyed by fire. From Mark Ellison:
    • Mach, Ernst. The Science of Mechanics: A Critical and Historical Account of Its Development , (Trans. TJ McCormack (1960)) Open Court, La Salle IL. Page 577ff.
    • Thorburn, WM.

    18. Books By William Of Ockham At - Every Day Low Prices
    Find books written by william of ockham. Select from 1000's of books at, we have a great selection of highquality merchandise, friendly service and, of course, Every Day Low Prices.

    19. William Of Ockham - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
    william of ockham. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. william of ockham (also Occam or any of several other spellings) (ca.
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    William of Ockham
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Michael Miller (also Milher or any of several other spellings) (ca. ) was a Franciscan friar and philosopher , from Ockham (near Ripley, Surrey ), England. William devoted to a life to extreme poverty and minimalism. A pioneer of nominalism , some consider him the father of modern epistemology and modern philosophy in general, because of his strongly argued position that only individuals exist, rather than supra-individual universals, essences, or forms, and that universals are the products of abstraction from individuals by the human mind and have no extra-mental existence. Ockham is also considered one of the greatest logicians of all time. Dave Beckett of the University of Kent at Canterbury writes:
    "The medieval rule of parsimony, or principle of economy, frequently used by Ockham came to be known as Ockham's razor
    Summoned to Avignon in by Pope John XXII on accusation of heresy, William spent four years there in effect under house arrest while his teaching and writing were being investigated. During this period, at the request of Brother

    20. Occam's Razor - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
    Razor or any of several other spellings), is a principle attributed to the 14th century English logician and Franciscan friar, william of ockham that forms the's_Razor
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    Occam's Razor
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
    This article discusses the logical precept of Occam's Razor. For other (band-related) meanings, see Ockham's Razor (bands)
    Occam's Razor (also Ockham's Razor or any of several other spellings), is a principle attributed to the 14th century English logician and Franciscan friar, William of Ockham that forms the basis of methodological reductionism Table of contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Numerous Ways of Expression
    2 Science and Occam's Razor

    3 Statistics and Occam's Razor

    4 Religion and Occam's Razor
    8 External links
    Numerous Ways of Expression
    The principle is most often expressed as Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem , or "Entities should not be multiplied beyond necessity", but this sentence was written by later authors and is not found in Occam's surviving writings. William wrote, in Latin Pluralitas non est ponenda sine neccesitate , which translates literally into English as "Plurality should not be posited without necessity".

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