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61. MAW 97 CIPHERS The Turing Machine
of the turing machine from The Alan Turing Home Page; FOLDOC, the Free OnLine Dictionary of Computing.......M W 97 CIPHERS The turing machine.
http://www.math.arizona.edu/~dsl/tmachine.htm

Enigma Machine

Turing Machine

Turing Test

Alan Turing
...
Cryptology Resources

maw@math.arizona.edu
##### M W 97: CIPHERS The Turing Machine
• Description of the Turing Machine from Downloadable software that simulates a Turing Machine written by Java applets that simulate a Turing Machine written by Turing's World by Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy is a self-contained introduction to Turing machines. It allows the user to design, debug, and run sophisticated Turing machines on a Macintosh. Commercial Software. A Finite State Machine tutorial from Mathmania, the University of Victoria, British Columbia.

62. Mathematical Recreations
What kind? wondered Dee. A turing machine, I said. Okay. Here s a typical list of rules for a turing machine with three states1, 2 and 3
http://www.fortunecity.com/emachines/e11/86/subway.html
web hosting domain names email addresses
by Ian Stewart
##### A Subway Named Turing
The Tweedle twins and I were straphanging on the New York City subway. Delia Tweedle was universally known as Dee, so her brother had inevitably become Dum. Even though his real name was Seymour. As usual they were interrupting each other. "Well, if the universe is algorithmic, then strong AI" "Don't be pedantic, Dee, what you mean is computers that think" "Must be possible in principle." "Why?" I said. "If our universe is algorithmic" "You could set up a computer to simulate it" "Which would therefore simulate everything in it, including us having this conversation," Dee concluded. "You realize that if you're right, then a sufficiently complex subway system could become intelligent?" I said. "It would think rather s-l-o-w-l-y...but it would still be able to think." "That's dumb," Dee exclaimed. "A subway can't think." "Maybe not. But a subway can compute, according to a fascinating article I've just read in the latest issue of "Eureka." It was written by Adam Chalcraft and Michael Greene, and it's about the computational abilities of train sets." "You mean TOY train sets? Rails and points and tunnels with sheep painted on their sides?"

63. Is The Brain Equivalent To A Turing Machine? || Kuro5hin.org
of a turing machine Alan Turing was a mathematician and logician in 20th century.......P. Is the Brain Equivalent to a turing machine?
http://www.kuro5hin.org/story/2003/3/15/15956/6995
 create account help/FAQ contact links ... MLP We need your support: buy an ad premium membership k5 store Is the Brain Equivalent to a Turing Machine? ... Technology By Mon Mar 17th, 2003 at 02:00:56 PM EST From the NewScientist.com: "The world's first brain prosthesis - an artificial hippocampus - is about to be tested in California. Unlike devices like cochlear implants, which merely stimulate brain activity, this silicon chip implant will perform the same processes as the damaged part of the brain it is replacing. The prosthesis will first be tested on tissue from rats' brains, and then on live animals. If all goes well, it will then be tested as a way to help people who have suffered brain damage due to stroke, epilepsy or Alzheimer's disease." This brings up the key question that this article will focus on - Is the Brain a Turing Complete Machine? Description of a Turing Machine Alan Turing was a mathematician and logician in 20th century. He is often considered the pioneer of computer science as we know it today. He helped the British Government crack German codes during World War II. His world-changing contribution to society was a Turing Machine. For a history about Alan Turing, the man, see:

64. TURING MACHINES AND COMPLEXITY
turing machineS AND COMPLEXITY. Mathphilosophical musings of Hassan Masum written MORE turing machine BASED COMPLEXITY MEASURES.
http://www.carleton.ca/~hmasum/TMandComplexity.html
 TURING MACHINES AND COMPLEXITY Math-philosophical musings of Hassan Masum...written back in September 1995 and HTMLized 5 years later. I explain and interlink formalizations of "complexity" with each other, and as usual with many Big Questions as well. INTRODUCTION AND IDEA FUGUE What Conditions are Necessary for a System to Evolve? How Can we Measure "Complexity"? What is the Importance of Hierarchy and Decomposition? ... REFERENCES INTRODUCTION AND IDEA FUGUE What is complexity? How can complex systems be defined measured predicted optimized controlled built, and evolved (in the form of intelligent algorithms)? The word "complex" is originally from the Latin "com" (together) and "plectere" (to twist); it is itself a symbol with an exceptionally large set of properties. Consider: ...ABSTRUSE, ADDLING, ADVANCED, AMBIGUOUS, BAFFLING, BEWILDERING, CHAOTIC, CIRCUITOUS, CLOAKED, CLOUDY, CLUTTERED, COMPLICATED, COMPOSITE, CONCEALED, CONFOUNDING, CONFUSING, CONTRADICTORY, CONVOLUTED, CRYPTIC, DAZING, DETAILED, DIFFICULT, DISORDERED, DISORGANIZED, DIVERSIFIED, ECLECTIC, ELABORATE, ENIGMATIC, ENTANGLED, FLUSTERING, FOGGY, HAZY, HIDDEN, INTRICATE, INVOLVED, JUMBLED, KNOTTY, LABYRINTHINE, MANY-SIDED, MIXED-UP, MUDDLED, MULTI-FACETED, MULTIFARIOUS, MYSTERIOUS, OBSCURE, PARADOXICAL, PERPLEXING, PERTURBING, PUZZLING, RAMIFIED, RECONDITE, SCREENED, SECRET, SHROUDED, SNARLED, SOPHISTICATED, TANGLED, TECHNICAL, TRICKY, TURBULENT, TWISTED, UNCONTROLLABLE, VEILED, WILD... As is suggested from the many synonyms, "complexity" encompasses within its scope an infinity of types of nonunderstanding, of which we will examine but a handful. One might more profitably define "simplicity" as the properties possessed by easy problems, and complexity as the negation of this set.

 65. Turing Machine From FOLDOC turing machine. computability A of higher level machine code instructions. A busy beaver is one kind of turing machine program. Dr. Havahttp://www.swif.uniba.it/lei/foldop/foldoc.cgi?Turing Machine

66. Turing Machine Simulator
A turing machine Simulator. Contents of this document. (exe). Return to TOP of the page. A turing machine which decides a language.
http://csr.uvic.ca/~wendym/tm/tm.html
##### Contents of this document
• The simulator
• Some simple TM programs
• A Turing Machine which decides a language ...
• How to write Turing Machine programs
##### The simulator
This Turing machine simulator was created by Wendy Myrvold at the University of Victoria for instructional purposes. The input is very close to a "machine code" as the intent of the simulator is to consolidate the understanding of Universal Turing Machines, how questions about Turing machines can be encoded as a string, the Halting Problem, and other undecidable problems. A more friendly input format could be considered if your intent is merely to program Turing machines.
You need the source code which is: tm.c
##### The old TM simulator only permitted you to test one input at a time which was quite annoying if you want to extensively test your TM programs for correctness. The new TM simulator new_tm.c permits you to have multiple inputs. Each input is terminated with a -1.
Compile this with your favorite "C" compiler. I use the "gcc" compiler so I type:
• 67. The Artwork Of Jin Wicked || The Universal Turing Machine
The Universal turing machine. Title The Universal turing machine. Size 6.5 Ã 10 (~17 cm Ã 26 cm). Media Ink on Bristol Board. Framed No.
http://www.jinwicked.com/en/art/drawings/turing.html
about Alan Turing! Alan Turing: The Enigma The Turing Digital Archive What computers Can't ... Alan Turing
##### The Universal Turing Machine
Title: The Universal Turing Machine Size: Media: Ink on Bristol Board Framed: No Price: SOLD
Limited Edition S/N Prints
- 50 of 100 Available Click here for unsigned prints and other items featuring this work. This is a dual illustration of a man named Alan Turing drawn as the creation for which he is most famous. The links to the left are highly recommended to anyone interested in reading about Mr. Turing, his ideas, and his life in greater detail. This artwork has been featured in several publications.
Prints - 50 of 100 Available In addition to the original, this piece is being offered in a limited edition print run of 100 pieces, signed and numbered individually. The prints are on heavy weight, 90 lb. high quality paper, and are suitable for framing. Prints are \$10.00 US + \$10.00 shipping and handling in the US and Canada; \$15.00 for most other international destinations. Prints ship at no additional charge when combined with other art purchases. All art prints are shipped flat in a handsome presentation portfolio, with attached business card and signed certificate of authenticity. Texas residents add 8.25% sales tax. The actual image size is 6.5" Ã 10", with an approximately one-inch margin around the artwork. To purchase a print, please proceed to my purchase information page

68. The Myth Of The Turing Machine
The Myth of the turing machine The Failings of Functionalism and Related Theses. The Myth of the turing machine The Failings of Functionalism and Related Theses.
http://www.arts.uwaterloo.ca/~celiasmi/Papers/Turing Myth.central.jetai.1ce.nofi
The Myth of the Turing Machine
The Failings of Functionalism and Related Theses February, 2002 Submitted to JETAI Chris Eliasmith Dept. of Philosophy University of Waterloo eliasmith@uwaterloo.ca
##### Abstract
The properties of TuringÂs famous Âuniversal machineÂ has long sustained functionalist intuitions about the nature of cognition. Here, I show that there is a logical problem with standard functionalist arguments for multiple realizability. These arguments rely essentially on TuringÂs powerful insights regarding computation. In addressing a possible reply to this criticism, I further argue that functionalism is not a useful approach for understanding what it is to have a mind. In particular, I show that the difficulties involved in distinguishing implementation from function make multiple realizability claims untestable and uninformative. As a result, I conclude that the role of Turing machines in philosophy of mind needs to be reconsidered.
##### 1. Introduction

69. Intermediate MUF Tutorial - Turing Machines And Lambda Calculus
Turing s proof that a given machine is a Universal turing machine, capable of computing anything which can be computed at all, is quite simple in concept
http://www.muq.org/~cynbe/muq/muf2_42.html
##### Turing Machines and Lambda Calculus
One of the surprising results from mathematical analysis of computation (generally credited independently to Alan Turing and Alonzo Church) is that a very simple machine of the von Neuman variety (or of any one of many similar designs, including for example Conway's ingenious Game of Life, a cellular automaton popular nowadays as a computer screen saver) is capable of computing anything which we know any way at all of computing. For example, it is quite possible to build a machine of this sort with only one or two instructions (which perhaps respectively read two bits and store back the negated OR of them, and conditionally select one of two possible next instructions depending on the value of a given bit) which is quite capable of performing any computation we might want. Almost all the instructions contained in modern computers are logically unneccessary: They are included only to speed up specific common operations, such as addition. Turing's proof that a given machine is a Universal Turing Machine , capable of computing anything which can be computed at all, is quite simple in concept, reducing to showing that such a machine can be programmed to emulate perfectly any other machine which you can describe precisely, and hence can compute whatever the described machine could compute.

70. Turing Machine Simulator
turing machine simulator. The simulator runs under MSWindows (the archive contains a DOS version as well, but it has a really bad interface ).
http://www.cs.technion.ac.il/~cs236343/simulator.html
##### Turing Machine simulator
The simulator runs under MS-Windows (the archive contains a DOS version as well, but it has a really bad interface...). It enables you to create a "program" text file, which defines the transition table of a TM, and then run it (either step-by-step or continuously) on selected inputs. The model of TM simulated by this software differs from our basic model defined in class in two ways: it uses a two-way infinite tape (as the one defined in the second TIRGUL), and it doesn't allow the head to stay in its place (i.e. head move directions are only L/R). The software is pretty straightforward to use. After executing it, load some demo ".tur" file from the file menu, and see how it runs. The structure of program files (with suffix ".pro") is also very easy to understand. This format goes as follows - each transition Delta(oldstate,oldsymb)=(newstate,newsymb,d) of the TM should be represented by the single line:
oldstate, newstate, oldsymb/newsymb,d
The initial state is taken to be the first state on the first line of the program file. To define state s to be a final state, just put " :s " on a separate line.

71. Manchester Illuminated Universal Turing Machine
THE MANCHESTER ILLUMINATED UNIVERSAL turing machine by Roman Verostko, 1998 Note Originals from the series may be seen in Europe at
http://www.verostko.com/manchester/manchester.html
 main menu site map THE MANCHESTER ILLUMINATED UNIVERSAL TURING MACHINE by Roman Verostko, 1998 Note: Originals from the series may be seen in Europe at: London, UK: deluxe Gallery , 2-4 Hoxton Square, London, N1 6NU. tel +44 20 7729 8503. http://www.deluxe-arts.org.uk/ . email: Keith Watson Germany . DAM. Tucholskystr. 37, 10117 Berlin, Germany, Tel: 0049-30-28098135 Fax: 0049-40-3603753454 Contact: Wolf Lieser The Project: A family of algorithmic pen plotted drawings, each presented with the binary text for a Universal Turing Machine (UTM), was created for an exhibition in Manchester on the occasion of the Ninth International Symposium on Electronic Art (1998). These drawings, reminiscent of medieval manuscript illuminations, celebrate Alan Turing's work with universal problem solver procedures. They were created especially for the Manchester-Liverpool context as homage to Alan Turing in memory of his historic work in Manchester. Executed on hot pressed Arches, each piece includes a burnished gold leaf enhancement. Manchester Illuminated Universal Turing Machine, #23

Algorithms for a Universal turing machine are presented as Self Portraits of the machine with which they are viewed. AUNIVERSAL turing machine SELF PORTRAIT Â©.
http://www.verostko.com/u.html
 A U NIVERSAL T URING M ACHINE S ELF P ORTRAIT A binary text of a Universal Turing Machine (UTM) is presented here as a self portrait of the computer being used by the viewer. The version shown here, F0.UTM, is one of several versions written by Steven Gunhouse . This version, based on Fibonacci numbering, echoes Alan Turing's interest in the Fibonacci sequence. main menu site map search

73. Turing Machines Are Recurrent Neural Networks
1.2 About computability. According to the basic axiom of computability theory, computable functions can be implemented using a turing machine.
http://www.uwasa.fi/stes/step96/step96/hyotyniemi1/
Proceedings of STeP'96. Jarmo Alander, Timo Honkela and Matti Jakobsson (eds.),
Publications of the Finnish Artificial Intelligence Society, pp. 13-24.
##### Turing Machines are Recurrent Neural Networks
Helsinki University of Technology,
Control Engineering Laboratory

Otakaari 5A, FIN-02150 Espoo, Finland
##### Abstract:
Any algebraically computable function can be expressed as a recurrent neural network structure consisting of identical computing elements (or, equivalently, as a nonlinear discrete-time system of the form , where is a simple `cut' function). A constructive proof is presented in this paper. A PostScript version of this paper is available also at
##### 1.1 Neural networks in classification
Neural networks can be used, for example, for classification tasks, telling whether an input pattern belongs to a specific class or not. It has been known for a long time that one-layer feedforward networks can be used to classify only patterns that are linearly separable-the more there are successive layers, the more complex the distribution of the classes can be. When feedback is introduced in the network structure, so that perceptron output values are recycled, the number of successive layers becomes, in principle, infinite. Is the computational power enhanced qualitatively? The answer is

There are many implementations of turing machine on the Internet , but only one in Rexx. turing machine. This article includes the
http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Garage/3323/turing.html
 TURING MACHINE This article includes the base for building of simple tools to learning and studying famous Turing machines. The program AlanMath (the abbreviation of Alan Mathison Turing ) interprets descriptions of Turing machines as the following example: a Turing machine accepting the set of all strings can be described: Begin End # 1 Begin # # End R Begin a A 2 R 2 B B 2 R 2 a a 2 R 2 b B 3 L 3 B B 3 L 3 A A 5 R 3 a a 4 L 4 a a 4 L 4 A A Begin R 5 B B 5 R 5 # # End R Figure 1. The first line in the description contains: Start Halt Blank Head note Start - a word, the name of the start state Halt - a word, the name of the halt state Blank - a character used to denote a blank (but no really blank) Head - a number, the initial position of the head on the tape A transition table follows as the series of 5-tuples, one on each line. The transition is like this: State Symbol NewSymbol NewState Move note State - a word, the current state Symbol - a character, the current symbol a character on the tape below the head NewSymbol - a character, the new symbol

75. Hopcroft & Ullman's Universal Turing Machine -- Corrected
Correct State Table for Hopcroft Ullman s Universal turing machine. Corrected transitions are boldface. State, Tape symbol. 0, 1, c,
http://www.rdrop.com/~half/General/UTM/UTMStateTable.html
 MLI Home General Universal Turing Machine State Table Corrected transitions are boldface State Tape symbol c L R b (mc) (mL) (mR) (mb) A A,0,R A,1,R A,c,R A,L,R A,R,R B,(mc),R B B,0,R B,1,R B,c,R B,L,R B,R,R C ,(m0),L C ,(m1),L C B ,(mb),L C B C B ,0,L C B ,1,L C B ,c,L C B ,L,L C B ,R,L D B ,c,R C C ,0,L C ,1,L C ,c,L C ,L,L C ,R,L D ,c,R C C ,0,L C ,1,L C ,c,L C ,L,L C ,R,L D ,c,R D B V,0,L E,(m1),L D D ,0,R D ,1,R D B ,c,R D ,L,R D ,R,R D D ,0,R D ,1,R D ,c,R D ,L,R D ,R,R E E,0,L E,1,L F,c,L E,L,L E,R,L F E,0,L E,1,L G,c,L E,L,L E,R,L G E,0,L E,1,L H,c,R E,L,L E,R,L H I,c,R I J,(mc),R J J,0,R J,1,R J,c,R J,L,R J,R,R K L ,1,R K L M L ,(m1),L T L ,L,R T R ,R,R M L M L ,0,L M L ,1,L M L ,c,L M L ,L,L M L ,R,L N L ,c,R N L N L ,0,R N L ,1,R P L ,c,R N L ,L,R N L ,R,R N R ,(m1),R P L N L ,0,R N L ,1,R S L ,(mc),R N L ,L,R N L ,R,R N R ,(m1),R S L S L ,0,R S L ,1,R S L ,c,R S L ,L,R S L ,R,R K L ,1,R K R M R ,(m1),R T L ,L,R T R ,R,R M R M R ,0,R M R ,1,R M R ,c,R M R ,L,R M R ,R,R N R ,c,R N R N R ,0,R N R ,1,R P R ,c,R N R ,L,R N R ,R,R P R N R ,0,R N R ,1,R S R ,(mc),L N R ,L,R N R ,R,R S R S R ,0,L S R ,1,L S R ,c,L S R ,L,L S R ,R,L K R ,1,R T L T L-0 ,0,R T L-1 ,1,R T R T R-0 ,0,R T R-1 ,1,R T L-0 T L-0 ,0,R T L-0 ,1,R T L-0 ,c,R T L-0 ,L,R T L-0 ,R,R U,0,L U,0,L T L-0 ,(mc),R U,0,L T L-1 T L-1 ,0,R T L-1 ,1,R T L-1 ,c,R T L-1 ,L,R T L-1 ,R,R U,1,L

76. Deus Ex Machina - Turing Machines Help File
turing machines Help File. What are the typical steps in designing a turing machine? Create a new machine (either use the File New
http://www.ics.uci.edu/~savoiu/dem/turing/
##### Turing Machines Help File
What are the typical steps in designing a Turing Machine
You can now proceed with running a simulation of your machine on the tape symbols. How can you perform the above steps? New machine As shown below, the new machine can be either deterministic or non-deterministic and allow terminal nodes or not. You can also set the machine to use up to five one- or two-way tapes.
Node Properties Right-clicking on a diagram node will open up the following properties dialog.
From this dialog you can set breakpoint info, change a node's type from a state node to a submachine node and vice versa. Also you can load a previously designed machine and use it as a submachine node. Transition Properties Right-clicking on the label of a transition will open up the following dialog.
From this dialog you can change scan symbol, action and breakpoint properties for this transition.

 77. Bloomsbury.com - Research Centre Using the concept of the turing machine, Alan, Turing (19121954) investigated the theoretical limits of what computers could doan amazing feat, consideringhttp://www.bloomsburymagazine.com/ARC/detail.asp?entryid=103032&bid=2

78. An Animated Turing Machine Simulator In Forms/3
An Animated turing machine Simulator in Forms/3. Christopher DuPuis Oregon State University dupuis@cs.orst.edu. Margaret Burnett 3. The turing machine Simulator.
http://eecs.oregonstate.edu/~burnett/Turing/TuringMachine.html
##### An Animated Turing Machine Simulator in Forms/3
Christopher DuPuis Oregon State University
dupuis@cs.orst.edu Margaret Burnett Oregon State University
burnett@cs.orst.edu Department of Computer Science
Oregon State University
Corvallis, OR 97331
##### 1. Introduction
In discussing the functionality of a programming language, it is useful to determine whether the computational power of the language is equivalent to general purpose languages such as C, Lisp, and Java; or if its application is necessarily limited to special purposes, as are such languages as Microsoft Excel and SQL [Kiper et al 1997]. This determination can be made by demonstrating whether or not a language is Turing complete. Turing completeness implies that any computation that can be performed in the language can be performed on a Turing machine and vice versa. According to the Turing Thesis, any problem that is computable by any machine can be solved using a Turing machine [Linz 1996]. Thus, to show that a language is Turing complete, it is necessary to show only that the language has no less computational power than a Turing machine. Although commercial spreadsheet languages are not Turing complete, it is possible for a language using the spreadsheet programming paradigm to be Turing complete. One example is the spreadsheet-based visual programming language (VPL) Forms/3. This paper demonstrates Forms/3's Turing completeness with the following implementation of a Turing machine simulator.

79. A Universal Turing Machine With 22 States And 2 Symbols
A Universal turing machine with 22 States and 2 Symbols Yurii ROGOZHIN Institute of Mathematics, Kishinev, 5 Academiei Str., Kishinev, Republic of Moldova E
http://www.imt.ro/Romjist/Volum1/Vol1_3/turing.htm
 ROMANIAN JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Volume 1, Number 3, 1998, 259 - 265 A Universal Turing Machine with 22 States and 2 Symbols Yurii ROGOZHIN Institute of Mathematics, Kishinev, 5 Academiei Str., Kishinev, Republic of Moldova E-mail: rogozhin@math.md Abstract. Let UTM(m,n) be the class of universal Turing machines with m states and n symbols. It is known that universal Turing machines exist in the following classes: UTM(24,2), UTM(10,3), UTM(7,4), UTM(5,5), UTM(4,6), UTM(3,10), and UTM(2,18). In this paper it is shown that universal Turing machine exists in the class UTM(22,2), so previous result UTM(24,2) is improve d. Foreward Informations Editorial Commitee Contents

80. Turing Machine
turing machine. The turing machine is an abstract model of computation, for any reasonable definition of those terms. A physical turing machine.
http://www.fact-index.com/t/tu/turing_machine.html
Main Page See live article Alphabetical index
##### Turing machine
The Turing machine is an abstract model of computer execution and storage introduced in by Alan Turing to give a mathematically precise definition of algorithm or 'mechanical procedure'. As such it is still widely used in theoretical computer science , especially in complexity theory and the theory of computation . The thesis that states that Turing machines indeed capture the informal notion of effective or mechanical method in logic and mathematics is known as the Church-Turing thesis Turing machines shouldn't be confused with the Turing test , Turing's attempt to capture the notion of artificial intelligence A Turing machine that is able to simulate any other Turing machine is called a universal Turing machine Table of contents 1 Definition
2 Example

3 Universal Turing machines

4 A physical Turing machine
...