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         Value Of Pi:     more detail
  1. The true value of [pi] and the fallacy of Archimedes, by George J Pineau, 1950
  2. Bibliography on the polemic problem: What is the value of [symbol for pi] by S. C Gould, 1980
  3. A short account of the principal geometrical methods of approximating to the value of pi: For the use of colleges and schools by G Pirie, 1877
  4. Numerical values of the first twelve powers of [pi], of their recipricals, and of certain other related quantities by J. W. L Glaisher, 1877
  5. A comparison of traditional capstone office occupations courses with intensive office occupations block programs based on selected work values of twelfth ... Pi Epsilon, Bowling Green State University by Charles J Hamed, 1974
  6. Religions, values, and peak-experiences, ([The Kappa Delta Pi lecture series]) by Abraham H Maslow, 1964
  7. Educar en valores.(religión y sociedad)(TT: Teaching values.)(TA: religion and society)(Artículo Breve): An article from: Epoca by Ramón Pi, 2002-05-17
  8. Gulliver's visit to Walden III: A report on values in education by William Clark Trow, 1976

1. The Molten Sea And The Value Of Pi
The Molten Sea and the value of pi. Is in Scripture? Can Pi be accuratelyfound in the Biblical texts describing the dimensions
The Molten Sea and the Value of Pi
Is "in" Scripture? Can Pi be accurately found in the Biblical texts describing the dimensions of the Molten Sea using: Numerics, Gematria, or Equidistant Letter Sequencing (ELS)? To what degree of accuracy? To how many decimal places? This site deals with my attempts to read the value of p into the Scripture texts that describe the Molten Sea. It's purpose is to show how easily this can be done; which implies that the fantastic claims made by some for: ELS, Gematria and Numerics are ungrounded. The ease by which the value of p can be "found" indicates the fact that these methods do not reveal hidden "codes" or other secrets. It is simply a matter of reading something into the Biblical text, not out of it.
In confining my examples to that of locating a more accurate value for p in the verses that describe the Molten Sea, I draw attention to the fact that it is quite easy to "find" whatever you are looking for. Also, these examples do not add to or subtract from the Biblical message. They merely "give" a more accurate value for p . Since p is an irrational number, all values that represent it are approximations; some being more accurate than others. Among other things, I wanted to use an example that does not violate or tamper with the Word of God.

2. The Straight Dope: Did A State Legislature Once Pass A Law Saying Pi Equals 3?
brim to the other" of the "completely round" circle gives the value of pi as being exactly 3 the biblical notion of pi and the actual value may be accounted
Message Boards News Archive Ask Cecil ... Cecil Who?
Did a state legislature once pass a law saying pi equals 3?
Dear Cecil:
In Science magazine a while back an article about the latest attempts to calculate pi to the umpteen zillionth decimal place made a passing reference to a curious Oklahoma law. It said Oklahoma legislators had passed a law making pi equal to 3.0. I also remember Robert Heinlein in one of his novels mentioning that Tennessee had passed a similar law. Did either of these states ever pass such a law? Are they still on the books? What are the penalties if I proclaim that pi equals 3.14159...? Wulf Losee, Andover, Connecticut
Dear Wulf:
Cecil had heard this story too, only the state in question was Kansas, leading him to believe the whole thing was made up by big-city sharpies having a little fun at the expense of the rustics. However, with the help of Joseph Madachy, editor of the Journal of Recreational Mathematics, I've learned the story does have a germ of truth to it.
It happened in Indiana. Although the attempt to legislate pi was ultimately unsuccessful, it did come pretty close. In 1897 Representative T.I. Record of Posen county introduced House Bill #246 in the Indiana House of Representatives. The bill, based on the work of a physician and amateur mathematician named Edward J. Goodwin (Edwin in some accounts), suggests not one but three numbers for pi, among them 3.2, as we shall see. The punishment for unbelievers I have not been able to learn, but I place no credence in the rumor that you had to spend the rest of your natural life in Indiana.

3. Urban Legends Reference Pages: Religion (Alabama's Slice Of Pi)
Did the state legislature of Alabama redefine the value of pi according to Biblical precepts? religious groups, Alabama's state legislature redefined the value of pi from 3.14159 to 3 in order to
Alabama's Slice of Pi Claim: Responding to pressure from religious groups, Alabama's state legislature redefined the value of pi from to 3 in order to bring it in line with Biblical precepts. Status: False. Example: [Collected on the Internet, 1998]
introduced without fanfare by Leonard Lee Lawson (R, Crossville), and rapidly gained support after a letter-writing campaign by members of the Solomon Society, a traditional values group. Governor Guy Hunt says he will sign it into law on Wednesday. The law took the state's engineering community by surprise. "It would have been nice if they had consulted with someone who actually uses pi," said Marshall Bergman, a manager at the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization. According to Bergman, pi is a Greek letter that signifies the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. It is often used by engineers to calculate missile trajectories. Prof. Kim Johanson, a mathematician from University of Alabama, said that pi is a universal constant, and cannot arbitrarily be changed by lawmakers. Johanson explained that pi is an irrational number, which means that it has an infinite number of digits after the decimal point and can never be known exactly. Nevertheless, she said, pi is precisly defined by mathematics to be "3.14159, plus as many more digits as you have time to calculate". "I think that it is the mathematicians that are being irrational, and it is time for them to admit it," said Lawson. "The Bible very clearly says in

4. Biblical Value Of Pi
Biblical value of pi. Solomon and the Molten Sea. In describing the temple that King Solomon built for the King of Kings, several articles of furniture are described. One of these pieces is a a molten sea. passage concerning the mathematical accuracy of the Bible. The value of (pi) is known to be equal to the
Biblical Value of Pi Solomon and the Molten Sea here that the scripture is not exact, what other passages also contain words that cannot be received with complete accuracy? Let us examine the passage more carefully. First, the Bible says that the molten sea was “ten cubits from brim to brim.” This logically would be from the very edge of the rim on one side to the very farthest point on the opposite side. Second, the same verse declares that “a line of thirty cubits did compass it round about.” What is the antecedent of “it?” Clearly it is the molten sea mentioned previously in the verse; therefore, the “line of 30 cubits” compasses the sea, or the liquid contained in the vessel Taken exactly as described, the measurement appears to be the inner diameter of the basin the distance around the sea. When we realize that this molten sea has a thickness associated with it, the 10 cubits from brim to brim becomes the outer diameter, while the 30-cubit measurement describes the inner circumference. Since the diameter is obtained by simply dividing the circumference by (pi), the inner diameter can be calculated as 9.549 cubits. Additionally, the thickness of the vessel is found by taking half of the difference between the inner and outer diameter. Using the inner diameter just calculated and the given outer diameter of 10 cubits, the thickness is 0.225 or approximately 4 inches.

5. Hidden Codes In The Bible: The Value Of Pi
Hidden Codes in the Bible The value of pi. by Chuck Missler numbers to generate a statistical estimation of pi. By the way, in warped spacetime pi is not
Personal Update, April 1998
Hidden Codes in the Bible:
The Value of Pi
by Chuck Missler Koinonia House Ministries When I was a teenager, I was confronted by a skeptic (a Unitarian, actually) concerning an apparent discrepancy in 1 Kings 7:23. This passage deals with Solomon's Temple and the products of Hiram the Bronzeworker: And he made a molten sea, ten cubits from the one brim to the other: it was round all about, and his height was five cubits: and a line of thirty cubits did compass it round about. (1 Kings 7:23) The huge cast bronze basin in 1 Kings 7:23 was 10 cubits (note 1) in diameter and its circumference was 30 cubits, which is mathematically inaccurate. Almost any schoolboy knows that the circumference of a circle is not the diameter times 3, but rather, the diameter times a well-known constant called ("Pi"). The real value of 7r is 3.14159265358979, but is commonly approximated by 22/7. This is assumed, by many, to be an "error" in the Old Testament record, and is often presented as a skeptical rebuttal to the "inerrancy" of the Scripture. How can we say that the Bible is inerrant when it contains such an obvious geometrically incorrect statement? How do we deal with this?

6. Re: Changing The Value Of Pi
Re changing the value of pi. Date Fri Jan 7 091411 2000. Posted By Dan Berger, Faculty Chemistry/Science, Bluffton College. Area of science Physics. ID 946538700.PhMessage but a science
MadSci Network : Physics
Re: changing the value of pi
Date: Fri Jan 7 09:14:11 2000
Posted By: Dan Berger, Faculty Chemistry/Science, Bluffton College
Area of science: Physics
ID: 946538700.Ph Message:
i realize its somewhat silly to consider, but a science fiction novel once referred to changing the value of pi in *a* universe. what explicit effects would this have on the world as we know it? thanks for all your help! steve Steve, you have it exactly backwards. p (Pi) is a ratio - the circumference of a circle divided by its diameter - defined by the geometric properties of the universe one inhabits. In a "flat" or Euclidean universe - named for Euclid of Alexandria , who wrote the Element s , the definitive geometry text for thousands of years - parallel lines never meet or diverge. In such a universe the value of p is 3.14159... (or approximately 3 ). The universe we live in is Euclidean on most scales, in fact on almost every scale we can measure; at the very largest scales it may be non-Euclidean Actually, General Relativity says that the presence of matter curves space, so that any local area of space will be non-Euclidean, even if only a little. But if the total curving effect of matter cancels out, the universe as a whole can be Euclidean. This is equivalent to saying that "the density of the universe is one," just enough to stop the universal expansion at infinite time. For more, see

7. Discovering The Value Of Pi
A lesson that uses an applet to allow the student to measure many circles and figureout the fact that Pi exists and its value. Discovering the value of pi ( ).
Discovering the Value of Pi ( The purpose of this lesson is for you to discover a very special attribute of circles. Preface Measuring Circles Analyzing the Data Interesting facts about Pi ... Lesson Description (for Teacher) Last Updated: Saturday, 10-Mar-2001 02:02:09 GMT

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8. Finding The Value Of Pi
Finding the value of pi Throughout the history of civilization various mathematicians have been concerned with discovering the value of and different expressions for the ratio of the circumference

9. Math Forum: Finding The Value Of Pi
Finding the value of pi. A Math Forum Project But one problem remained what is the numerical value of pi? to Euler s Solution of
Finding the Value of Pi
A Math Forum Project Table of Contents: Famous Problems Home The Bridges of Konigsberg
The Value of Pi

Prime Numbers
... Links
Historians estimate that by 2000 B.C. humans had noticed that the ratio of circumference to diameter was the same for all circles. This discovery hinged on the idea of proportion - in this case humans noticed that if you double the distance "across" a circle, then you double the distance "around" it. In today's algebraic notation this implied the formula where Pi was constant. (It wasn't until 1706 that this notation, using the Greek letter seen in the above equation - often written Pi and pronounced like the English 'pie' - was introduced by William Jones). The significance of this discovery is clear: Circles are everywhere - in the sun, the moon, the pupils of our eyes, the most basic religious rituals and the earliest man-made structures. Achieving a greater mathematical understanding of Pi would lead to scientific and technological advances that would further the development of civilization, as well as creating some very interesting problems in pure mathematics. But one problem remained - what is the numerical value of Pi?

10. Discovering The Value Of Pi
Discovering the value of pi This web site is designed to help students in grades 6 to 12 discover the value of pi by using an online applet. Students can work independently or in groups. The web

11. Math Forum - Ask Dr. Math
What is the value of pi? Date 19 Jun 1995 124111 0400 From william lamb Subjectvalue of pi What is the value of pi? What is the square root of pi?

Associated Topics
Dr. Math Home Search Dr. Math
What is the Value of Pi?
Date: 19 Jun 1995 12:41:11 -0400 From: william lamb Subject: Value of Pi What is the value of pi? What is the square root of pi? Date: 19 Jun 1995 13:58:04 -0400 From: Dr. Ethan Subject: Value of Pi Hey neat question. The value of Pi is a really interesting problem. It is confusing because Pi is an irrational number, which means that it cannot be expressed as a ratio of two integers. So the easiest thing to say is that Pi is the number that is the ratio between the diameter and the circumference of a circle. However for the sake of usefulness people often need to approximate Pi. For my purposes I usually don't need a very good approximation so I use 3.14159, which is really pretty good, but if you want a better one you can use a computer to get it, e.g. 3.14159265358979323846. That was given to me by a program called Mathematica. So, once you have an approximation you can just take the square root to get an approximation for the square root of pi. 1.7724538509055160273 is what mathematica gives me. Hope that helps, Ethan - Doctor On Call Associated Topics
Middle School Pi

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12. How Is The Exact Value Of Pi Determined?
Question How is the exact value of pi determined? Asked by that s it!The value of pi correct to seven decimal places is 3.1415926.
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How is the exact value of pi determined? Asked by: Charlie Hinkle Answer The value of pi is the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter . Therefore, you can determine the value of pi by drawing ANY perfect circle (either physically or in a computer program simulation), then measure it's circumference and diameter, take the ratio and that's it! The value of pi correct to seven decimal places is: . Pi is an irrational number, i.e. it cannot be expressed by a whole number or a common fraction. According to Encarta Encyclopedia pi has been worked out to a million decimal places by a computer without coming to a whole fraction. Answered by: Doris Thomas and Anton Skorucak go to the top Advertisement: '1995-'2004

13. Prophecy Truths -- Complete Site Index
So if the circumference were 30 cubits, and the diameter were 10 cubits,then the ancient value of pi was 3.0, which is not very good.
Biblical Math Mystery Solution for PI
by Roy A. Reinhold April 16, 2001
In reading the Bible, many people come across a description of the huge sea at Solomon's Temple, which held 2000 baths of water. They read the description in 1 Kings 7:23-26, and note that this water container was 10 cubits from brim to brim, circular in form, and was 30 cubits in circumference, and 5 cubits in height. Skeptics take issue and say that either God didn't know the value for "pi" (3.1415927....) or else it proves that the Bible was written by men, and at the time they had no understanding of the relationship of : pi = circumference of a circle divided by the diameter = 3.1415927... The following is an exact possible solution: 1 Kings 7:23 Now he made the sea of cast metal ten cubits from brim to brim, circular in form, and its height was five cubits, and thirty cubits in circumference. (NASB) Skeptics and non-believers, along with many who think the Bible is well worth studying, read the above verse and think to themselves that this is nonsense. Everyone who has completed High School knows that the circumference of a circle is "pi x diameter" or "pi x 2 x radius". So if the circumference were 30 cubits, and the diameter were 10 cubits, then the ancient value of pi was 3.0, which is not very good. What I want the reader to think about is whether the text tells you inside diameter or outside diameter, and whether the circumference given is inside circumference or outside circumference?

14. Vote On The Future Value Of Pi
Vote on the Future value of pi. There already have been a page for voting about Pi.(http// Bad that the voting was over a long ago.
Vote on the Future Value of Pi
There already have been a page for voting about Pi. ( ) Bad that the voting was over a long ago. Nevertheless, I decided to make my own page for voting about Pi. If you happen to visit this page, please inform your friends too. Votes were accepted to 31.3.1996. (23.59 UTC)
No more votes are accepted.
  • Pi equals 0.
    The best approximation I've seen.
  • Pi equals 1.
    Would simplify mathematics enormously.
  • Pi equals 3.
    This one too.
  • Pi equals sqrt g.
    Most physical approximation I've seen.
  • Pi equals 3.14.
    Typical choice for a engineer.
  • Pi equals 3.14159.
    All the digits I can remember.
  • Pi equals 355/113.
    If you don't believe in irrational numbers.
  • Pi equals UCLA's 100,000 digits approximation.
  • Pi equals arc tan 1 * 4.
    This seems to be the mathematically correct one.
  • Pi equals 22/7.
    A simple fraction.
  • Pi equals 4.
    According to a French law.
  • Pi equals 16/sqrt 3.
    Almost became Indianna law a century ago.
  • Pi equals 42.
    Choice for a THHGTTG fan. (My favourite.)
  • Pi equals i.
  • 15. LCF's Comprehensive Home Page - Value Of Pi
    Ecommerce Solution . Free Web Space . Free Web Site . Web HostingChoose an ISP NetZero High Speed InternetDial up $14.95 or NetZero Internet Service $9.95. Home. value of pi. Quick Basic. Visual Basic. Useful Links. Feed Back. Value has successfully found the value of pi in a very precise way
    Ecommerce Solution Free Web Space Free Web Site Web Hosting ... Dial up $14.95 or NetZero Internet Service $9.95 Home Value of Pi Quick Basic ... Feed Back Value of Pi
    is a ratio between circumference of a circle and its diameter. In old days, man has tried hard to find this mystic value. In The Song Dynasty, China, Zhu Chong-Zhi has successfully found the value of pi in a very precise way. Nowadays, man tend to use their super-computer or mainframe to calculate this value. Although its preciseness is far greater then the old days', it is not practical to use such a value. Forget about the practical usage of this value. Let's see those digits in another view point, "the beauty of digits" . If you still not satisfied with the value below, please download value of pi with 10 million digits here . Decompressed it with Winzip or PKzip
    Home Value of Pi ... Feed Back
    Design and coded by LCF. Free to read my original HTML code.

    16. Marko Nippula's Home Page: Vote On The Future Value Of Pi
    Vote on the Future value of pi. Vote on the Future value of pi Results. Iwould choose option 17 for the most accurate value for PI so far 16.
    Vote on the Future Value of Pi: Results
    There are results from Voting on Pi's future value.
    Here's the voting page.
    Received votes: (summary)
    Category Votes Pi=0 Pi=1 Pi=3 Pi=sqrt g Pi=3.14 Pi=3.14159 Pi=355/113 Pi=UCLA approx. Pi=old value Pi=22/7 Pi=4 Pi=16/sqrt 3 Pi=42 Pi=i TOTAL ACCEPTED didn't decide/special
    But in fact when it comes to some voting, usually the best compromiss of the final result is a avarage. Average (with only some decimals) of results (disqualified aren't included - it would have made calculation a little more difficult...) is 11.63273531...+0.114286i. I suggest you use this value instead of 3.14159... next time when you need pi - as this is the result of a voting on net and as a such cannot be wrong.
    Obvious advantages of 11.63273531...+0.114286i over 3.14159...:
    It's big enough to make the Globe large enough for all human beings and on other hand it's ain't imaginary enough to cause major head-aches.
    Received votes:
    [I've put my own additional comments in square brackets]
    Name E-Mail Vote Petteri Someroja msomeroj@snakemail UCLA approx.

    17. The Pi-Search Page
    Where can I get the digits of Pi? The source code I decided that it so enhanced the value of pi in my life, that everyone else needed to read
    The Pi-Search Page A result of taking people too seriously, the Pi Searcher lets you search for any string of digits (up to 120 of them) in the first 100 million digits of Pi . You can also show any substring of Pi. Search For: See digits starting at position
    • 01/15/2004 - fixed a silly off by one error in the pi displayer. Displays are now 1-based, just like searches.
    • - You can now display any substring in Pi with the Pi Searcher. Thanks to the people who suggested this!
    • (Pi Day 2001) - The pi searcher now provides 100 million digits, made possible by the new box and the compressed searching.
    • - The Pi Searcher now runs on the box that ArosNet Colocation Services is hosting for me, and just got a bit faster. You probably won't notice the difference, but it's about 4x faster now that it's the only computationally intensive thing running on this machine.
    • - Compressed the digits two per byte, and wrote a custom search routine. The pi searcher is now nearly as fast as a linear search can be, and uses less space than before.

    18. Buffon's Problem ... Calculating The Value Of PI Using Toothpicks
    Calculating the value of pi using toothpicks, to illustrate CountBuffon s problem. A problem for Math 31 or Junior High students.
    Also known as 'Count Buffon's Problem') I magine dropping a handful of toothpicks onto a sheet of paper that has been ruled with a number of parallel, equidistant lines. What is the probability that any toothpick will land in such a way that it intersects a line?
    At first glance, this problem seems difficult to solve. We will attempt to work out that probability, and show how you can find the value of PI by recording how many toothpicks actually intersect a line! Junior High classes might want to visit our 'Calculating Pi' page, where we outline how you can work out the value of Pi yourself using toothpicks, and send us your data. Or try out our Buffon Applet , which will let you run the experiment online and get some immediate results!
    What follows below is an explanation of where the formula comes from, designed for Math 31 students and teachers.
    Clearly, the toothpicks can land on the paper in many ways. However, the position of any toothpick can be characterized by:
    • the distance of the center of the toothpick from a line
    • the angle formed with the direction of the lines
    Clearly, the toothpick

    19. Calculating The Value Of Pi Using Toothpicks ... An Experiment For Junior High M
    Calculating the value of pi using toothpicks, to illustrate Count Buffon sproblem. Fill them in the formula, and work out your own value of pi!
    ... an experiment for Jr. High math classes
    Pi is an irrational number. Its value is approximately 3.14159... ; the number of decimal places is infinite, and there is no repeating pattern.
    If you'd like to see the first four thousand decimal places, you can visit our 'Pi' page.
    Or perhaps you're curious as to what Pi actually is ... in that case, you can have a look at where Pi comes from.
    One way to calculate for yourself the value of pi is to drop a lot of toothpicks onto a large piece of paper that has lines drawn on it!
    Here's how it works. You'll need several boxes of toothpicks. Get a large piece of chart paper, and draw parallel lines on it, from one side to the other. The lines should be separated by a distance just slightly larger than the length of a toothpick.
    (If you would like to send us your results, you'll have to
    use standard toothpicks and a set line width; see below)
    From a height of about one metre, drop a measured number of toothpicks onto the chart paper, so that they all fall randomly somewhere on the paper. Count how many toothpicks are touching a line (or would be, if they weren't resting on another toothpick).

    20. Solomon's Sea And The Value Of Pi
    Bible skeptics allege that the writer of 1 Kings couldn t possibly have been inspiredbecause he evidently believed that the value of pi was 3, not the more
    Joseph Francis Alward Bible skeptics allege that the writer of 1 Kings couldn't possibly have been inspired because he evidently believed that the value of pi was 3, not the more nearly correct value of 3.14, but a closer look reveals that if one allows for reasonable "round-off" by the Bible writers, there is no error. E-Mail Alward Home Page The circumference of a circle is obtained by multiplying pi times the diameter. Bible skeptics allege that the writer of 1 Kings couldn't possibly have been inspired because he evidently believed that the value of pi was 3, not the more nearly correct value of 3.14. As evidence, the skeptics point to 1 Kings 7:23 in which the writer says that circumference of Solomon's man-made circular pond was 30 cubits and its diameter was 10 cubits: "He [Solomon] made the Sea of cast metal, circular in shape, measuring ten cubits from rim to rim and five cubits high. It took a line of thirty cubits to measure around it." However, if the circumference of the pond really was 30 cubits, the diameter would have to be 9.549 cubits, approximately. Rounded to the nearest integer, the diameter is 10 cubits, which is close enough, even for a god who could have given the value of

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