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         Turing Machine:     more books (100)
  1. Computability and decidability;: An introduction for students of computer science (Lecture notes in economics and mathematical systems) by Jacques Loeckx, 1972
  2. The Complexity of Decision Problems in Automata Theory and Logic by Larry J. Stockmeyer, 1974
  3. Unconventional Computation: 5th International Conference, UC 2006, York, UK, September 4-8, 2006, Proceedings (Lecture Notes in Computer Science)
  4. Komplexitatstheorie (Leitfaden der angewandten Mathematik und Mechanik ; Bd. 39) by Wolfgang J Paul, 1978
  5. Automata and Languages: Theory and Applications by Alexander Meduna, 2000-08
  6. The Undecidable: Basic Papers on Undecidable Propositions, Unsolvable Problems andComputable Functions
  7. Automata (Macmillan computer science series) by David Hopkin, Barbara Moss, 1976-11
  8. Interactive Computation: The New Paradigm
  9. Complexité et Décidabilité (Mathématiques et Applications) by Patrick Dehornoy, 1995-06-19
  10. On Turing's formula for word probabilities (Research Report RC. International Business Machines Corporation. Research Division) by Arthur Nádas, 1985
  11. Artificial intelligence: Are scientists close to creating a machine that 'thinks'? (CQ researcher) by David Masci, 1997
  12. The New naturalist by Alan Mathison Turing, 1950
  13. Using self-reducibilities to characterize polynomial time (Computer sciences technical report. University of Wisconsin--Madison. Computer Sciences Dept) by Judy Goldsmith, 1988
  14. Weak monadic second order theory of succesor is not elementary-recursive (Project MAC) by Albert R Meyer, 1973

81. What Is A Turing Machine?
What is a turing machine? A turing machine is given by the following data A finite set of states,. A finite set of symbols (the alphabet),.
Next: Grammars and context-sensitivity Up: Turing machines and the Previous: Turing machines and the
What is a Turing machine?
A Turing machine is given by the following data
  • A finite set of states, A finite set of symbols (the alphabet), A finite set of tape symbols s.t. . This is the case because we use the tape also for the input. A transition function The transition function defines how the function behaves if is in state and the symbol on the tape is . If then the machine stops otherwise if the machines gets into state , writes on the tape (replacing ) and moves left if or right, if An initial state The blank symbol but . In the beginning only a finite section of the tape containing the input is not blank. A set of final states
In the course text the transition function is defined without the stop option as . However they allow to be undefined which correspond to our function returning stop. This defines deterministic Turing machines, for non-deterministic TMs we change the transition function to Here stop corresponds to returning an empty set. As for finite automata (and unlike for PDAs) there is no difference in the strength of deterministic or non-deterministic TMs.

82. A Turing Machine Simulator Program
A turing machine Simulator Program. 1. Introduction. The turing machine Simulator Main Menu. 3. A Sample turing machine Program. The following
A Turing Machine Simulator Program
1. Introduction
The Turing Machine Simulator program simulates the execution of a Turing Machine by allowing the generation and execution of small Turing Machine programs consisting of quintuples of symbols (current state, current symbol, next symbol, next state, head movement). The Turing Machine Simulator IDE (Integrated Development Environment) displays four windows:
  • Turing Machine Window : Displays the Tape, the Read/Write head, and the Current State. As a Turing Machine program executes, the R/W head moves back and forth over the Tape while the display for the Current State changes. Status Window : Displays the position of the R/W head, the number of steps executed by the Turing Machine, the Quintuple to be executed next, and the "status" of the Turing Machine (running, halt, interrupt etc). This is useful for "single stepping" the execution of a Turing Machine program. Edit Window : A small built-in editor allows the user to create and edit files of Turing Machine quintuples which then can be executed. Menu Window : Menu to display current user options. Contents change depending on the current selection.
  • 83.
    Turing did not directly answer Godel s question regarding exact decidability, Turing came up with the next best thing, a turing machine (abbreviated TM).
    Turing Machines. "People think - most people think - that in mathematics we always know what is right and what is wrong. Not so. Not anymore." - Alan Turing. Introduction. In the early to mid 1930's, Alan Turing, one of the significant figures at Bletchley Park wanted to continue the work of Kurt Godel of computational decidability. Although, Turing did not directly answer Godel's question regarding exact decidability, Turing came up with the next best thing, a Turing machine (abbreviated TM). The TM resulted in a working definition of what can and can not be computable as per the Church-Turing thesis . In fact, Turing was able to formally describe Church's recursive functions, in terms of machines. TM's have virtually unrestricted and unlimited amount of memory, unlike other computation models such as a finite automata or pushdown-stack automata. There are essentially two parts to a TM: (1) A control unit (2) one or more tapes consisting of blank cells or squares which may contain a finite sequence of non-blank cells (i.e. containing symbols) and can be infinitely long in either direction.

    84. PlanetMath: Random Turing Machine
    random turing machine, (Definition). There are several different ways of defining what it means for a random turing machine to accept or reject an input.
    (more info) Math for the people, by the people. Encyclopedia Requests Forums Docs ... Random Login create new user name: pass: forget your password? Main Menu sections Encyclop¦dia



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    Feedback Bug Reports downloads Snapshots PM Book information Docs Classification News Legalese ... TODO List random Turing machine (Definition) A random Turing machine is defined the same way as a non-deterministic Turing machine , but with different rules governing when it accepts or rejects. Whenever there are multiple legal moves, instead of always guessing right, a random machine selects one of the possible moves at random. As with non-deterministic machines, this can also be viewed as a deterministic machine with an extra input, which corresponds to the random selections. There are several different ways of defining what it means for a random Turing machine to accept or reject an input. Let be the probability that halts in an accepting state when the input is A positive one-sided error machine is said to accept if and to reject if . A negative one-sided error machine accepts if and rejects if . So a single run of a positive one-sided error machine never misleadingly accepts but may misleadingly reject, while a single run of a negative one-sided error machine never misleadingly rejects.

    85. PlanetMath: Non-deterministic Turing Machine
    nondeterministic turing machine, (Definition). The definition of a non-deterministic turing machine is the same as the definition
    (more info) Math for the people, by the people. Encyclopedia Requests Forums Docs ... Random Login create new user name: pass: forget your password? Main Menu sections Encyclop¦dia



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    Feedback Bug Reports downloads Snapshots PM Book information Docs Classification News Legalese ... TODO List non-deterministic Turing machine (Definition) The definition of a non-deterministic Turing machine is the same as the definition of a deterministic Turing machine except that is a relation , not a function . Hence, for any particular state and symbol, there may be multiple possible legal moves. If we say accepts if, when is the input, there is some finite sequence of legal moves such that is undefined on the state and symbol pair which results from the last move in the sequence and such that the final state is an element of . If does not accept then it rejects An alternative definition of a non-deterministic Turing machine is as a deterministic Turing machine with an extra one-way , read-only tape, the guess tape. Then we say

    86. COT 6315 - Turing Machines
    The following definition is used by Martin. Definition turing machine. A turing machine Definition - turing machine (H U). A turing machine
    COT6315 Formal Languages and Theory of Computation
    R. E. Newman-Wolfe, University of Florida Last modified 4/5/95.
    Turing Machines
    Turing machines are as powerful (in terms of language recognition, or in terms of the functions they can compute) as any known computational model. Church's hypothesis states that there is nothing more powerful, and the absence of a counterexample over the years leads the community to accept this, generally. The vanilla Turing machine has a finite state control (FSC), represented by the state set, a semi-infinite read/write tape on which the input is initially placed, and a read/write head that is initially positioned at the left end of the tape (where the input is placed). On each move, the TM considers the contents of the tape cell its head is currently reading as well as its current state, then overwrites the tape cell, possibly enters a new state, and possibly moves the head one cell to the left or right. The following definition is used by Martin.
    Definition - Turing Machine
    A Turing machine (TM) is a 5-tuple

    87. Turing Machine --  Encyclopædia Britannica
    Visit Britannica Store, Encyclopædia Britannica, turing machine Encyclopædia Britannica Article. MLA style turing machine. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2004.

    88. Quantum Turing Machine
    Quantum turing machine. Figure 3.2 A graphical representation of a quantum turing machine and its evolution. The top row represents an initial condition.
    Next: Quantum Computability Up: An Abstract Quantum Computer Previous: An Abstract Quantum Computer
    Quantum Turing Machine
    The aim of mathematical theory of computation is to discuss and model computation in abstraction from any particular implementation of a computer. As technology develops computers change and evolve. Furthermore at any given time there are many different computer architectures around. In order to be useful mathematics has to abstract all those superficial differences away and concentrate on what really constitutes computation.
    • lambda expressions of Church (Lisp and other functional programming languages are based on those)
    • the Turing machine
    and somewhat later it turned out that they were very much the same. But later still, towards the end of XXth century, it turned out that certain physical assumptions, which may not necessarily correspond to how certain computations can be done, were smuggled into all three models. In particular quantum computation, the subject of this lecture, is not modelled correctly by any of the above. But there are even some aspects of classical computation, which are not adequately accounted for by the Turing machine and equivalent models, e.g., the thermodynamics of computation. The Turing machine was invented by Alan Turing in 1936 [ ] in order to address Hilbert's Entscheidungsproblem The original purpose of Turing machine was to model a formalist mathematical reasoning, the way Hilbert wanted it to be. And Hilbert wanted a mathematician to forget about the meaning of various mathematical constructs and, instead, just operate on symbols. In order to do that the mathematician had to

    89. Turing Machine: A New Machine For Living: Pitchfork Review
    Order Now. turing machine A New Machine for Living Jade Tree Rating 6.1 Angular instrumental indie rock. It s an institution.
    Reviews News Features
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    90. Turing Machine - A New Machine For Living - Review
    Math Rock Schmath Rock turing machine A New Machine For Living (Jade Tree). With the explosion in instrumental rock over the past
    Turing Machine
    A New Machine For Living

    (Jade Tree) With the explosion in instrumental rock over the past couple of years on the indie scene, there have been all kinds of bands come and go. There are the almost freeform bands like Storm And Stress (although not completely instrumental) doing their thing while other bands like Don Caballerro (made up of some of the same members) perform with almost mathlike precision a lot of the time (earning their title of "math rock"). There are other bands like Tristeza who create music in more of the spaced-out realm, with lots of twinkling guitars and nicely layered keyboards. The Turing Machine falls somewhere in-between bands like Don Cab and Tristeza, playing a sort of loose blend of instrumental rock with drums, guitars, bass and the occassional keyboard that isn't actually afraid to rock at times. On this, their debut album, they run through 7 songs in about 42 minutes time and one of those clocks in at less than one minute, leaving them with some pretty lengthy tracks. While it is this length that sometimes helps the group, it's also something that hurts them a bit at some points when the songs simply drag on for a bit too long without direction. After the very short opening track of "4/13/72," the group drops the 7 and a half minute long "Flip Book Oscilloscope" and it's an excellent track that undulates just the right amount and completely rocks out in points. Not letting things stagnate too long, the album then pretty much explodes with the 2-minute track "The Doodler." Like the titled suggests, it's not really much more than a couple chord changes, but the group makes it blister.

    91. Turing Machine - Encyclopedia Article About Turing Machine. Free Access, No Regi
    encyclopedia article about turing machine. turing machine in Free online English dictionary, thesaurus and encyclopedia. turing machine. machine
    Dictionaries: General Computing Medical Legal Encyclopedia
    Turing machine
    Word: Word Starts with Ends with Definition The Turing machine is an abstract model of computer A computer is any device used to process information according to a well-defined procedure. The word was originally used to describe people employed to do arithmetic calculations, with or without mechanical aids, but was transferred to the machines themselves. Originally, the information processing was almost exclusively related to arithmetical problems, but modern computers are used for many tasks unrelated to mathematics.
    Click the link for more information. execution and storage introduced in Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1880s 1890s 1900s 1910s 1920s - Years: 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 -
    • January 15 The first building to be completely covered in glass is completed in Toledo, Ohio, for the Owens-Illinois Glass Company.

    Click the link for more information. by Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing (June 23, 1912 - June 7, 1954) was a British mathematician and cryptographer, and is considered to be one of the fathers of modern computer science. He provided an influential formalisation of the concept of algorithm and computation: the Turing machine. He formulated the now widely accepted 'Turing' version of the Church-Turing thesis, namely that any practical computing
    Click the link for more information.

    92. Probabilistic Turing Machine - Encyclopedia Article About Probabilistic Turing M
    encyclopedia article about Probabilistic turing machine. Probabilistic turing machine in Free online English dictionary, thesaurus and encyclopedia. Turing machine
    Dictionaries: General Computing Medical Legal Encyclopedia
    Probabilistic Turing machine
    Word: Word Starts with Ends with Definition In computability theory Computability theory is that part of the theory of computation dealing with which problems are solvable by algorithms (equivalently, by Turing machines), with various restrictions and extensions. Computability theory addresses four main questions:
    • What problems can Turing machines solve?
    • What other systems are equivalent to Turing machines?
    • What problems require more powerful machines?
    • What problems can be solved by less powerful machines?
    See the article on theory of computation for a chart showing which classes of problems are subsets of other classes.
    Click the link for more information. , a probabilistic Turing machine is a non-deterministic Turing machine In theoretical computer science, an ordinary (deterministic) Turing machine has a transition rule that specifies for a given current state of the head and computer (s,q) a single instruction (s', q', d), where s' is the symbol to be written by the head, q' is the subsequent state of the computer, and d is the direction (left or right) in which to step. A non-deterministic Turing machine
    Click the link for more information.

    93. CS 4500
    Full-featured turing machine simulator application written in Java™. Ability to combine turing machines....... Name Tm The turing machine Simulator.
    CS 4500 Senior Software Lab (Spring 2001)
    Name: Enigma Members: David Henderson
    Mike Stoddard
    Project Name Tm - The Turing Machine Simulator
    Full-featured Turing Machine simulator application written in Java™. The major aspect that will set our program apart from previous Turing Machine simulators is that ours is written in Java whereas the main, robust simulators that I've looked at were developed for the PC only (namely the first 2 in the Turing Machine Programs section below). We plan on including the following features in our application:
    • Load/Save TM programs, tapes. Easily build TuringMachine's (TM's) with our user friendly GUI. Ability to combine turing machines. See the transitions in the state diagram and on the tape as the TM program runs. When executing a TM program, keep a list containing the current tape at each state during computation. Step through the execuation of a TM program- into/out of subprograms, set breakpoints, etc. Common TM programs will be included with the application:
      • copy, multiply, power

    94. EducETH - Computer Science - TuringKara: Two-dimensional Turing Machines
    TuringKara twodimensional turing machines. TuringKara - two-dimensional turing machines. TuringKara lets you solve many interesting turing machine problems.
    Computer Science on EducETH Home Info Contact ... Search TuringKara: two-dimensional Turing machines
    KaraToJava: Overview
    Downloads Kara Screenshots ... FAQ
    TuringKara - two-dimensional Turing machines
    TuringKara lets you solve many interesting Turing machine problems. It uses a two-dimensional 'sheet' as its external memory rather than the usual one-dimensional tape. This greatly simplifies your Turing machines for many problems, compared to Turing machines working on the standard tape. Program: allkara-en.jar [2004/03/26, 5'000 KB]
    User's manual: turingkara_manual-en.pdf Information and further downloads
    Who does TuringKara target?
    TuringKara is for pupils and students who want to experiment with the computational model of Turing machines. A broad range of problems - from inverting a bit string to adding binary numbers up to the Universal Turing Machine - makes TuringKara suitable at different levels of study. Experience with Kara facilitates the use of TuringKara.
    Learning Objectives of TuringKara
    Turing machines are a universal model of computation and play a central role in the theory of computation. TuringKara illustrates typical problems such as basic arithmetic operations and pattern matching.

    95. Turing Machine
    A turing machine is the simplest form of a computer. The concept was invented by Alan Turing in 1936. I Principles of a turing machine.

    96. Computing Machinery And Intelligence - A.m. Turing, 1950
    turing's original 1950 article on machine intelligence, where he introduces the famous turing Test, and started this profound multidecade debate.
    [VOL. LIX. No.236.] [October, 1950] MIND
    Computing machinery and intelligence -
    A. M. Turing
    site map Index 1 The Imitation Game 2 Critique of the New Problem 3 The Machine concerned in the Game 4 Digital Computers ... Foot notes
    1 The Imitation Game
    I PROPOSE to consider the question, 'Can machines think?' This should begin with definitions of the meaning of the terms 'machine 'and 'think'. The definitions might be framed so as to reflect so far as possible the normal use of the words, but this attitude is dangerous. If the meaning of the words 'machine' and 'think 'are to be found by examining how they are commonly used it is difficult to escape the conclusion that the meaning and the answer to the question, 'Can machines think?' is to be sought in a statistical survey such as a Gallup poll. But this is absurd. Instead of attempting such a definition I shall replace the question by another, which is closely related to it and is expressed in relatively unambiguous words. The new form of the problem can be described' in terms of a game which we call the 'imitation game'. It is played with three people, a man (A), a woman (B), and an interrogator (C) who may be of either sex. The interrogator stays in a room apart from the other two. The object of the game for the interrogator is to determine which of the other two is the man and which is the woman. He knows them by labels X and Y, and at the end of the game he says either 'X is A and Y is B' or 'X is B and Y is A'. The interrogator is allowed to put questions to A and B thus:

    97. Ai Research - Creating A New Form Of Life
    Focuses on creating genuine Artificial Intelligence the technology that enables machines to converse with humans in natural language. Based on a groundbreaking approach, Ai's technology will pass the turing Test for machine intelligence by 2011.
    Ai Research is a leading artificial intelligence research project. At Ai, we're creating a new form of life . Our expanding web site is an essential part of the emerging global discussion about artificial intelligence. On this website, we showcase the state of the art in patterm-matching conversational machines, demonstrated by Alan , and in reinforcement learning algorithms, demonstrated by HAL . Use our forums, original papers, online labs, demos and links to explore what's happening both at Ai (the project) and in AI (the field). The HAL Nursery Ai features The HAL Nursery : The world's first Child-Machine Nursery. Ai is hosting a collection of 'Virtual Children': A group of HAL personalities that were trained by users who have agreed to make them available to the general public. Follow the discussion about HAL's progress on the Ai Forums click for more
    Ai launches new log viewing facility
    The new facility enables online viewing ("eavesdropping") of live sessions with Alan and Ai's other virtual personalities. Private Virtual Personalities Who is Alan?

    98. The Enigma Cipher Machine
    Explains how the device enciphers letters, background history, components of the machine, and military adaptation by the Germans. Also, includes information about turing and Polish mathematicians contribution in breaking the code.
    The Enigma cipher machine
    Tony Sale's
    Codes and Ciphers
    The Enigma cipher machine
    These pages give an introduction to substitution ciphers and then go on to explain exactly how the Enigma machine worked and how it was used. At present the pages are as follows: 1. Substitution ciphers and the principle of the Enigma
    with a detailed example illustrating how the Enigma enciphers letters. 2. The components of the Enigma machine and its military adaptation
    with a further page specifying the exact rotor wirings and the reflectors of the Enigma. 3. The military use of the Enigma and the problem facing those trying to break it.
    This page also allows you to go to Tony Sale's on-line Enigma simulator and to try it out on a message used in the film Enigma. Now you can find out more about Enigma:
    4. How the Polish Mathematicians Broke Enigma.

    5. Alan Turing, the Enigma and the Bombe.

    6. Explore the Breaking of German Naval Enigma.

    You might like to visit this History of UK code breaking and the birth of modern Signals Intelligence, (SIGINT).

    To begin the tour, please continue to Page 1.

    99. Turing Train Terminal
    deutsche version. There exists no turingmachine, which is able to decide if any other turing-machine ever stops or not. Hartmann, Nievergelt, Reichert
    deutsche version There exists no Turing-Machine, which is able to decide if any other Turing-Machine ever stops or not.
    Hartmann, Nievergelt, Reichert Whatever is calculable, can be assessed by a Turing-Machine!
    Alonzo Church
    click to enter hosted by

    100. Loebner Prize Home Page
    A unique annual contest in which a winner is selected from participants who comes to the closest to demonstrating that machines can think like humans, as per the turing Test.
    Home Page of The Loebner Prize"The First Turing Test"
    Loebner Prize Gold Medal
    (Solid 18 carat, not gold-plated like the Olympic "Gold" medals)
    What is the Loebner Prize?
    The Loebner Prize is the first formal instantiation of a Turing Test . The test is named after Alan Turing the brilliant British mathematician. Among his many accomplishments was basic research in computing science. In 1950, in the article Computing Machinery and Intelligence which appeared in the philosophical journal Mind, Alan Turing asked the question "Can a Machine Think?"He answered in the affirmative, but a central question was: "If a computer could think, how could we tell?" Turing's suggestion was, that if the responses from the computer were indistinguishable from that of a human,the computer could be said to be thinking. In 1990 Hugh Loebner agreed with The Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies to underwrite a contest designed to implement the Turing Test. Dr. Loebner pledged a Grand Prize of $100,000 and a Gold Medal (pictured above) for the first computer whose responses were indistinguishable from a human's. Each year an annual prize of $2000 and a bronze medal is awarded to the most human computer. The winner of the annual contest is the best entry relative to other entries that year, irrespective of how good it is in an absolute sense.

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