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         Welfare Reform Housing:     more books (22)
  1. Welfare reform and housing assistance ([Report] - Rand Corporation ; R-2333-HUD) by Rodney T Smith, 1979
  2. Housing Assistance & Welfare Reform: A Reprint from "Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development & Research"
  3. The Home Front: Implications of Welfare Reform for Housing Policy.(Review) (book review): An article from: Journal of the American Planning Association by William C. Baer, 2000-06-22
  4. The Home Front: Implications of Welfare Reform for Housing Policy.(Review) (book review): An article from: Journal of the American Planning Association by Victoria Basolo, 2001-03-22
  5. The Home Front: Implications of Welfare Reform for Housing Policy
  6. The Home Front: Implications of Welfare Reform for Housing Policy.(Brief Article): An article from: Journal of Consumer Affairs by Bonnie Braun, 2000-06-22
  7. Welfare reform and housing (Welfare reform & beyond policy brief) by Rebecca Swartz, 2002
  8. The dynamics of tax reform, housing, and welfare (Working paper series) by Joyce Manchester, 1988
  9. Housing assistance, housing costs, and welfare reform (Policy brief) by James M Quane, 2002
  10. Federal housing assistance and welfare reform: Uncharted territory (New federalism : issues and options for states) by G. Thomas Kingsley, 1997
  11. Housing bills could weaken welfare reform and create problems for the working poor by Barbara Sard, 1997
  12. Welfare reform effect on HUD's housing subsidies is difficult to estimate : report to the Subcommittee on VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies, Committee ... Representatives (SuDoc GA 1.13:RCED-99-14) by U.S. General Accounting Office, 1998
  13. Is housing mobility the key to welfare reform?: Lessons from Chicago's Gautreaux Program (Survey series) by James E Rosenbaum, 2000
  14. Subsidizing Shelter: The Relationship between Welfare Reform (Urban Institute Report 1) by Sandra J. Schnare,Ann B. Newman, 1988-05-28

1. Housing And Welfare Reform
Housing and Welfare Reform. Barbara Sard and Jennifer Daskal, Housing EmploymentPreferences and Welfare Reform, CLASP Update, December 22, 1997, pg 9.
March/April 1998 Housing and Welfare Reform
By Barbara Sard and Jennifer Daskal Although welfare and housing assistance systems are designed and administered separately from each other, their beneficiaries overlap to a substantial degree. Especially in the wake of welfare reform, this intersection presents both opportunities and challenges for welfare recipients, tenants receiving federal housing assistance, housing and welfare advocates, and administrators of both welfare and housing programs. The sweeping changes in the 1996 welfare law-which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program with the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) block grant-reduce benefits for recipients and therefore threaten to reduce revenues for many housing authorities and assisted housing owners. According to HUD data, about one million, or nearly half, of HUD-assisted families with children received some income from AFDC/TANF in 1996. Of these approximately one million families, about 260,000 lived in public housing, 480,000 received tenant-based vouchers and certificates, and 250,000 lived in project-based Section 8 housing. In 1996, approximately one-quarter of all AFDC/TANF recipients lived in assisted housing, although this ratio varied significantly from state to state. The reason even more welfare families do not receive housing assistance is not, for the most part, that they have adequate affordable housing, but rather that the supply of housing assistance is so limited.

2. NIFL-HOMELESS 1998: Housing And Welfare Reform
Housing and Welfare Reform. From Homes for the Homeless ( Wed Feb 25 1998 133214 EST Next message Homes
Housing and Welfare Reform
From: Homes for the Homeless (
Date: Wed Feb 25 1998 - 13:32:14 EST > Subject: Housing and Welfare Reform Content-Length: 708 Lines: 16 I just found on-line a 2/12/98 report by Barbara Sard and Jennifer Daskal from the Center on Budget & Policy Priorities entitled "Housing and Welfare Reform: Some Background Information." The information provided is basic, but does a good job of pinpointing how welfare policy impacts housing policies. The report is rather long, but anyone interested in getting a copy can contact me directly at , contact the Center at , or look it up on HandsNet (if you're a subscriber) under HandsNet/HandsNet Forums/Housing-Cmty Dev/Public Policy. Kate Collignon NIFL-Homeless list co-moderator Mail Sent: February 25, 1998 10:29 am PST Item: R013icC

3. Federal Housing Assistance And Welfare Reform
1. See Sandra J. Newman and Joseph Harkness, The Effects of welfare reform on HousingA National Analysis. Presented at the Policy Research Roundtable on
Federal Housing Assistance and Welfare Reform
Uncharted Territory
Author(s): G. Thomas Kingsley Other Availability: PDF Order Online Printer-Friendly Version Published: December 01, 1997 Citation URL:
Number A-19 in Series, "New Federalism: Issues and Options for States" The nonpartisan Urban Institute publishes studies, reports, and books on timely topics worthy of public consideration. The views expressed are those of the authors and should not be attributed to the Urban Institute, its trustees, or its funders. Federal housing assistance was seldom mentioned in the mid-1990s’ debate over devolution of America’s social safety net. Yet in FY 1995, federal outlays for housing assistance to the poor ($19 billion) exceeded those for Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) by $7 billion. A sizable share (about one-fifth) of households that receive AFDC also benefit from federal housing subsidies administered by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Moreover, those receiving HUD assistance account for a much larger share of long-term welfare recipients—those likely to have the most difficulty finding and retaining employment—than welfare families that don’t receive federal housing assistance. Among AFDC beneficiaries in 1994, for example, the median cumulative period of welfare recipiency for those who also received HUD assistance was 57 months; for those not receiving HUD assistance, the comparable period was 37 months. Whether or not welfare recipients also receive housing assistance will greatly influence the immediate circumstances and, possibly, the longer-term opportunities of those directly affected by welfare reforms and cutbacks in related social programs. Welfare reform may also have a marked impact on the financial condition of HUD’s housing programs. Tremendous variations in HUD assistance across states and localities (explained below), together with the new discretion states have been given to run their own welfare programs, mean that housing assistance and welfare interactions at the local level will significantly affect state responses to devolution.

required by the welfare program to find jobs in the study sites and, stemming fromthese, estimates of the impacts of welfare reform on housing authority rent

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Welfare Reform Impacts on the Public Housing Program: a Preliminary Forecast Title I, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, effectively ended the Aid To Families With Dependent Children program (AFDC) a long-standing entitlement to unconditional, long-term welfare assistance based only on the income eligibility of households with minor children. In its stead, households are now eligible for relatively short-term income assistance conditional on participation in work activities. In fact, even before TANF, some states obtained waivers to AFDC requirements and made the receipt of benefits conditional upon work participation; many of them have chosen to continue their waiver programs instead of shifting entirely to Federal rules under TANF. The effects of state and Federal welfare reform actions can have reverberating impacts on all programs that traditionally have taken welfare income into account. This includes all HUD multifamily programs that require beneficiaries to contribute a portion of their incomes for rent. In particular, it includes HUD's Public Housing program for which the near-term impacts of welfare reform could be significant for program beneficiaries, administering Public Housing Authorities (HAs), and the Federal government. It is recognized that welfare reform can be expected to have a significant impact not only on the Public Housing Program but on other HUD housing programs as well. The Public Housing Program seemed a reasonable starting point for assessing welfare reform because of the potential impact on the Federal budget and because public housing is not a portable subsidy, meaning that most residents face limited options since they are likely to loose housing assistance if they move to take advantage of job opportunities because they are required to seek work. The assessment methodology utilized here may have the potential to be modified and extended to other HUD programs.

5. WR&B: Welfare Reform And Housing -- Rebecca Swartz And Brian Miller
Swartz, Miller, welfare, welfare reform, housing welfare reform and housing. WR B Brief 16 March 2002 spur more discussion and creative action on housing reforms during the upcoming welfare
Welfare Reform and Housing
Rebecca Swartz and Brian Miller

your view

After reading this policy brief, tell us what you think. We'll post the most interesting comments.
send your RESPONSE
read the FEEDBACK
Housing is more than bricks and mortar. It is a key factor in determining a family's access to economic and educational opportunities, exposure to violence and environmental hazards, and ability to accumulate financial assets. Too few low-income families reap the positive benefits of living in stable and reasonably priced housing, and many frequently move in and out of undesirable or unsustainable housing. This lack of stable housing can create difficulties for parents trying to retain employment and can increase the likelihood that their children will have problems in school. In this policy brief, we provide an overview of the current state of housing for low-income families, describe some current government interventions, and analyze a range of proposed housing reforms that Congress should consider as it debates reauthorization of the 1996 welfare reform law. Housing Needs of Low-Income Families
Roughly 20 percent of all middle- to low-income households in the U.S., over 13 million in all, live in substandard housing or pay more than half of their income in housing costs, well above the affordability standard of 30 percent of gross income established by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Whereas housing quality was the major housing problem in the decades leading up to the 1970s, today the leading problem for low-income families is affordability. While it is no surprise that poor families are disproportionately unable to afford housing, it may be surprising that more than 85 percent of renter households with incomes below 30 percent of area median income (AMI) spend more than 30 percent of their income on housing, with well over half of them spending more than 50 percent of their income on housing (figure 1, bar graph on far right).

6. Welfare Reform And Housing (Welfare Information Network)
Large index of publications, issue papers, links, organizations and state specific initiatives
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7. Housing And Welfare Reform:  Some Background Information - Rev. 11/5/98
Revised November 5, 1998. housing and welfare reform by Barbara Sard and Jennifer Daskal efforts in these areas in response to welfare reform.(5) housing providers also can be influential allies
Revised November 5, 1998 Housing and Welfare Reform:
Some Background Information
by Barbara Sard and Jennifer Daskal Although the welfare and housing assistance systems are designed and administered separately from each other, their beneficiaries overlap to a substantial degree. This intersection presents opportunities and challenges for welfare recipients, housing and welfare advocates, and administrators of both welfare and housing programs. It also presents potential risks for the housing programs, especially in the wake of welfare reform. Housing Assistance for Low-Income Families The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) operates three major federally-funded programs that provide housing assistance to low-income families: public housing, Section 8 certificates and vouchers, and Section 8 project-based programs. Some states also run small programs providing housing assistance. Since housing assistance is not an entitlement, there are many more eligible families than there are families provided assistance, and waiting lists for housing assistance are very long in many areas. Census data indicate that there are 5.3 million unassisted families with "worst case housing needs"; these are families that live in substandard housing or pay over half their income in rent. Housing assistance can become available to families due to turnover or through federal funding of additional subsidies. From 1995 until the recently enacted HUD appropriations act for fiscal year 1999, there was no net increase in the supply of federally subsidized housing for low income families. In fact, as some public housing units were demolished and as some Section 8 contracts expired and were not renewed, the number of households receiving federal housing subsidies declined in the last few years for the first time in the history of these programs. For fiscal year 1999, Congress has appropriated funds for 50,000 additional housing vouchers targeted on families making the transition from welfare to work.

8. Press Release: Rural Housing And Welfare Reform In HAC Report
NEWS RELEASE. Contact Leslie Strauss. 202842-8600, ext. 141. RURAL housing AND welfare reform. EXAMINED IN housing ASSISTANCE COUNCIL REPORT highlights the intersection of
About HAC

Help for Individuals


Press Room
Leslie Strauss
202-842-8600, ext. 141

RURAL HOUSING AND WELFARE REFORM EXAMINED IN HOUSING ASSISTANCE COUNCIL REPORT Washington, June 12, 2001 – Welfare recipients in rural areas face different obstacles than those in cities, according to a new report by the Housing Assistance Council. It can be hard to find and maintain jobs because of limited social service infrastructures, lack of public transportation, the predominance of seasonal employment in agriculture and extractive industries, and scarce child care resources. In addition, housing costs and rehabilitation needs can burden many rural welfare recipients entering the workforce. HAC's report highlights the intersection of welfare reform and affordable housing needs in seven rural counties with high rates of welfare use. Case studies of these counties discuss gaps in service provision and housing assistance, and describe collaborative ventures between social service and affordable housing providers. Case studies were conducted in Chicot County, Ark., Colusa County, Calif., Crawford County, Ind., Greene County, N.Y., McKenzie County, N.D., Rutland County, Vt., and Wise County, Va. "Housing is often a family's greatest expense," explained HAC Executive Director Moises Loza. "Housing problems can impact rural welfare clients as they work towards self-sufficiency. Access to affordable housing promotes economic stability, but it can be difficult to coordinate limited housing and social service resources in sparsely settled rural areas."

9. Ohio Empowerment Coalition
The OEC is made up of welfare rights groups from across the State of Ohio. We are the voice of those affected by welfare and welfare reform. We are the parents and the individuals who truly know what will get us out of poverty jobs at livable wages along with quality child care, quality health care and quality housing all of which need to be affordable.

10. Salt Lake Community Action Program
Nonprofit providing a variety of services aimed at helping low income people reach selfsufficiency, including homelessness prevention, transitional housing, employment services, food bank, Head Start and affordable housing referrals. Includes housing listings, programs, poverty data and welfare reform information.
Salt Lake Community Action Program
764 S 200 West Salt Lake City, Ut 84101 (801)359-2444 (801)355-1798 (f)
Cathy Hoskins Executive Director, CCAP
Locations and hours of operation.
Food Stamp Calculator Provides an estimate of the amount of Food Stamps you might be eligible for.
Services General Information Other Links Head Start Emergency Food Weatherization HEAT ... Other Activities The Salt Lake Community Action Program (SLCAP) is a not for profit organization that provides a wide range of services aimed at helping low-income people become self-sufficient. Our Mission: To eliminate the paradox of poverty in our affluent society. Our Purpose: To create programs that empower low-income people to enhance the quality of their lives by having them design and implement strategies that will create solutions to their problems.
State Wide Listing of Assisted

Housing Units
Salt Lake Rental List UREAP ... Staff Email Addresses and Phone #s Officers Board Makeup and Purpose J ames R. Russell
President Cal Noyce
First Vice President Sister Marie Bernadette, C.S.C.

11. Impacts Of Welfare Reform On Recipients Of Housing Assistance: Evidence From Ind
This new paper from HUD researches how welfare reform changes have impacted housingassistance recipients in two states, Indiana and Delaware, to draw

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Impacts of Welfare Reform on Recipients of Housing Assistance: Evidence From Indiana and Delaware (February 2003, 103p.) Send this to a friend FULL TEXT:
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(*.pdf, 2.78MB)
Welfare reform and housing assistance programs have the potential to strongly affect one another, because of the substantial overlap in the populations they serve. Nationally, about 30 percent of families on welfare receive federal housing assistance. Conversely, close to half of all HUD-assisted families with children receive some income from welfare in any given year. This overlap creates the possibility for housing assistance to influence welfare reform efforts and, in the other direction, for welfare reform to affect housing assistance. This study builds on previous research in three ways. First, it presents experimental impact estimates of welfare reform for housing assistance subgroups from two states, adding to the existing findings from three other states. Second, this study uses HUD administrative records to identify receipt of housing assistance, a more accurate source than survey measures of housing assistance, the measure used in prior studies. Third, this study presents experimental estimates of welfare reform's impacts on length of time spent receiving housing assistance, using longitudinal measures of housing assistance from HUD administrative records, which has not been done before.

12. Welfare Reform And Housing
welfare reform and housing Resources. Announcements. TFP Publications. General Publications.welfare reform and housing Issue Pages. housing Research and Surveys.
IFDM Home Search About IFDM Site Map ... Go To TFP Welfare Reform and Housing Resources Announcements TFP Publications Organizational Links Federal and Multi-State ... General Publications Welfare Reform and Housing Issue Pages Housing Research and Surveys HUD Related Programs Litigation Related to Housing State and Local Housing Issues ... Work Related Issues to Housing If you have any questions about the content of this page, please email Pamela Friedman General Resources Hot Topics Event Calendar Publications by
The Finance Project

1401 New York Avenue, NW
Suite 800
Washington, DC 20005
Tel. 202-587-1000
Fax. 202-628-4205
Welfare Reform and Housing The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) funds three primary types of federal housing assistance to low-income families: public housing, tenant-based housing and project-based programs
  • Public Housing: Rental units owned and operated by public housing authorities (PHA). Public housing tenants pay rents directly to the PHA's. The PHA sets the amount of rent required based on income levels. The rest of the operating and maintenance costs are paid through available PHA funds. Tenant-based Vouchers and Certificates : Families can use these subsidies to rent housing in the private market. The PHA's pay to the landlords, the difference of the tenant's required rental payments and the approved rental charge.

13. Washington Advocacy Pages
A project of the Statewide Poverty Action Network. Includes statistics about mental health, disability, hunger and nutrition, welfare reform, homelessness, low income housing, and economic security.
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14. Welfare Reform Impacts On The Public Housing Program: A Preliminary Forecast
welfare reform Impacts on the Public housing Program A Preliminary Forecast examines the implications of this new finds that the effects of welfare reform on tenant incomes and PHA

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Welfare Reform Impacts on the Public Housing Program: A Preliminary Forecast (March 1998, 113 p.) Send this to a friend FULL TEXT:
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President Clinton signed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in August 1996, ending "welfare as we know it." The new law replaces Aid to Families with Dependent Children with Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Under TANF, eligible families receive relatively short-term income assistance if the adults in the family participate in work-related activities. Welfare Reform Impacts on the Public Housing Program: A Preliminary Forecast examines the implications of this new law for public housing authorities (PHAs), whose residents traditionally contribute a portion of their incomes for rent. Prepared by HUD's Office of Policy Development and Research, the study finds that the effects of welfare reform on tenant incomes and PHA rent revenues are expected to vary considerably. Effects will depend on the number of PHA households that include mandated residents (adults required under TANF to seek employment), their potential for finding a job, their contributions to rent revenues, and mitigating actions taken by PHAs. Substantial numbers of PHA residents have been (or soon will be) required to move from welfare to work losing all TANF assistance as they reach their time limits or find a job. Because public housing rents are tied to tenant income, a portion of PHA rent receipts will become uncertain. The resulting effect on Federal budget outlays, in the form of operating subsidies to PHAs, is also uncertain.

15. Housing And Welfare Reform: Strategic Intersections In Place-Based Strategies
Newman, Sandra J., ed. The Home Front Implications of welfare reform for housingPolicy. Making welfare reform Work Tips for Public housing Authorities.
/* You may give each page an identifying name, server, and channel on the next lines. */ var pageName = "Page Name" var server = "Server" var channel = "Channel" /**** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE! ****/ var code = ' '; document.write(' '); document.write('>') Resources For Welfare Decisions Volume 3 Issue 4 August 1999 Housing and Welfare Reform: Strategic Intersections in Place-Based Strategies Perhaps half of the 2 million families with children receiving housing assistance also receive cash assistance. Many more TANF families are unassisted by housing subsidies but risk housing crises in the absence of sustained employment. Housing and welfare programs have historically had different goals, and evidence of effectively linking housing and other anti-poverty strategies is limited. Welfare reform could bring new opportunities to enhance natural linkages for at least three reasons. Second, several HUD-funded programs are explicitly aimed at promoting self-sufficiency, and preference and rent options in the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998 could encourage PHAs to pursue those objectives aggressively. Other programs (e.g., Empowerment Zones, Community and Economic Development and Supportive Services Block Grants, and especially HOPE VI) can be used to access jobs and supportive services. Housing and community development programs themselves are major job generators, and recipients of most federal housing funds are mandated to hire low income residents from the area. In addition, new flexibility in final TANF regulations may allow TANF and state maintenance of effort dollars to be used to prevent homelessness and for related purposes, irrespective of cash assistance.

16. Episcopal Community Services Of The Diocese Of Northern California
Developing and administering programs of health and social service. Information about health ministries, welfare reform, and housing assistance, plus links to other agencies.
Episcopal Community Services Serving Christ by Serving Others
For information on our programs, call us, or select a link below for more information.
Board of Directors
Funding New Ministries

Programs and People

Make a Donation
Vehicle Donation Program
Links to other sites of interest.
The Episcopal Diocese of Northern California Diocesan Calendar of Events The National Jubilee Ministry California Council of Churchs ... Welfare Information Network
To promote and aid in the development of programs of health and social service throughout the Episcopal Diocese of Northern California.
To contact us:
Episcopal Community Services
P.O. Box 161268
1318 27th Street
Sacramento, CA 95816
Fax: 916-446-2287
send an email to Episcopal Community Services of the Diocese of Northern California
or to the Executive Director Jack Hanstein Board of Directors Programs and People Health ... Catamount Design

17. Abt Associates
HUD Releases to Congress Abt Associates Report on housing Assistance US for Women,Infants, and Children (WIC) The Indiana welfare reform Evaluation FiveYear



Alumni Network

Project Workspace



Alumni Network

Project Workspace
... Our Work

18. Welfare-to-Work Housing Vouchers: An Innovative Approach To Welfare Reform - ^M
Revised February 2, 1999. welfareto-Work housing Vouchers An Innovative Approach to welfare reform. by Jeff Lubell and Barbara Sard new program to help states achieve their welfare reform objectives. Designed to help families for whom the
Revised February 2, 1999 Welfare-to-Work Housing Vouchers:
An Innovative Approach to Welfare Reform
by Jeff Lubell and Barbara Sard For 1999, the President and Congress have created a promising new program to help states achieve their welfare reform objectives. Designed to help families for whom the lack of stable, affordable housing is a barrier to employment, the Welfare-to-Work Voucher Program will provide 50,000 Section 8 housing vouchers to families attempting to make the transition from welfare to work. These vouchers can be used to help families move to areas with better job opportunities or transportation networks or to provide incentives for families on welfare to secure and retain employment. In conjunction with state and local welfare agencies and local entities administering Department of Labor (DOL) welfare-to-work grants, public housing agencies (PHAs) will compete for the vouchers in a competition administered by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Winners of the competition will receive an allocation of new Section 8 housing vouchers, which will carry the standard administrative fee. Applicants will have substantial flexibility to design programs that meet local needs and support local welfare reform strategies. Applications for the welfare-to-work voucher program are due April 28, 1999. To obtain a copy of the request for proposals (termed a Notice of Funding Availability, or NOFA) and an application kit, contact HUD at 1-800-955-2232. The NOFA also may be obtained from the January 28, 1999 Federal Register or downloaded from the Internet at:

19. HAC Publications List
Articles on current topics like welfare reform, analyses of rural housing conditions around the country, and Case Studies on Rural housing and welfare reform. Available here in text
Housing Assistance Council
Publications List
March 10, 2004
For information about HAC's periodicals, and to access back issues, go to HAC News (newsletter) or Rural Voices (magazine) HAC's publications list is available in two ways: The entire list is also available in a PDF file that includes the subject index and alphabetical list. (Click here to download free Adobe Acrobat reader software to read PDF files.) New publications are listed here. Information sheets are included by topic in this publication list, and are also available in a separate list Can't find what you're looking for? For help locating publications, contact Leslie Strauss at HAC, or 202-842-8600. Order form in html text or in PDF format (requires Adobe Acrobat reader).
Return to top Run While You Still Can: Subprime Demand and Predatory Lending in Rural Areas
Available here in PDF format
Cost for print copy:
Examines the growth of the subprime lending market in rural areas and the infiltration of predatory lenders by analyzing subprime mortgage demand in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties through an analysis of Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data. Renter's Beware: An Analysis of the Administration's Proposed Fiscal Year 2005 Rural Housing Budget
Available here in PDF format
Cost for print copy:
Reviews the Bush administration's proposed budget for Fiscal Year 2005, finding that it contains many of the same proposals as FY 2004 and 2003 budget, along with some new ones.

20. The Value Of Housing Subsidies To Welfare Reform Efforts -- 2/24/00
February 24, 2000. The Value of housing Subsidies to welfare ReformEfforts by Barbara Sard and Jeff Lubell. This is the first chapter
February 24, 2000 The Value of Housing Subsidies to Welfare Reform Efforts
by Barbara Sard and Jeff Lubell This is the first chapter of a report on "The Increasing Use of TANF and State Matching Funds to Provide Housing Assistance to Families Moving From Welfare to Work." The full report is available on the Internet at
For printed copies, call the Center at 202-408-1080. Recent research results suggest that housing subsidies can be helpful in advancing welfare reform objectives. A study by the highly regarded Manpower Development Research Corporation (MDRC) of welfare reform in Minnesota found most of the gains in employment and earnings attributable to the state's welfare reform initiative were concentrated among residents of public or subsidized housing. In other words, welfare reform was found to have a larger effect on employment and earnings among families receiving housing subsidies than among other families in the study. Preliminary findings from studies in Atlanta, Georgia and Columbus, Ohio, indicate the same may be true of different initiatives undertaken in those cities. A study of the work activity of welfare recipients in four counties in California found a strong positive correlation between receipt of Section 8 housing assistance and the number of hours worked per month, after controlling for other characteristics. Additional research is needed to confirm the applicability of these preliminary findings to other welfare reform programs. These findings suggest, however, that housing subsidies may be useful in helping families make the transition from welfare to work.

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