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1. SOME EMINENT INDIAN MATHEMATICIANS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY VOLUME V by J.N. KAPUR(EDITOR), 1993
2. The Indian Clerk: A Novel by David Leavitt, 2007-09-04

1. Science In India: History Of Mathematics: Indian Mathematicians And Astronomers,
Describes indian mathematicians such as Aryabhatta who modelled the solar system, Bhaskar, Varahamira, and others who made important contributions in the fields of trigonometry, algebra, and classical analysis.
http://members.tripod.com/~INDIA_RESOURCE/mathematics.htm
 var cm_role = "live" var cm_host = "tripod.lycos.com" var cm_taxid = "/memberembedded" Check out the NEW Hotbot Tell me when this page is updated SOUTH ASIAN HISTORY Pages from the history of the Indian sub-continent: Science and Mathematics in India History of Mathematics in India In all early civilizations, the first expression of mathematical understanding appears in the form of counting systems. Numbers in very early societies were typically represented by groups of lines, though later different numbers came to be assigned specific numeral names and symbols (as in India) or were designated by alphabetic letters (such as in Rome). Although today, we take our decimal system for granted, not all ancient civilizations based their numbers on a ten-base system. In ancient Babylon, a sexagesimal (base 60) system was in use. The Decimal System in Harappa In India a decimal system was already in place during the Harappan period, as indicated by an analysis of Harappan weights and measures. Weights corresponding to ratios of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 have been identified, as have scales with decimal divisions. A particularly notable characteristic of Harappan weights and measures is their remarkable accuracy. A bronze rod marked in units of 0.367 inches points to the degree of precision demanded in those times. Such scales were particularly important in ensuring proper implementation of town planning rules that required roads of fixed widths to run at right angles to each other, for drains to be constructed of precise measurements, and for homes to be constructed according to specified guidelines. The existence of a gradated system of accurately marked weights points to the development of trade and commerce in Harappan society.

2. Great Indian Mathematicians
Just as the basics principles of Hinduism lay in the Vedas, so do the roots of mathematics. Discover the marvels of Vedic maths, a unique system of calculations based on word formulae, which can
##### Stay Current
Subscribe to the About Hinduism newsletter. Search Hinduism Great Mathematicians Mathematicians of India
MATHEMATICIAN TIME PERIOD
Baudhayana (700 B.C.E.) Apastamba Katyayana Umaswati (150 B.C.E.) Aryabhata (476-c. 550 C.E.) Varahamihira (c. 505-c. 558) Brahmagupta (c. 598-c. 670) Govindaswami (c. 800-850) Mahavira (Mahaviracharya) Pruthudakaswami Sridhara Manjula Aryabhata II Prashastidhara Halayudha Jayadeva Sripathi Hemachandra Suri (b. 1089) Bhaskara (1114-c. 1185) Cangadeva Madhava of Sangamagramma (c. 1340-1425) Narayama Pandit Paramesvara Nilakantha Somayaji Sankara Variar (c. 1500-1560)

3. Ancient Indian Mathematicians
A complete, Indian site on school maths, cbse and icse competitive exams, jokes and puzzles With this historical background, we come to the famous indian mathematicians. now called "Rolle's
http://www.ilovemaths.com/ind_mathe.htm
 The most fundamental contribution of ancient India in mathematics is the invention of decimal system of enumeration, including the invention of zero. The decimal system uses nine digits (1 to 9) and the symbol zero (for nothing) to denote all natural numbers by assigning a place value to the digits. The Arabs carried this system to Africa and Europe. The Vedas and Valmiki Ramayana used this system, though the exact dates of these works are not known. MohanjoDaro and Harappa excavations (which may be around 3000 B.C. old) also give specimens of writing in India. Aryans came 1000 years later, around 2000 B.C. Being very religious people, they were deeply interested in planetary positions to calculate auspicious times, and they developed astronomy and mathematics towards this end. They identified various nakshatras (constellations) and named the months after them. They could count up to 10 , while the Greeks could count up to 10 and Romans up to 10 . Values of irrational numbers such as and were also known to them to a high degree of approximation. Pythagoras Theorem can be also traced to the Aryan's

4. Indian Numerals - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
Arguably, any of these numeral systems could be called the Indian numeral system This is despite the fact that indian mathematicians most notably Brahmagupta had already studied
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_numerals
##### Indian numerals
Numeral systems Arabic numerals Armenian numerals Babylonian numerals Chinese numerals ... Hebrew numerals Indian numerals Japanese numerals Maya numerals Roman numerals Thai numerals ...
India
has produced many numeral systems . Arguably, any of these numeral systems could be called the Indian numeral system. For the purpose of this article however the term Indian numeral system will refer only to the positional base 10 numeral systems that developed in India and the term Indian numerals will refer only to the numerals that are part of the Devanagari script The numeral system has all the advantages of the Arabic numeral system except that this Indian numeral system has traditionally not allowed decimals Written below is a list of the Indian numerals, their corresponding Arabic numeral and their Hindi pronunciation. Devanagari Numeral Arabic Numeral Pronunciation shuunya ek do tiin chaar paanch chhe saath aaTh nau
Today these numerals are used in all Indian languages that use the Devanagari script. Most Indian languages which use other Brahmic scripts use the Indian numeral systems, except with different symbols for each numeral.

 5. Indian Mathematics Index History Topics Index of Ancient Indian mathematics. Articles on Indian Mathematics Ancient indian mathematicians in our archive in chronological orderhttp://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Indexes/Indians.html

6. Indian Science And Mathematics - History For Kids!
In the 600 s AD, indian mathematicians may have been responsible for inventing thenumeral zero, and the decimal (or place) system (or it is possible that they
http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/india/science/
 The Web Just H4K China India West Asia Greece ... Religion Indian science and mathematics From the time of the Harappans to the time of the Islamic conquests , Indian scientists and mathematicians were leaders in many different fields. They especially stood out in mathematics and engineering. The Harappans in 2500 BC had a sewage system at their city of Mohenjo-Daro, and carefully laid out, straight streets. So even though we can't read their writing, we know that the Harappans understood a lot of geometry. A severe climate change halted development at Harappa around 2000 BC. The Aryan invasion of 1500 BC also seems to have stopped scientific advances for a while, but it did bring military advances to India in the form of horse -drawn war chariots. Around 800 BC, when the Aryans in northern India learned to smelt iron from the Assyrians in West Asia, this gave them another military advantage. Around 500 BC, thanks to

7. Medieval Chinese And Indian Mathematicians
Chinese Mathematicians. indian mathematicians " The Chinese mathematicians were proficient in solving many The indian mathematicians of the medieval period were basically algebraists
http://www.math.utk.edu/~m400/ch6/People.html
 Chinese Mathematicians Indian Mathematicians "The Chinese mathematicians were proficient in solving many kinds of algebraic problems. Many of their methods probably stemmed from geometric considerations but in the end were apparently translated into purely algebraic procedure [...] it also appears that the Chinese scholars were primarily interested in solving problems of importance to the Chinese bureaucracy [...] Although the thirteenth-century mathematicians exploited the counting board to the fullest, its very use imposed limits. Equations remained numerical, so the Chinese were unable to develop a theory of equations comparable to the one developed several centuries later in the West..." (p.210) LI HUI Time: Third century Place: Northern Kingdom of Wei Major Mathematical Work: Jiuzhang suanshu - collection of nine problems with solutions, derivatives, illustrations and commentary. Li Hui nearly always followed his algebraic derivation with a geometric derivation. He calculated pi = 3.14159

8. Journal Of American Indian Education-Arizona State University
heard of any American indian mathematicians and/or scientists, where or small numbers of American indian mathematicians and scientists, that even though American Indian students
http://jaie.asu.edu/v36/V36S2how.htm
##### Volume 36 Number 2 Winter 1997
HOW DO AMERICAN INDIAN FIFTH AND SIXTH GRADERS PERCEIVE MATHEMATICS AND THE MATHEMATICS CLASSROOM? Jeanne Ramirez Corpus Mather The documented underachievement and under representation of non-Asian minorities, especially American Indians, in the fields of mathematics and science raises questions about mathematics education. The current study compared American Indian, African American, Hispanic, and White fifth and sixth graders' perceptions of. a) mathematics, b) mathematics ability, c) role models, d) teacher treatment, e) teaching practices, and f) career goals. The study utilized over one thousand student questionnaires with primary data analysis done using the Chi-Square test of Group Comparisons. Findings indicated some perceptions were unrelated to the racial/ethnic background of the student, but also indicated some perceptions were significantly correlated to a student's racial/ethnic background. Implications for educators were addressed, including changes in teaching strategies, curriculum, and role model exposure. Methods Procedure
The research study was conducted during the Spring of 1994, after the survey instrument had been field tested with 85 fifth and sixth graders in classroom situations, as well as with individual students. Authorization was obtained from the administration of all schools according to their school policies. An anonymous, confidential questionnaire requiring responses to both multiple choice and openended questions dealing with the designated perceptions was administered to 61 different classes in 15 schools to a total of 1,015 students. Ethnicity and/or race, grade, and age were self reported on the questionnaire. Data were also obtained through interviews of randomly selected students, teachers, and classroom observations in three school districts.

9. Soc.Religion.Hindu Archives: Re:REQUEST: Ancient Indian Mathematicians
ReREQUEST Ancient indian mathematicians. Posted By Prasenjit Medhi(medhi@worldnet.att.net) Tue, 26 Aug 1997 134633 0400
http://www.hindunet.org/srh_home/1997_8/0055.html
##### Re:REQUEST: Ancient Indian Mathematicians
Posted By Prasenjit Medhi ( medhi@worldnet.att.net
Tue, 26 Aug 1997 13:46:33 -0400

I have included a few important details about just a few of the most
famous ancient Indian mathematicians from past years.
To my mind, the most important and most influential of these figures were
Aryabhatta and Panini. Aryabhatta had an excellent understanding of the
Keplerian Universe more than a thousand years before Kepler, while Panini
made a remarkable analysis of language, namely Sanskrit, which was not
matched for 2,500 years, until the modern Bacchus form, in the 20th
century.
***Aryabhata the Elder Born: 476 in Kusumapura (now Patna), India Died: 550 in India Previous (Chronologically) Next Biographies Index Previous (Alphabetically) Next Welcome page Aryabhata wrote Aryabhatiya , finished in 499, which is a summary of Hindu

10. Ancient Indian Mathematicians
Ancient indian mathematicians The most With this historical background,we come to the famous indian mathematicians. Aryabhata (475
http://web.nitc.ac.in/~ee/department-web/newevents/indmath.html
 Ancient Indian Mathematicians The most fundamental contribution of ancient India in mathematics is the invention of decimal system of enumeration, including the invention of zero. The decimal system uses nine digits (1 to 9) and the symbol zero (for nothing) to denote all natural numbers by assigning a place value to the digits. The Arabs carried this system to Africa and Europe. The Vedas and Valmiki Ramayana used this system, though the exact dates of these works are not known. MohanjoDaro and Harappa excavations (which may be around 3000 B.C. old) also give specimens of writing in India. Aryans came 1000 years later, around 2000 B.C. Being very religious people, they were deeply interested in planetary positions to calculate auspicious times, and they developed astronomy and mathematics towards this end. They identified various nakshatras (constellations) and named the months after them. They could count up to 10^12, while the Greeks could count up to 10^4 and Romans up to 10^8 and Values of irrational numbers such as (root 2) and (root 3) were also known to them to a high degree of approximation. Pythagoras Theorem can be also traced to the Aryan's Sulbasutra s. These Sutras, estimated to be between 800 B.C. and 500 B.C., cover a large number of geometric principles. Jaina religious works (dating from 500 B.C. to 100 B.C.) show they knew how to solve quadratic equations (though ancient Chinese and Babylonians also knew this prior to 2000 B.C.). Jainas used (root 10) as the value of "Pi" (circumference = root 10 x Diameter). They were very fond of large numbers, and they classified numbers as enumerable, unenumerable and infinite. The Jainas also worked out formulae for permutations and combinations though this knowledge may have existed in Vedic times.

11. Fibonacci's Roots
Meanwhile, indian mathematicians had long before started their longtradition of fine mathematical thought. In the early parts of
http://www.fuzzygalore.biz/articles/fibonacci.shtml
FUZZY GALORE knit weave patterns ... home
##### Fibonacci's roots
Leonardo Pisano Bonacci, better known as Fibonacci (standardized in the 19th century from Fillius Bonacci), played a major role in the advancement of mathematics in the daily lives of Europeans, particularly with the publication of his Liber Abaci 800 years ago in 1202. He explained the practicality of using a 10-base notation rather than Roman numerals, which effectively ended their use. He also contributed his own mathematical gems, particularly in Enclidian geometry and number theory. His engaging use of examples such as the reproduction of rabbits made everyone notice the use of his sequence in many natural phenomena, something which we are still discovering, and we're still using it in many designs. The only biographical details we know about him are that he was born in Pisa and that his father was a customs official in North Africa. It's this later fact that led young Leonardo to be educated in Arabic mathematics and accounting methods, and to be able to popularize these concepts among Northern Europeans. The Roman numerals in use in medieval Europe were a clumsy affair at best, barely allowing one to add and substract. A torturous method had been devised for multiplication and division, and the tool of choice was an abacus for practical use, after which results were translated and recorded in Roman numerals. The ealiest known example of this device is dated from about 3000 BC and originated in Babylonia, where no doubt it contributed to its inventors' domination of their neighbors by giving them better architectural, astronomical (and therefore navigational) and financial tools.

12. Neither Vedia Nor Mathematics A Staemant Signed By SG Dani And Other Indian Scie
It is noteworthy that they have cherished the legacy of distinguished indian mathematicianslike Srinivasa Ramanujam, VK Patodi, S. Minakshisundaram, Harish
http://www.sacw.net/DC/CommunalismCollection/ArticlesArchive/NoVedic.html
 Neither Vedic Nor Mathematics We, the undersigned, are deeply concerned by the continuing attempts to thrust the so-called `Vedic Mathematics' on the school curriculum by the NCERT. As has been pointed out earlier on several occasions, the so-called `Vedic Mathematics' is neither 'Vedic' nor can it be dignified by the name of mathematics. `Vedic Mathematics', as is well-known, originated with a book of the same name by a former Sankracharya of Puri (the late Jagadguru Swami Shri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji Maharaj) published posthumously in 1965. The book assembled a set of tricks in elementary arithmetic and algebra to be applied in performing computations with numbers and polynomials. As is pointed out even in the foreword to the book by the General Editor, Dr. A.S. Agarwala, the aphorisms in Sanskrit to be found in the book have nothing to do with the Vedas. Nor are these aphorisms to be found in the genuine Vedic literature. The book "Vedic mathematics'' essentially deals with arithmetic of the middle and high-school level. Its claims that "there is no part of mathematics, pure or applied, which is beyond their jurisdiction'' is simply ridiculous. In an era when the content of mathematics teaching has to be carefully designed to keep pace with the general explosion of knowledge and the needs of other modern professions that use mathematical techniques, the imposition of ``Vedic mathematics'' will be nothing short of calamitous. India today has active and excellent schools of research and teaching in mathematics that are at the forefront of modern research in their discipline with some of them recognised as being among the best in the world in their fields of research. It is noteworthy that they have cherished the legacy of distinguished Indian mathematicians like Srinivasa Ramanujam, V. K. Patodi, S. Minakshisundaram, Harish Chandra, K. G. Ramanathan, Hansraj Gupta, Syamdas Mukhopadhyay, Ganesh Prasad, and many others including several living Indian mathematicians. But not one of these schools has lent an iota of legitimacy to `Vedic mathematics'. Nowhere in the world does any school system teach "Vedic mathematics'' or any form of ancient mathematics for that matter as an adjunct to modern mathematical teaching. The bulk of such teaching belongs properly to the teaching of history and in particular the teaching of the history of the sciences.

 13. 8 IV. Mathematics Over The Next 400 Years (700AD-1100AD) Ellipse Only Indian mathematician to refer to the ellipse, indeed indian mathematiciansdid not study conic sections or anything along these lines.http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Projects/Pearce/Chapters/Ch8_4.h

 14. 10 Conclusions I wish to conclude initially by simply saying that the work of indian mathematicianshas been severely neglected by western historians, although the situationhttp://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Projects/Pearce/Chapters/Ch10.ht

15. Mathematician At MIT: Indian Wins 'junior Nobel'
Mathematician at MIT Indian wins Âjunior NobelÂ. indian mathematiciansacknowledge that attention is coming this way after a long time.
http://www.hvk.org/articles/0902/151.html
##### Mathematician at MIT: Indian wins Âjunior NobelÂ
Author: Samar Halarnkar
Publication: The Indian Express
Date: September 22, 2002
URL: http://www.indian-express.com/full_story.php?content_id=9951 Introduction: IIT graduate Madhu SudanÂs work tackles problems, Âimportant and deepÂ IndiaÂs techies routinely use their knowledge of mathematics to try and create the next big thing, their first millionÂor the next. But one Indian has won international acclaim for doing nothing more than brilliant maths, part of a breed faithful to pen and paper. Madhu Sudan, a native of Chennai and IIT Delhi graduate (class of 1987) has won the 2002 Rolf Nevanlinna Prize, one of the worldÂs most prestigious awards in mathematics. ItÂs also termed the junior Nobel in mathematics, awarded as it is for ÂÂboth existing work and the promise of future achievement,ÂÂ according to the International Mathematical Union. Sudan, 35, is an associate professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and was recognised for his groundbreaking work in theoretical computer science. He was presented with the award last month in Bejing at a meeting of the International Mathematical Union addressed by the Chinese President Jiang Zemin with 4,000 people in attendance. Some of the problems SudanÂwhose sister is a bank manager is New Mumbai and father a retired government officer in DelhiÂ has solved have practical applications, but many are purely advances limited to the realm of arcane mathematical research.

16. A Short Note
Brahmagupta was one of the very few early indian mathematicians, who conceptualisedthe earth as round, and not as flat and hollow. Bhaskara.
http://cs.annauniv.edu/associations_and_events/maths/HISTORY/INDEX.HTM
 Indian Mathematics - A Short Note In ancient India, mathematics or 'Ganita' was the 'Science of Calculations'. It was primarily studied in the context of numerical computation and geometric measurement. Most of the Indian mathematical work can be found as a part of 'Jyotisha' or Astronomy. This is because Astronomy, which dealt with the measurement of time using the heavenly bodies, involved high levels of sophisticated numerical computation. Mathematics in ancient India was so well developed that the body of knowledge was not restricted only to the elite scholars. It was prevalently used even by the common people in their daily activities and profession. The history of Indian mathematics dates back to the vedic period (around 1500 B.C.) The 'Sulbasutras' of this vedic age are texts on rules for altar construction. They are the oldest texts on Indian mathematics. They contain the general enunciation of the Pythagoras theorem, approximate value for square root of 2, methods of transforming one figure to another etc... Indians also used the decimal place-value system of representing the numbers. They had a representation for zero. The origin of the decimal place-value system in India was sometime around 1st century B.C. There are numerous great mathematicians who have contributed to Indian Mathematics. The subject is a synergistic effort of all of them. Since even a mention of all of them would run into pages, we are able to list the contributions of only a few of the mathematicians. The set that we have described below is only a drop in the ocean of great mathematicians who lived in India.

17. Indian Maths
Did you know, for instance that . indian mathematicians developed the conceptof zero ? indian mathematicians developed the decimal place notation ?
http://cs.annauniv.edu/associations_and_events/maths/
 Indian Mathematics g::Ã°p:iB:agy:m:D:Ãv:Ãat: Ã:Ã Â¤iS::Ã°deD:s:enD:g:. K:l:j:iev:t:K:at:av: g:l:hal:ars:Ã¶D:r.. Are you wondering if we are starting with a prayer? Well, may be. Actually, we are presenting to you the Indian encoding of the enigmatic number 'PI' up to 32 decimal places in the form of a shloka ! Isn't it mindboggling? That's Indian Mathematics for you. Welcome to the wonderful world of Indian mathematics! You've probably heard of the glorious achievements of traditional Indian thinkers, astronomers and philosophers. You would've also known about the work of such intellectuals in the field of mathematics. But did you know that mathematics was also used in day-to-day activities by the common man? It is this simplicity of Indian Mathematics that we would like to introduce you to. We are going to present to you some of the basic techniques where you can experience the power of Indian Mathematics. Before going into that, a few words about our rich tradition. Did you know, for instance that .... Indian mathematicians developed the concept of zero ?

18. Indian Scientists, Scientist Of India
advanced methods of determining the number of mathematical combinations by the secondcentury BC By the fifth century AD, indian mathematicians were using ten
http://www.indianchild.com/indian_scientists.htm
Indian Scientists , scientist of India
##### Origin and Development
India has a long and proud scientific tradition. Nehru, in his Discovery of India hindsah , meaning "from Hind (India)"), their Indian origins are a source of national pride. Technological discoveries have been made relating to pharmacology, brain surgery, medicine, artificial colors and glazes, metallurgy, recrystalization, chemistry, the decimal system, geometry, astronomy, and language and linguistics (systematic linguistic analysis having originated in India with Panini's fourth-century B.C. Sanskrit grammar, the Ashtadhyayi ). These discoveries have led to practical applications in brick and pottery making, metal casting, distillation, surveying, town planning, hydraulics, the development of a lunar calendar, and the means of recording these discoveries as early as the era of Harappan culture. Written information on scientific developments from the Harrapan period to the eleventh century A.D. (when the first permanent Muslim settlements were established in India) is found in Sanskrit, Pali, Arabic, Persian, Tamil, Malayalam, and other classical languages that were intimately connected to Indian religious and philosophical traditions. Archaeological evidence and written accounts from other cultures with which India has had contact have also been used to corroborate the evidence of Indian scientific and technological developments. The technology of textile production, hydraulic engineering, water-powered devices, medicine, and other innovations, as well as mathematics and other theoretical sciences, continued to develop and be influenced by techniques brought in from the Muslim world by the Mughals after the fifteenth century.

19. Indian Of The Month
It was during the fall of Roman Empire that Aryabhata another of theoldest indian mathematicians was born.. His best known work
http://www.indoaust.com/IndianFebruary03.htm
 Rooma Nanda who works for IBM Australia will be writing this monthly article. Rooma has an MBA from UTS and has worked for multi nationals like Pacific Access (Yellow Pages) and Optus. Rooma has also made a documentary on Online Education in India. Email Successful Indian of the Month India, as a country, has contributed to the world of mathematics in an unparalleled way. It is a well known fact that the most fundamental contribution of ancient India in mathematics is the invention of decimal system of numeration, including the invention of zero. The Vedas and Valmiki Ramayana are also believed to have used this system. Ancient civilizations like MohanjoDaro and Harappa excavations around 3000 B.C. old also give specimens of writing in India. The soil of India has given birth to great mathematicians such as, Aryabhata (475 A.D. -550 A.D.) the first well known Indian mathematician, Brahmagupta (598 A.D. -665 A.D.) renowned for introduction of negative numbers and operations on zero into arithmetic and Bhaskara (1114 A.D. -1185 A.D.) Bhaskaracharaya - the most well known ancient Indian mathematician.

 20. SPEAKING TREEZero To Infinity In Indian Mysticism - The Times Of India indian mathematicians knew perfectly well how to distinguish between these two notionswhich are mutually contradictory and which are the inverse of each otherhttp://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/cms.dll/articleshow?artid=22993081

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