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21. Kite Geometry Definitions
ratio. Kites on the other hand usually have a small span and are low aspect ratio aircraft. High aspect ratio aircraft have a higher
http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/kitegeom.html
 An excellent way to gain an understanding and a feel for aerodynamic forces is to fly a kite. Kite flying is fun when done safely and you can study many of the fundamentals of airplane aerodynamics because a kite works very much like an airplane. As with an airplane, there are some geometrical definitions which will simplify our studies of kite aerodynamics. Kites come a wide variety of shapes and sizes, but the definitions found on this page can be applied to most kites. This page shows a three view diagram of a winged box kite. In a three view diagram, an object is shown from the front, side, and top with all three views drawn to the same scale. We use three view diagrams because some geometrical variables are easier to visualize in one view than in another. Beginning with the Front View , we note that the surface area-A which is used in the calculation of lift and drag is the frontal projected area of all of the surfaces of the kite. You learn how to compute the area of various shaped objects in middle school. For this winged box kite, the frontal projected area includes the full area of both wings (colored yellow) and the projected area of the top and bottom boxes (colored green). Notice that this is a projected area, not a geometric area. If each panel of the box kite is a square, there are four panels on the top and four on the bottom to form the two boxes. From the Top View , we see that each panel is inclined to the front at a 45 degree angle. Then the projected area

22. Fixed-wing Aircraft - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
their wings during flight. In the early days of their development, these were termed variable geometry aircraft. When the wings of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed-wing_aircraft
##### Fixed-wing aircraft
Fixed-wing aircraft is a term used to refer to monoplanes, biplanes and triplanes , in fact all conventional aircraft that are neither balloons airships autogyros helicopters or tilt-rotors . The term embraces a minority of aircraft that have folding wings, intended to fold when on the ground, perhaps to ease stowage or facilitate transport on, for example, a vehicle trailer or the powered lift connecting the hangar deck of an aircraft carrier to its flight deck. It also embraces an even smaller number of aircraft, such as the General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark and the Panavia Tornado, that can fold their wings during flight. In the early days of their development, these were termed "variable geometry" aircraft. When the wings of these aircraft are fully swept, usually for high speed cruise, the trailing edges of their wings abut the leading edges of their tailplanes, giving an impression of a single delta wing if viewed from above or below. Sir George Cayley , the inventor of the science of aerodynamics , was building and flying models of fixed wing aircraft as early as , and he built a successful passenger-carrying glider in , but the first practical self-powered airplanes were designed and constructed by the Wright brothers . Their first successful test flights were in , and by the Flyer III was capable of fully-controllable stable flight for substantial periods. Strictly, its wings were not completely fixed, as it depended for stability on a flexing mechanism named

23. Fixed-wing Aircraft - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
Redirected from Fixed wing aircraft) Fixedwing aircraft is a term used to refer to were termed "variable geometry" aircraft. When the wings of these aircraft are fully swept
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_wing_aircraft
##### Fixed-wing aircraft
(Redirected from Fixed wing aircraft Fixed-wing aircraft is a term used to refer to monoplanes, biplanes and triplanes , in fact all conventional aircraft that are neither balloons airships autogyros helicopters or tilt-rotors . The term embraces a minority of aircraft that have folding wings, intended to fold when on the ground, perhaps to ease stowage or facilitate transport on, for example, a vehicle trailer or the powered lift connecting the hangar deck of an aircraft carrier to its flight deck. It also embraces an even smaller number of aircraft, such as the General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark and the Panavia Tornado, that can fold their wings during flight. In the early days of their development, these were termed "variable geometry" aircraft. When the wings of these aircraft are fully swept, usually for high speed cruise, the trailing edges of their wings abut the leading edges of their tailplanes, giving an impression of a single delta wing if viewed from above or below. Sir George Cayley , the inventor of the science of aerodynamics , was building and flying models of fixed wing aircraft as early as , and he built a successful passenger-carrying glider in , but the first practical self-powered airplanes were designed and constructed by the Wright brothers . Their first successful test flights were in , and by the Flyer III was capable of fully-controllable stable flight for substantial periods. Strictly, its wings were not completely fixed, as it depended for stability on a flexing mechanism named

24. RAYMER RDS AIRCRAFT DESIGN CONCEPTUAL RESEARCH SHORTCOURSE
LECTURE 4 ANALYTICAL geometry FOR aircraft LOFT Geometric reference systems, Cartesian vectors, coordinate transformations, rotations and direction cosines
http://www.aircraftdesign.com/newcrs.html
presented by Daniel P. Raymer
##### At last, a course just for real (or future) Aircraft Configuration Designers!
The Advanced Follow-On Course for Dan Raymer's Popular 5-day Aircraft Conceptual Design Short Course . Learn the Insiders' Techniques and Tricks for: Quickly Getting The Design Started
Configuration Design Graphical Techniques
Computer-Aided Configuration Design
NEXT PUBLIC OFFERINGS: Sept 20-21, 2004, Los Angeles, CA (click here for registration information)
Public presentation organized by Conceptual Research Corportion IN-HOUSE OFFERINGS: Contact Conceptual Research Corp. for price and schedule availability. This intensive two-day short course in aircraft configuration design, layout, and loft offers an in-depth presentation of the technical skills needed for creating a new and viable aircraft configuration design drawing, and includes an overview of aircraft surface definition and lofting. The class includes an overview of computer-aided configuration design and loft, and covers the key mathematics and graphical techniques for both CAD and drafting-table design layout and loft. Those attending will learn how to put a new aircraft design together, and will learn specific useful skills to create smooth aerodynamic contours, incorporate concerns for production and maintenance, and construct and model component intersections (including considerations for geometric input to CFD and RCS analysis). Primarily aimed at the working configuration design engineer in industry or government, the course is also useful for those who teach aircraft design and desire a better insight into "how it's really done."

 25. Re: Aircraft Geometry Re aircraft geometry. Posted By Joern Beilke joern@beilkecfd.de Date Thu, 17 Oct 2002, 1113 a.m. I found some pages with models (some free examples and some stuff to buy). Non of the iges files was for free. Messages In This Thread. aircraft geometry - Erich F. , Thu, 17 Oct 2002, 702 a.mhttp://www.cfd-online.com/Forum/main_archive_2002.cgi?read=24019

26. RAYMER RDS AIRCRAFT DESIGN CONCEPTUAL RESEARCH SHORTCOURSE
LECTURE 5 CONFIGURATION LAYOUT AND LOFT Design layout of a credible aircraft configuration arrangement including external geometry, conic lofting, flatwrap
http://www.aircraftdesign.com/shortcrs.html
##### The popular Aircraft Configuration Design Short Course that covers it all!
A broad and intensive course for everybody involved in new or modified Aircraft Design. This class starts from fundamentals and takes you all the way through the design process including: - Developing a design in response to requirements
- Laying out the design on a drafting table or CAD screen
- Analyzing it for aerodynamics, propulsion, structure, weights, stability, cost, and performance
- Calculation of range or sizing to a specified mission
- Trade Studies, carpet plots, and multivariable/multidisciplinary optimization, and......
- Learning from your work to make the next design version better!
NEXT PUBLIC OFFERINGS:
Contact Univ. of Linkoping - Pia Johansson Sept 13-17, 2004, Los Angeles, CA (click here for registration information)
Public presentation organized by Conceptual Research Corporation 14-18 March 2005, Reston, VA (Washington DC area)
Contact AIAA - Patricia Carr IN-HOUSE OFFERINGS: Contact Conceptual Research Corp.

 27. ENHANCED IMAGING OF CORROSION IN AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES WITH REVERSE Page 1 of 12Winfree Enhanced Imaging of Corrosion in aircraft Structures with Reverse geometry Xray Â®ENHANCED IMAGING OF CORROSION IN aircraft STRUCTURES WITH REVERSE geometry X-RAY Â® William P. Winfreea, Noreen A. Cmar-Mascisb, F.http://techreports.larc.nasa.gov/ltrs/PDF/1999/mtg/NASA-99-3jcaa-wpw.pdf

28. Aircraft Design Software Rev.
school. In that study, Mike s Quickmod code was judged to be better than FLOFT/WLOFT for developing aircraft geometry. AutoCAD was
http://www.aoe.vt.edu/~mason/Mason_f/ACDesSR/softgeom.html
##### Geometry
This section includes descriptions of several purely geometry related programs. Back to Software Review ...
Back to Content
##### FOIL 1.2
Use :airfoil library and graphics
Author :Gregory Payne
Address :550 Del Ray Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94086, greg@aerometrics.com, or 1119 Bridle Drive, Richland, WA 99352
Platform :Macintosh
Documentation :code comes with manual
License :Foil is free, but not public domain. The author retains all rights. It may be distributed freely, but may not be sold. Foil may be included on disks that are sold for a small charge to cover costs, but only with express written permission from the author.
Code :user gets executable code
Graphics :yes
Discussion :This program contains a huge library of airfoils. Practically every airfoil which has had its coordinates published is included. This also means that most of the airfoils are of mainly historical interest. The program can compare airfoils graphically. Back to Geometry Menu
##### Virginia Tech Collection
Use :various Author :collected from various sources Address :mason@aoe.vt.edu

29. Aerodynamics And Aircraft Design Software
we have put the manual (essentially a description of the Craiden geometry data set This is a collection of codes that may be useful in aircraft conceptual design
http://www.aoe.vt.edu/~mason/Mason_f/MRsoft.html
##### Software for Aerodynamics and Aircraft Design (W.H. Mason, Virginia Tech)
This page contains various programs that may prove useful to design class students, and other aerodynamics and design students. These are mostly old-fashioned codes without graphical user interfaces. In fact this was originally all FORTRAN source code. However, I've recently started adding executables since the FORTRAN source files typically can't be used by current undergraduates. In addition, some methods are given as MATLAB m-files. Another source of classic aerodynamics codes is the CD sold by Ralph Carmichael, Public Domain Aeronautical Software (PDAS) . Also, see the software review page for commercial codes with modern user interfaces. In some cases I have now added links to sites located elsewhere, where key codes are available. Other useful online Java-based programs are available at www.engapplets.vt.edu . Comments or questions? Contact me at whmason@vt.edu. Last modified: Mar. 19, 2004.
##### Current Software
Aerocal Pak #1 stand alone NACA 1135 Standard atmosphere Planform Analysis (Aerocal Pak #2) ... Skin Friction/Form Factor Drag Induced drag

30. The Efficient Parametrization Of Aircraft Geometry
The Efficient Parametrization of aircraft geometry. NASA Langely Research Center has funded research to investigate the way in which
http://www.amsta.leeds.ac.uk/Applied/CAGD.dir/section3_4.html
Next: Computer-Aided Rapid Prototyping
Up: Computer Aided Geometric and Functional Design
Previous: Automatic Design for Function
##### The Efficient Parametrization of Aircraft Geometry
NASA Langely Research Center has funded research to investigate the way in which the PDE method can be used to efficiently parametrize aircraft geometry. The types of objects considered have included the a supersonic transport and nacelle/pylon configurations. Software has been developed that allows the interactive manipulation of such geometries by a user sitting at a suitable workstation. amt5man@amsta.leeds.ac.uk Page Created: Mon Dec 12 1994
Last Updated: 19th March 1996.

31. Volpe Center: Acoustics Diagram Of Aircraft Tracking Geometry
About Our Work Career Opportunities Business With Us Information Resources Outreach. Diagram of aircraft Tracking geometry. Back to Technical Information.
http://www.volpe.dot.gov/acoustics/paperp.html
Home Advanced Search Directory Site Map ... Outreach
##### Diagram of Aircraft Tracking Geometry

32. Parametric Aircraft
next up previous contents Next Geometric Basis Up PARAMETRIC geometry DEFINITION Previous PARAMETRIC geometry DEFINITION. Parametric aircraft.
http://hpcc.engin.umich.edu/CFD/users/charlton/Thesis/html/node14.html
Next: Geometric Basis Up: PARAMETRIC GEOMETRY DEFINITION Previous: PARAMETRIC GEOMETRY DEFINITION
##### Parametric Aircraft
Figure: General airplane configuration.
Perhaps the best reason for selecting a parametric geometry definition of component-based design is that once the configuration is specified, the design process usually proceeds, component-by-component[ ]. An airplane is usually built from parts that are joined together, for example, a fuselage, a wing, tail, and engines, as shown in Figure . Just as these parts are considered separately, they are usually designed separately. When considering stability, for example, the wing and tail aerodynamics are usually computed as point forces. By combining these components, we can build a wide variety of shapes; these shapes are easy to specify and visualizewith or without fancy 3D computer software. Finally, most of the parameters used to build the geometry are actual design variables in that they have physical significance, for example fuselage-length, fuselage-width, wing-span, and wing-root-chord. Hopefully, this leads to an easier understanding of what these design-variables influence aerodynamically and will ultimately reduce the need for design iterations. Another way to consider this is the issue of macro-design vs.

33. Geometry Description
. To analyze the flow about an aircraft s shape, the designer needs first to determine and build an appropriate surface description....... geometry
http://hpcc.engin.umich.edu/CFD/users/charlton/Thesis/html/node6.html
Next: Grid Generation Methods Up: INTRODUCTION Previous: Aerodynamic Analysis
##### Geometry Description
To analyze the flow about an aircraft's shape, the designer needs first to determine and build an appropriate surface description. Any given airplane is composed of many individual parts, and specifying everything in its entirety can be very difficult and time-consuming. Many aircraft shapes, however, can be grouped in base shapes that differ only in key values of certain parameters , for example fuselage-length, wing-span, and tail-height. By starting with these parameters, a large variety of shapes can be easily built within this family. Oscar 's model is not the first parametric aircraft model in aerospace engineering design, and it will not be the last. Many models are buried in corporate proprietary environments, restricting their usefulness to the engineering public. This same restriction makes it difficult for oscar 's model to take advantage of anything more realistic that might be considered ``state of the art.'' The goal was to build a shape that looked like an airplane, and that was satisfied, but it should not be taken as the final word in aircraft shape design. Another parametric model for airplane-like shapes is Smith's Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)[ ]. RAPID's geometric basis is biparameter surfaces defined by ordinary differential equations (ODE). By solving the ODE, the shape is determined completely, with all necessary derivatives determined incidentally. RAPID's strength is the creation of complete volume grids, perfectly suitable for analysis with a multi-block flow solver. However, by restricting the input model to a single family of shapes easily describable by ODE, the models themselves are simpler, with sharp features suitable for high-speed civil transport (HSCT) design perhaps, but not for subsonic aircraft.

34. Program For Aircraft Synthesis Studies
PASS aircraft Drawing. PASS Program for aircraft Synthesis Studies. This page provides a 3D view of the airplane geometry. Performance
##### PASS: Program for Aircraft Synthesis Studies This page provides a 3-D view of the airplane geometry. Performance Trade Studies : The effect of weight and wing area on constraints. Information on the variables (a description, units, how they are computed) Numerical optimization lets you vary several parameters at once to find the best design.

35. Guide Entry 90.07.10
at the developments that took place in the aircraft industry; 2) for Mathematics to be taught as an enrichment lesson for students in Basic geometry or geometry
http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/guides/1990/7/90.07.10.x.html
Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute Home Historical Developments of the Aircraft Industry with Mathematical Applications, by Hermine E. Smikle
##### Guide Entry to 90.07.10:
This unit is written with several audiences in mind: 1) for HistoryÂa junior high school grade 8 class to take a look at the developments that took place in the aircraft industry; 2) for Mathematics to be taught as an enrichment lesson for students in Basic Geometry or Geometry. Also, the section on spherical geometry can be used in a class of Algebra II Trigonometry as an extension or an introduction to spherical geometry. This unit makes an attempt to present new content ideas into the mathematics curriculum. The focus of the unit is on problem solving, using graphs as a model. The unit also considers the new standards that will be put in place for mathematics, and has considered some of the topics that have been targeted for increased attention. Because of the limitation placed on the numbers of pages in the unit, only a sample of the extension activities and worksheets presented for the students is included. The user, however, can make ditto of the examples presented, and, with the use of an atlas, can come up with more examples (spherical geometry). In the section on graphs and matrices, students can draw or design their own networks (good example of open-ended problems). The unit, therefore, lends itself to extensive use of oneÂs imagination. Examples can be found from newspapers, advertisements, a map, the atlas, and everyday activities. If there is the need for any other material or explanation I will be willing to provide these through the office of the Teachers Institute.

36. DARPA Defense Sciences Office - Morphing Aircraft Structures
The Morphing aircraft Structures (MAS) Program seeks to create and advance enabling specific missions are dictated to a significant degree by vehicle geometry.
http://www.darpa.mil/dso/thrust/matdev/mas.htm
 SMART MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES Morphing Aircraft Structures (MAS) Program Manager: Dr. Terry A. Weisshaar The Morphing Aircraft Structures (MAS) Program seeks to create and advance enabling technologies and ultimately design, build, and demonstrate a seamless, aerodynamically efficient, aerial vehicle capable of radical shape change. Air vehicles are currently designed for single missions such as reconnaissance or attack. The levels of performance achieved by these structures for such specific missions are dictated to a significant degree by vehicle geometry. The ability to change the critical physical characteristics of the vehicle in flight would enable/allow a single vehicle to perform multiple mission profiles. The ability to morph would heavily influence system performance characteristics, such as turning radius, endurance, payload, and maximum velocity. o change in wing twist, and (4) a 20

37. XML Airfoil Geometry Format
An XML aircraft geometry Format. Contents.
http://www.mh-aerotools.de/airfoils/xml_configuration_format.htm
##### Purpose of XML-Files
The e X tensible M arkup L anguage format (XML) is being used by many programs for almost all kind of data handling. In contrast to several other file formats, its main advantages are
• well defined language for general data storage and retrieval, possibility to store hierarchically structured data, not a complex binary format, but ASCII based, and by using stylesheet transformations (XSLT) an XML file can be transformed into any other ASCII format almost without any programming work.
I have defined an XML schema to represent the geometry of aircraft, which can be used to describe the geometry of multi winged aircraft configurations. It would be very helpful, if such a format would be implemented by most programs which handle wings. Wings can be main wings as well as tailplanes of all kinds.
##### Structure of an XML-File
Any XML file is made up from tags similar to a HTML file. Tags are enclosed in pointed parentheses ( ). Each XML file must begin with the header tag:

38. Future Global Range Transport Aircraft
Finally, it is possible to transfer the aircraft geometry automatically to a CAD system for the automatic generation of surface and volume models, which can be
http://www.mh-aerotools.de/company/paper_9/global_transport_aircraft.htm
Unclassified Paper - presented at the RTO-Symposium on Unconventional Vehicles and Emerging Technologies , Bruxelles, 2003 Future Global Range Transport Aircraft Martin Hepperle German Aerospace Center Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology Lilienthalplatz 7, D-38108 Braunschweig Wolfgang Heinze Technical University of Brunswick, Institute of Aircraft Design and Lightweight Structures Hermann-Blenk-StraÃe 35, D-38108 Braunschweig
##### Abstract
An increasing demand for air lift transport capacities is raised by humanitarian and military missions. For heavy load, long range missions the conventional aircraft configuration seems to be close to its limits. If transport aircraft grow larger than the ultra high capacity aircraft currently under development, alternative configurations seem to offer promising benefits in terms of performance and costs. The paper presents a comparison of two ultra high capacity long range transport aircraft: the first aircraft has been designed as a classical Wing-Fuselage-Tail configuration, whereas the second concept is an Integrated-Wing-Fuselage configuration.
##### Global Range Transport Capacity
During the last years, the demand for long range transport aircraft has increased. A huge number of older aircraft are reaching the end of their service life and will require major retrofits or have to be replaced by new aircraft.

 39. Aircraft Control Toolbox Import aircraft geometry from AutoCAD DXF and Wavefront OBJ files. Export aircraft models in MultiVehicleSim CAD and Wavefront OBJ format.http://www.psatellite.com/products/html/ACT.php

40. SimHQ.com - Air Combat Zone - The Falcon 3.0 Manual Tactics Section - Introducti
Where you position the nose of the aircraft is very important when a pilot attacks the bandit. The use of attack pursuit geometry will be explained later on in
http://www.simhq.com/_air/air_038a.html
 Homepage Air Combat Land Combat Naval Combat ... Site Map Feature Article The Falcon 3.0 Manual Tactics Section - Introduction to the Geometry of Air Combat by Ed "Skater" Lynch For those of you that are "old salts" when it comes to flight sims, and for those of you that are new to flight sims, this article should be of some value to you. This is largely a reprint from the manual of one of the best combat flight sims ever released. Spectrum Holobyte's Falcon 3.0 was indeed the father of all modern, "realistic" combat flight sims. The F3 manual was one hell of a paper weight. Weighing in at something like seven pounds, the F3 manual was jam packed with information on flying the sim, and the usage of tactics, and the deployment of weapons and the employment of the aircraft. Here is a little jewel from the tactics section. Enjoy! Credit goes to Microprose / Hasbro Interactive, Spectrum Holobyte, and the Falcon 3.0 team.

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