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         War General:     more books (100)
  1. Victory In Destruction: The Story Of William Tecumseh Sherman (Civil War Generals) by Nancy Whitelaw, 2005-01-30
  2. The Official Military Atlas of the Civil War by U.S. War Dept., George B. Davis, et all 2003-10-13
  3. Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War by Barbara Stahura, Gary L. Gibson, 1997-01
  4. The Battle for Kursk, 1943: The Soviet General Staff Study (Cass Series on the Soviet Study of War, No. 10.) by H. Orenstein, 1999-09-29
  5. Custer Victorious: The Civil War Battles of General George Armstrong Custer by Gregory J. W. Urwin, 1996-08
  6. Civil War Sites, 2nd: The Official Guide to the Civil War Discovery Trail (Civil War Sites) by Civil War Preservation Trust, 2007-11-01
  7. The Czar's General: The Memoirs of a Russian General in the Napoleonic Wars by Alexey Yermolov, Alexander Mikaberidze, et all 2005-11-30
  8. Red Eagles: The USAF's Cold War Secret Squadon (General Military) by Steve Davies, 2008-09-23
  9. The Bacta War (Star Wars: X-Wing Series, Book 4) by Michael A. Stackpole, 1997-01-01
  10. Lincoln's Generals (Gettysburg Civil War Institute Books)
  11. Soldier of Tennessee: General Alexander P. Stewart and the Civil War in the West by Sam Davis Elliott, 2004-03
  12. War Stories: Volume 2 (War Stories) by Garth Ennis, 2006-03-01
  13. Slave Ship (Star Wars: The Bounty Hunter Wars, Book 2) by K.W. Jeter, 1998-10
  14. Gray Cavalier: The Life and Wars of General William H. F. "Rooney" Lee by Mary Daughtry, 2002-10-09

101. Barry McCaffrey - A War Criminal?
Don t Believe Them Barry McCaffrey war Criminal The war Criminal and the Whore BarryMcCaffrey and Jose Miguel Vivanco general Barry McCaffrey, war Criminal?
Barry McCaffrey A War Criminal?
Journalist Seymour Hersh, writing in the New Yorker magazine [ May 22, 2000 ], said that on three occasions, General McCaffrey or his men of the 24th infantry division either fired on enemy soldiers who had surrendered in an "unprovoked attack", or "went too far" in responding to a non-existent threat. [Text and photo: BBC 16 May, 2000
Gulf War crimes?

In his latest exposé, the New Yorker's Seymour Hersh reports allegations that the military committed a massacre against Iraqi soldiers and whitewashed it.
By Daniel Forbes, Salon
The General McCaffrey Scientific Fool Award
.... an award, named for drug czar General Barry McCaffrey, to an outstanding perpetrator of scientific tomfoolery or fraud in the drug and alcohol area.
Source: Clinton's "drug czar" [confirmed 29 February 1996] , retired from the Army
From - bio at gov website " ....

102. Virtual Hospital : Health Topics A-Z : Emergency Medicine
Collection of articles and handbooks for providers and patients, covering emergency care in general and special topics including acute respiratory failure, hypertensive emergencies, psychiatric emergencies, and war health.
Health Topics A-Z
Emergency Medicine
All Topics Adult Patient Topics Adult Provider Topics Pediatric Patient Topics ... Pediatric Provider Topics
For Adult Providers
Acute Respiratory Failure
Evaluation and Management of Blunt Cardiac Injury

Hypertensive Emergencies

Psychiatric Emergencies
War Health Topics for Providers
For Adult Patients
Emergency Medicine Health Prose
How to Prevent Poisoning

War Health Topics for Patients

What to Do If Someone Eats or Comes in Contact with a Poisonous Plant
What to Do If Someone Is Poisoned
For Pediatric Patients
Burn Awareness and Prevention
All Topics
Adult Patient Topics Adult Provider Topics ... UI Health Care Home

103. Pennsylvania In The Civil War
Galusha Pennypacker, of Chester County, a brevet major general when under twentytwoyears of age, was the youngest general in either army during the war.
Pennsylvania in the Civil War Virtue ~ Liberty ~ Independence
"Poor is the nation having no heroes; shameful the one that having them forgets" Andrew G. Curtin
Governor, 1861-1867 The Coming Storm Artillery Cavalry Infantry ...
Reams Station

August 25, 1864 National and Other Cemeteries Battlefield National Cemetery Burial Index U. S. Veterans Affairs, Cemetery Administration ... Other Search
When the Regiment Came Back
by Edna Wheeler Wilcox
"All the uniforms were blue, all the swords were bright and new
When the regiment went marching down the street.
All the men were hale and strong as they proudly marched along,
Through the cheers that drowned the music of their feet, Oh, the music of the feet keeping time to drums that beat, Oh, the splendor and the glitter of the sight. As with swords and rifles new and in uniforms of blue, The regiment went marching to the fight. When the regiment came back, all the guns and swords were black And the uniforms had faded out to gray. And the faces of the men who marched through that street again Seemed like faces of the dead who lose their way.

104. Gen. John A. Logan Biography
Brief history of the Union general that distinguised himself at Vicksburg, commanded the federal forces at the Battle of Atlanta, and at war's end prevented Raleigh, North Carolina from being burned by northern soldiers.
A Brief Biography of John A. Logan
J ohn A. Logan, the man after whom John A. Logan College is named, was born February 9, 1826, in what is now Murphysboro , Illinois. Raised in a home that was a center of political activity, he came to love politics at an early age. In 1840 his father, Dr. John Logan, sent him to Shiloh Academy at Shiloh Hill, Illinois, to complete his education. Here Logan excelled in oratory. Logan volunteered for the Mexican War in 1846. He saw no combat, but did travel to Santa Fe, where he served as post quartermaster and learned Spanish. The 1850's brought may changes in Logan's life law school at Louisville University; marriage to Mary S. Cunningham at Shawneetown; a move to Benton; and a political career that led from county clerk to U.S. Congressman. In Southern Illinois, he was " Egypt 's spokesman." At the onset of the Civil War , the formerly pro-Southern Logan decided that "the union must prevail." He fought at Bull Run as a civilian. He then returned home where his speech at Marion ended Egypt's talk of secession and put southern Illinois during the Civil War strongly in the Union camp.

105. Brief WWII Biographies
Offers brief biographies of personalities of the Second World war, includes such names as Field Marshal Harold Alexander, Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg, general Omar Bradley, Grand Admiral Karl D¶nitz and general Dwight Eisenhower.
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Brief WWII Biographies
Note: these are by no means the definitive accounts of these people, but rather a thumbnail look at their place in WWII and how they were perceived. Field Marshal Harold Alexander (1891-1969) Commander of the 1st division of the British Expeditiary Force in France, 1940 and led the last Allied resistance at Dunkirk. January 1941 he was sent to Burma to combat the Japanese, but had to retreat to India. Churchill made him Commander in Chief on August 1942 then became deputy to Eisenhower as Supreme Commander of the Mediterranean until he succeeded him when Eisenhower became Supreme Allied Commander. He accepted the German surrender of troops in Italy on 29 April 1945. He was a very successful leader who was great at getting different soldiers from different nationalities to work together. General Vittorio Ambrosio (1879-1950) Italy's Chief of Staff who strongly opposed Italy being a satellite of Germany and tried to sway Mussolini from Hitler's influence but realized he could not. He planned to overthrow Mussolini while pretending to be loyal to the Germans, but the Germans ended up occupying northern Italy instead. Because the Allies didn't trust him, Badoglio fired him. Ion Antonescu (1882-1946) Romanian dictator who was originally imprisoned by King Carol II, but released and made Prime Minister when the Soviets grew in power. In September 1940 he signed a pact with Hitler and the next year supplied him with several divisions to invade the USSR, many of which were defeated at Stalingrad. As the Soviets pushed west, King Michael arrested him and replaced him with Sanatoscu and was executed for war crimes after the war.

106. Why War? General Calls Insurgency In Iraq A Sign Of U.S. Success
Why war? It’s bait and switch. Bait them into Iraq with weaponsof mass destruction. general Calls Insurgency in Iraq a Sign of US Success.
Why War? What is the nationalist leader so often, if not a barker from telemarketing for whom social uprooting has prepared favorable conditions?
Roveretans, "Experiment on the World", Which War Guerra Sociale March 2004 News/Opinion Afghanistan Al Qaeda Corporate Control ... April 16, 2004 "The chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff said Thursday that the deadly insurgency that flared this month is 'a symptom of the success that we're having here in Iraq' and an effort to undermine the country's transition to self-government." The chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff said Thursday that the deadly insurgency that flared this month is "a symptom of the success that we're having here in Iraq" and an effort to undermine the country's transition to self-government. Asked at a news conference here whether the military had failed to counter insurgents' attacks in Iraq, Air Force Gen. Richard B. Myers said guerrillas want to undermine several political successes, including the creation of the Iraqi Governing Council, the signing of a bill of rights and efforts by the United Nations to devise an interim government that would assume power on June 30. "I think it's that success which is driving the current situation, because there are those extremists that don't want that success," Myers said. "They see this as a test of wills, a test of resolve against those who believe in freedom and self-determination against those who prefer a regime like we saw previously in Afghanistan, or perhaps a regime like we saw previously in Iraq."

107. Salon News | Ramsey Clark, The War Criminal's Best Friend
Asserts the former U.S. attorney general has become the tool of leftwing cultists who defend Slobodan Milosevic, Saddam Hussein and Rwandan torturers as anti-imperialist heroes.
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The worst national security disaster in history came about because President Clinton had loyalties not to foreign communists, but to the Chinese funders who got him elected. By David Horowitz Barbarism was "a matter of routine" Pornography, drugs and the tools of torture are found in a Serbian police station, where teenagers were among the victims. By Laura Rozen Only the Shadow knows By Jake Tapper Is Elizabeth Dole really running for president? By Anthony York Complete archives for News The former U.S. attorney general has become the tool of left-wing cultists who defend Slobodan Milosevic, Saddam Hussein and Rwandan torturers as anti-imperialist heroes. By Ian Williams June 21, 1999

108. US Army Of God? General Casts War In Religious Terms
general Casts war in Religious Terms The top soldier assigned to track down Bin Ladenand Hussein is an evangelical Christian who speaks publicly of the army
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E-Mail This Article Published on Thursday, October 16, 2003 by the Los Angeles Times General Casts War in Religious Terms
The top soldier assigned to track down Bin Laden and Hussein is an evangelical Christian who speaks publicly of 'the army of God.'
by Richard T. Cooper
Lt. Gen. William G. "Jerry" Boykin, the new deputy undersecretary of Defense for intelligence, is a much-decorated and twice-wounded veteran of covert military operations. From the bloody 1993 clash with Muslim warlords in Somalia chronicled in "Black Hawk Down" and the hunt for Colombian drug czar Pablo Escobar to the ill-fated attempt to rescue American hostages in Iran in 1980, Boykin was in the thick of things.
William G. "Jerry" Boykin
I knew my God was bigger than his. I knew that my God was a real God and his was an idol.
Yet the former commander and 13-year veteran of the Army's top-secret Delta Force is also an outspoken evangelical Christian who appeared in dress uniform and polished jump boots before a religious group in Oregon in June to declare that radical Islamists hated the United States "because we're a Christian nation, because our foundation and our roots are Judeo-Christian ... and the enemy is a guy named Satan." Discussing the battle against a Muslim warlord in Somalia, Boykin told another audience, "I knew my God was bigger than his. I knew that my God was a real God and his was an idol."

109. On War: Contents
BOOK V, Same Book in Vom Kriege. MILITARY FORCES. I, general Scheme. II, Theatreof war, Army, Campaign. III, Relation of Power. IV, Relation of the Three Arms.
Originally published in German
This is the COMPLETE translation by Colonel J.J. Graham
Posted to the web by

with many thanks to David Reed
On War Indexes to ... On War
Links to various efforts to index Clausewitz's magnum opus Leximancer is a computer-based tool, developed by Andrew E. Smith of the University of Queensland, Australia, that can be used to automatically analyse the content of document collections and display the extracted information. Leximancer has been accepted for membership in the Australian Technology Showcase Click HERE for the Browsable Concept Index to Clausewitz' On War . This was developed using the text of On War constructed by The Clausewitz Homepage , but it is stored separately on Leximancer's server
NOTE: This version of Clausewitz's On War (like all on-line versions) is the long-obsolete J.J. Graham translation published in London in 1873. The 1976/84 Howard/Paret version is the standard translation today. This is the first complete version available on-line. INTRODUCTION
Clausewitz and His Works

by Christopher Bassford, Professor of

A general SPEAKS ON war WITH IRAQ. October 31, 2002, View Standard Version.Retired Marine Gen. Look what that general did after the war.
A GENERAL SPEAKS ON WAR WITH IRAQ October 31, 2002 View Standard Version General Zinni: Thank you. Ned asked me to look at the possibility of military action in Iraq and sort of describe the lane between best case, worst case and maybe the most likely case scenarios are and where the minefields may be. Let me start with the best case. Last night I sat down and said, "What would have to happen to make any military action to turn out in the best possible way?" I wrote ten conditions for this war that would have to happen. The first condition is that the coalition is in. The second is that the war is short. The third is that destruction is light. Fourth is that Israel is out. Fifth is that the street is quiet. Sixth is that order is kept. Seventh is that the burden is shared. Eighth is that the change is orderly. Ninth is that the military is not stuck. Tenth is that other commitments are met. That's an easy list. (laughter) If we design our strategy and our tactics based on that, it will all work out. Now let me go back and get to the rumble strips on the other side of the lane and maybe walk down each one of those. I think everything has been said in the debate that's taking place in Congress and elsewhere about what the potential pitfalls are. I'll start with the first one. In order to succeed, I think everybody agrees that we cannot go it alone. Everybody is relieved in many ways that we are going to the UN and attempting to get the legitimacy of a UN resolution. If we do anything there, we need partners. We certainly need the partners in the region that we have had. We need the relationships and the alliances we created over half a century beginning with FDR and moving through many troubled times but always managing to work out in a way that, despite our differences and issues, we have stayed close and been partners. We need to hold that sort of loosely organized, informal but very powerful alliance together.

111. The General Armstrong And The War Of 1812
Describes the attack on a privateer during the war of 1812 that delayed the arrival of the British Fleet at New Orleans, thus changing the outcome of the battle.
Southworth excerpt Pratt excerpt Roosevelt excerpt Origins of this Study ... Links
The General Armstrong
and the War of 1812
September 26, 1814. The neutral Portuguese port of Fayal (Faial) in the Azores. The American privateer, the GENERAL ARMSTRONG is taking on water and supplies. Three British men-of-war suddenly appear in the harbor. Crews from His Majesty's Ships Plantagenet, Rota and Carnation attempt to board the American ship. The British commander, Robert Lloyd, seems to irrationally delay his mission: to join the flotilla assembling in the Caribbean for the Battle of New Orleans. He loses over 200 men attacking the ARMSTRONG (to 2 Americans) and, even after the privateer is scuttled, wanted to pursue the American crew on land on the Azores and "demanded two men , who, he said, deserted from his vessel when in America" from a letter by a British eyewitness on shore on the Portuguese Azores on September 26, 1814. From "A Collection of Sundry Publications and other Documents in relation to the attack made during the late war upon the Private Armed Brig General Armstrong of New York". New York, John Gray, 110 Fulton Street, 1833.

112. Welcome To Hawker Restorations Ltd Web Site : Restorers Of World War 2 Aircraft
Restorers of the Hawker Hurricane and World war II aircraft. Company has built two flying Hurricanes to date and are currently working on another 3 plus 1 static. Includes articles, contact, links, current restorations, and general company information.
ACCOMMODATION AND SHORT TOURS AT MOAT FARM - see link below Search this site powered by FreeFind
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Site updated 11th June 2004 All pictures on this site are the property of Hawker Restorations and should not be copied without the permission of the company. Site created and maintained by Jennifer Batley, Hawker Restorations Ltd
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113. The Federal Pie Chart
the other half we have placed according to the coding in general Government currentDepartment of Defense should be returned to its original name, war Department
WRL Homepage WRL Programs WRL Literature WRL Actions ... About WRL
Current Military, $536B
Military Personnel $109B, Operation and Maintenance $164B, Procurement $67B, Research and Development $66B, Construction $6B, Family Housing $4B, Retired Pay $44B, DoE Nuclear Weapons $17B, 50% NASA $8B, International Security $8B, 50% Homeland Security $16B, Ex. Off. Pres. $10B, misc. $6B
Past Military, $349B Veterans’ Benefits $69B; Interest on National Debt (80% estimated to be created by military spending) $280B
Human Resources, $633B: Education, Health/Human Services, HUD, Food/Nutrition programs, Labor Department, Soc. Sec. Admin.
General Government, $244B: Legislative, Justice Dept., State Dept., International Affairs, Treasury, Gov’t. Personnel, 20% interest on national debt, 50% of NASA, 25% Homeland Security
Physical Resources, $114B Agriculture, Commerce, Energy, Interior Dept., Transportation, Environmental Protection, Army Corps Engineers, NSF, FCC, 25% Homeland Security T o t a l F e d e r a l F u n d s ( O u t l a y s ) : $ 1 , 9 2 6 B i l l i o n

114. African Human Rights Resouce Center
The Peace Resource Center contains a large collection of international human rights treaties, instruments, general comments, recommendations, decisions, and views of treaty bodies; other U.N. human rights materials, with an emphasis on peace and war related materials.
MAIN INDEX International Human Rights Instruments - Africa Africa Related Links African Union Organization of African Unity ... International Panel of Eminent Personalities to Investigate the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda and the Surrounding Events (July 7 2000) Bibliographies Non-governmental organizations in Sub-Saharan Africa Africa: economic, social, and cultural rights African Centre for Democracy and Human Rights Studies ... Comments or questions
This site is a joint project of the Makerere University Human Rights and Peace Center and the University of Minnesota Human Rights Center. This Resource Center was initiated with a generous grant from The John Merck Fund. The Center's staff is proud of the honors received by the Resource Center and the related Human Rights Library as well as their use by people all over the world, which have been made possible by this generous support. substantive questions:

115. Civil War
Major general events of the Civil war. Everything you wanted to know about theCivil war. Biographies of Confederate generals. Biographies of Union generals.
Navigation: Links to Other Civil War Sites
America's Wars:
Revolutionary War War of 1812 Civil War Chronology of WW II ... Vietnam War American History: Civics: A Glossary Amistad Gallery of Railroad Stations Elections: US Elections Aviation: WW II: American Aircraft Navy History: US Carriers US Navy Battleships US Patrol Boats US Cruisers ... America's Wars Civil War presents a complete History of the Civil War- History of Civil War battles. Major General events of the Civil War. Everything you wanted to know about the Civil War Biographies of Confederate Generals Biographies of Union Generals Naval Chronology of the Civil War Black American Contributions to Union Intelligenc e Chancellorsville Ft Sumter Vicksburg Reactions to Sumter ... Stone's River T he previous entries are many of major events and battles of the Civil War. Select one of the entries to receive more information. Entries are taken from our 2 CD-Rom set on the Civil War. Buy a Civil War Puzzle Mailing List Buy Civil War Memorabilia from our shopping site Related Products The Civil War CD Rom from MultiEducator Special Price List $79.95-

116. Braxton Bragg, Confederate General, Commander, Army Of Tennessee
Photo and biography of the commander of the Army of Tennessee, born near warrenton. Bragg was one of only eight Confederates promoted to full general during the war.
Braxton Bragg
a North Georgia Notable
Born:Warrenton, North Carolina, March 22, 1817
Died: Texas, September 26, 1876
Confederate General
Courtesy, Valentine Museum Perhaps the most controversial of all ranking Confederate officers, this North Carolina native was a writer, traveler, respected artillery commander and plantation owner prior to the Civil War. Many of his actions during major Western Theater battles in which he fought are still widely debated. After graduating from West Point Braxton Bragg entered the army as a second lieutenant on July 1, 1837. He fought in the Seminole Wars, 1837-1841 and served under Zachary Taylor during the Mexican-American War. At Monterey, Captain Bragg distinguished himself during bitter street fighting and in an attack on the cathedral and main plaza, but it was during the battle of Buena Vista that his "prompt and fearless conduct" saved the Americans from defeat. He is credited with repulsing a frontal attack through effective use of his artillery, then holding off an attack on General Zachary Taylor's flank while Colonel Jefferson Davis organized a defense of the position. After his brave action he was twice the target of assassins. After a brief retirement in the late 1850's, Bragg returned to serve in the Louisiana militia until he was appointed Brigadier General by the Confederate States of American in 1861. He was promoted to full general shortly after the disastrous defeat of Rebel forces at

117. Dissension Grows In Senior Ranks On War Strategy (
blame, this general pointed directly at Rumsfeld and Deputy Defense Secretary PaulD. Wolfowitz. I do not believe we had a clearly defined war strategy, end
thisNode = 'nation/specials/nationalsecurity/military'; commercialNode =''; var SA_Message="SACategory=" + thisNode; PRINT EDITION Subscribe to NEWS OPINION ... REAL ESTATE SEARCH: Top 20 E-mailed Articles Nation Special Reports ... Military Dissension Grows In Senior Ranks On War Strategy
U.S. May Be Winning Battles in Iraq But Losing the War, Some Officers Say By Thomas E. Ricks
Washington Post Staff Writer
Sunday, May 9, 2004; Page A01 Deep divisions are emerging at the top of the U.S. military over the course of the occupation of Iraq, with some senior officers beginning to say that the United States faces the prospect of casualties for years without achieving its goal of establishing a free and democratic Iraq. Their major worry is that the United States is prevailing militarily but failing to win the support of the Iraqi people. That view is far from universal, but it is spreading and being voiced publicly for the first time. Army Maj. Gen. Charles H. Swannack Jr., the commander of the 82nd Airborne Division, who spent much of the year in western Iraq, said he believes that at the tactical level at which fighting occurs, the U.S. military is still winning. But when asked whether he believes the United States is losing, he said, "I think strategically, we are." Army Col. Paul Hughes, who last year was the first director of strategic planning for the U.S. occupation authority in Baghdad, said he agrees with that view and noted that a pattern of winning battles while losing a war characterized the U.S. failure in Vietnam. "Unless we ensure that we have coherency in our policy, we will lose strategically," he said in an interview Friday.

118. CBS News | Gen. Zinni: 'They've Screwed Up' | May 24, 2004 14:04:39
Former general and National Security Advisor Brent Scowcroft, former Centcom CommanderNorman Zinni believes this was a war the generals didn’t want – but
Home U.S. Iraq World ... FREE CBS News Video May 24, 2004 14:04:39 The Early Show CBS Evening News 48 Hours 60 Minutes ...
Section Front

E-mail This Story Printable Version
Gen. Zinni: 'They've Screwed Up'
May 21, 2004
Iraq War Strategy Flawed

Ret. Gen. Anthony Zinni once commanded America's troops in the Middle East (Photo: CBS)
"Regardless of whose responsibility I think it is, somebody has screwed up. ... it should be evident to everybody that they've screwed up. And whose heads are rolling on this?"
Gen. Anthony Zinni
President Bush named Zinni special envoy to the Middle East. But Zinni wound up breaking ranks with the administration over the war in Iraq. (Photo: AP)
FOR MORE INFORMATION: Amazon: Buy "Battle Ready" by Ret. Gen. Anthony Zinni, and co-written by Tom Clancy. Plus, read an excerpt from Chapter One of the book. (CBS) Retired General Anthony Zinni is one of the most respected and outspoken military leaders of the past two decades. From 1997 to 2000, he was commander-in-chief of the United States Central Command, in charge of all American troops in the Middle East. That was the same job held by Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf before him, and Gen. Tommy Franks after. Following his retirement from the Marine Corps, the Bush administration thought so highly of Zinni that it appointed him to one of its highest diplomatic posts special envoy to the Middle East.

119. Morristown National Historical Park (National Park Service)
s of features, event schedules, and other visitor information.......Official NPS website for this park that preserves sites occupied by general George Washington and the Continental Army during the Revolutionary war from 17791780.
Washington's Headquarters Museum
Open All Year 9 - 5
Jockey Hollow Visitor Center
Open All Year 9 - 5
Fee Information
During two critical winters of the Revolutionary War, 1777 and 1779–80, the countryside in and around Morristown, New Jersey, sheltered the main encampments of the American Continental Army and served as the headquarters of its commander-in-chief, General George Washington. The National Park Service at Morristown National Historical Park preserves sites in the Morristown area occupied by the Continental Army and interprets the history and subsequent commemoration of these encampments and the extraordinary fortitude of the officers and enlisted men under Washington’s leadership. General Washington twice chose Morristown due to its strategic location, including proximity to New York City, defensible terrain, important communication routes, access to critical resources, and a supportive community. The park encompasses ground occupied by the army during the vast 1779-80 encampment, and the site of the fortification from the 1777 encampment. The Ford Mansion, where Washington made his headquarters, is an important feature of the park and recalls civilian contributions to the winning of independence. The national park consists of four non-contiguous units: Washington’s Headquarters with the Ford Mansion and Headquarters Museum, the Fort Nonsense Unit, the Jockey Hollow Unit, and the New Jersey Brigade Area. The Jockey Hollow Unit includes the Wick house (headquarters of General Arthur St. Clair), five reconstructed soldier huts, and approximately 27 miles of walking trails.

120. GI -- World War II Commemoration
In 1945, at the end of the war, there was a general expectation that in the USSR,which had shown itself to be one of the world s truly great powers, the
Joseph Stalin JOSEPH STALIN, (1879-1953), Russian political leader, who was the undisputed leader of the USSR from 1929 until his death. He helped to convert communism in the USSR from an egalitarian, revolutionary movement into an authoritarian, bureaucratic governmental system. He helped to turn Russia into a great industrial nation, to defeat HITLER in WORLD WAR II , and, after the war, to establish Communist regimes throughout eastern Europe. At the same time, however, he institutionalized terror and was responsible for the death and deprivation of millions of people. One of the towering figures in world politics in his time, he still remains one of the least known, primarily because of the traditional secrecy surrounding Soviet leaders. His personality and rule wereand still arehighly controversial, opinion ranging from complete, unbridled adulation expressed in the official Soviet press of his day to widespread denunciation as a pathological despot by many in the Western world. Early Years Stalin, whose original name was Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili, was born on Dec. 21, 1879 (all dates in New Style), in the Caucasian town of Gori, Georgia. He was the only one of four children to survive infancy. His father, Vissarion Dzhugashvili, an unsuccessful cobbler, entered a factory in Tiflis, took to drink, and died in 1890 from wounds received in a brawl. However, his mother, Yekaterina, kept the family together by taking in washing and sewing, hiring out for housework, and nursing young Joseph through various sicknesses including smallpox and septicemia, which left his left arm slightly crippled for life. An illiterate peasant girl herself, Yekaterina was deeply religious, puritanical, ambitious, and intent on securing for her son training for the priesthood, one of the few careers in which the non-Russian Georgian poor might easily rise to higher station. He was enrolled in the local Orthodox parochial school in Gori in 1888.

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