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         Pre-raphaelites Art:     more books (100)
  1. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood [ART HISTORY, BRITISH] by J. E. Phythian, 1908
  2. John Ruskin, the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and the Arts AndCrafts Movement: The Ruskin, Holman Hunt, Fairfax Murray, Spielmann and Relatedcollections ... and TheMnchester Art Gallery Collection
  3. The Pre-Raphaelite Illustrators: The Published Graphic Art of the English Pre-Raphaelites and Their Associates. by Gregory R. Suriano, 2000
  4. Pre-Raphaelite Women Artists by Jan Marsh, Pamela Gerrish Nunn, 1999-04-01
  5. Pre-Raphaelite Paintings and Drawings in the Collections of the Fogg Art Museum: 24 Art Cards (Card Books)
  6. Pre-Raphaelite Photography (Academy Art Editions) by Graham Ovenden, 1984-12
  7. English Romantic Art 1850 - 1920. Pre-Raphaelites, Academics, Symbolists. Drawings, Watercolours, Graphics and Paintings - Shepherd Gallery, NY - Oct. 18 - Nov. 18, 1989. An Exhibition Arranged by Julian Hartnoll, Maas Gallery and Christopher Wood by Shepherd Gallery Et Al, 1989
  8. La Bella Mano : Pre-Raphaelite Printings and Decorative Arts by The Virginia Museum, 1982
  9. Pre-Raphaelite Prints: The Graphic Art of Millais, Holman Hunt, Rossetti and Their Followers by Rodney Engen, 1995-04
  10. Pre-Raphaelites in Literature and Art (Granger Index Reprint Series) by Dennis Sydney Reginald Welland, 1977-06
  11. English Romantic Art 1850 - 1920: Pre-Raphaelites, Academics, Symbolists. Drawings, Watercolours, Graphics and Paintings - Shepherd Gallery, NY - Oct. 18 - Nov. 18, 1989 by Maas Gallery, Christopher Wood Shepherd Gallery in association with Julian Hartnoll, 1989
  12. The Pre-Raphaelite Collections of the Delaware Art Museum: The samuel and Mary R. Bancroft, Jr. And Related Pre-Raphaelite Collection by Rowland Elzea, 1984
  13. The Pre-Raphaelites in Literature and Art, with many illustrations in half-tone and line (Life, Literature, and Thought Library) by D.S.R. Welland, 1953
  14. The Pre-Raphaelite Collections of the Delaware Art Museum by Rowland Elzea, 1984

61. Art Guild Lecture: The Pre-Raphaelites
This style of art created the way and characteristics for Cubism and Expressionism. Fauvismbegan, like most art styles, with a small group of artists.
lecture by Devon
This style of art created the way and characteristics for Cubism and Expressionism. Both art styles paint in neglected natural forms and have the love of untamed color. Even though Fauvism is believed to be shortest lived, it is one of the most colorful and interesting art styles around. Fauvism comes from the word "favues". In French, this means "wild beasts". This term describes their open lack of discipline. Fauvism began, like most art styles, with a small group of artists. At the turn of the 20th century, they exploded with a wild, vibrant style of expressionistic art that stunned everyone. Since then, Fauvism has been acclaimed as one of the forces that drove modern art In a way, Fauvism came from Pointillism. Pointillism developed from Impressionism. Impressionism left the cautiously graduated manner of painting of the past. They made their pictures with tiny brush strokes of pure color. Pointillism took things one step further by painting with tiny dots of different shades. As these two styles were emerging, Fauvism burst into the art world with influence from both art styles. Since Fauvism used bright and vivid colors with wild brush strokes, it's known to start the development of Cubism and other modern movements. Fauvism was a brief art period, but one of the most bright and eccentric around.

62. Pre-Raphaelites In The Regions - 24 Hour Museum
away on the outskirts of Burnley, hardy aesthetic adventurers with a penchant forthe preraphaelites will want to check out Towneley Hall art Gallery and
Text-only Version June 11 2004 Search this site
ADVANCED SEARCH PRE-RAPHAELITES IN THE REGIONS By Richard Moss Most regions of the UK can lay claim to a local gallery with some examples of Pre-Raphaelite art. It’s a testament to both the artist’s prolific output and the voracious appetite for art in the Victorian and Edwardian periods when many local galleries were established. This trail collects some of the smaller collections of Pre-Raphaelite art waiting to be discovered in galleries the length and breadth of the UK. Photo: The Annunciation Starting down on the south coast, the Southampton City Art Gallery is home to an impressive collection of major Pre-Raphaelite and related work. Space constraints mean the drawings, gouaches and paintings are rotated and some may be tucked away at any one time, but a trip here is worthwhile if only to see the stunning Burne-Jones set of ten gouaches for the Perseus Series A beautiful group housed permanently in their own wood panelled room - the artist worked on them between 1876-85 with the intention of making a set of oil paintings but only four were ever completed. Photo: At the Russell-Cotes Art Gallery and Museum in Bournemouth visitors will find a collection that is strong on Pre-Raphaelite-influenced art, including a Rossetti as well as works by Sandys, Arthur Hughes and the later classicist Alma-Tadema.

63. Powell's Books - The Pre-Raphaelites (World Of Art) By Timothy Hilton
Into the Aisles. art. •, Victorian Romantic. Used Books. •, art. this title inother formats Used, Trade Paper, $7.50. other titles in the World of art series

64. Powell's Books - The Art Of The Pre-Raphaelites By Elizabeth Prettejohn
The art of the preraphaelites by Elizabet Prettejohn. Available at Burnside, QuimbyWarehouse. Free Shipping! This title ships for free on qualified orders!

65. AllRefer Encyclopedia - Pre-Raphaelites (European Art, 1600 To The Present) - En
preraphaelites, European art, 1600 To The Present. Related CategoryEuropean art, 1600 To The Present. pre-raphaelitesprE´´-raf
AllRefer Channels :: Health Yellow Pages Reference Weather SEARCH : in Reference June 11, 2004 You are here : Reference Encyclopedia European Art, 1600 To The Present ... Pre-Raphaelites
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Pre-Raphaelites, European Art, 1600 To The Present
Related Category: European Art, 1600 To The Present Pre-Raphaelites [pr E E u l I Pronunciation Key , brotherhood of English painters and poets formed in 1848 in protest against the low standards of British art. The principal founders were D. G. Rossetti , W. Holman Hunt , and John Millais . In poetry as well as painting, the Pre-Raphaelites turned away from the growing materialism of industrialized England. They sought refuge, through literary symbolism and imagery, in the beauty and comparative simplicity of the medieval world. In the works of the Italian painters prior to Raphael, they found a happy innocence of style that they tried to imitate. Influenced by the Nazarenes , a similar group of German painters founded in Rome in 1810, the Pre-Raphaelites declared themselves devotees of nature and truth. In the early 1850s their works were violently criticized, first by Charles Dickens, as being vulgar and ugly. They were defended by John Ruskin and attracted numerous followers, among whom were Edward Burne-Jones , G. F.

66. Midnight Muse Art Galleries: The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
Related Books. The preraphaelites Their World (Rachel Barnes). More ArtBooks. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood Pre-Raphaelite-Influenced Artists.
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About Us
... Neoclassical Art Pre-Raphaelite Postcards Related Books
The Pre-Raphaelites
(Rachel Barnes)
Women Artists

(Jan Marsh, P.G. Nunn)
The Age of Rossetti,
Symbolism in Britain (ed. Andrew Wilton) More Art Books The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood Burne-Jones Gallery D.G. Rossetti Gallery J.E. Millais Gallery A. Hughes Gallery W .H. Hunt Gallery Other Pre-Raphaelites Cowper Gallery de Morgan Gallery Strudwick Gallery Duncan Gallery Who Belonged to the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood? Founding Group (1848): Dante Gabriel Rossetti (age 20) William Michael Rossetti (19) John Everett Millais (19) William Holman Hunt (21) James Collinson (22) Thomas Woolner (22) Frederick George Stephens (20) Second Incarnation William Morris Edward Burne-Jones Arthur Hughes Valentine Cameron Prinsep John Hungerford-Pollen John Spencer Stanhope Victorian Neoclassical and Romantic art is often referred to as "Pre-Raphaelite" nowadays. IIf you're looking for an artist

67. Midnight Muse Art Gallery: Pre-Raphaelites: Dante Gabriel Rossetti
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About Us
... The Goddess Galleries Our Favorite
'Proserpine' Related Books
Jane Morris

The Pre-Raphaelite Model of Beauty
(Debra N. Mancoff)
(Elizabeth Prettejohn)
D. G. Rossetti
(Russell Ash) Featured Artist Dante Gabriel Rossetti Indicates image is available on canvas. Learn more Indicates image is available in a standard frame size. Learn more Beata Beatrix The Daydream The Holy Grail Veronica Veronese Venus Verticordia Lady Lilith Proserpine The Bower Meadow Sibylla Palmifera The Beloved A Sea Spell Guinevere (Study) Astarte Syriaca Study: Astarte Syriaca La Ghirlandata Dante's Dream Study for a Portrait Indicates image is available on canvas.

68. Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
However, the preraphaelites undoubtedly defined themselves as a reform movement,created a distinct name for their form of art, and published a periodical
Main Page See live article Alphabetical index
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was a group of English painters , poets and critics whose intention was to reform art by rejecting what they considered to be the mechanistic approach adopted by the Mannerist artists who followed Raphael and Michelangelo . Hence the name 'Pre-Raphaelite'. However, their immediate complaint concerned the continuing influence of the founder of the Royal Academy Sir Joshua Reynolds , whom they called 'Sir Sloshua' because of his formulaic and cliched approach to painting. Table of contents 1 Doctrines
2 History

3 Collections

4 See also:
6 External links
The Pre-Raphaelites have been considered the first avant-garde movement in art, though they have also been denied that status, because they continued to accept the doctrine of ' mimesis ', or imitation of nature, as central to the purpose of art. However, the Pre-Raphaelites undoubtedly defined themselves as a reform movement, created a distinct name for their form of art, and published a periodical, "The Germ", to promote their ideas. Their debates were recorded in the "Pre-Raphaelite Journal". The central doctrine of the movement was that artists should seek to represent the natural world without preconceptions about what is artistically proper according to traditions and techniques inherited from old masters. Nevertheless, their early work was influenced by late Medieval art. However, Hunt and Millais soon moved towards greater emphasis on the detailed observation of nature. Rossetti's work continued to be influenced by Medieval art.

69. Prettejohn, E.: The Art Of The Pre-Raphaelites.
The art of the preraphaelites. Though always controversial in art circles, thepre-raphaelites have also always been extremely popular with museum goers.
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The Art of the Pre-Raphaelites
Elizabeth Prettejohn
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Reviews Table of Contents Though always controversial in art circles, the Pre-Raphaelites have also always been extremely popular with museum goers. This accessible new study provides the most comprehensive view of the movement to date. It shows us why, a century and a half later, Pre-Raphaelite art retains its power to fascinate, haunt, and often shock its viewers. Calling themselves the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, John Everett Millais, and William Holman Hunt produced a statement of ideas that revolutionized art practice in Victorian England. Critical of the Royal Academy's formulaic works, these painters believed that painting had been misdirected since Raphael. They and the artists who joined with them, including William Michael Rossetti, James Collinson, and Frederick George Stephens, created bright works representing nature and literary themes in fresh detail and color. Considered heretical by many and frequently admonished for a lack of grace in composition the group disbanded after only a few years. Yet its artists and ideals remained influential; its works, greatly admired. In this richly illustrated book, Elizabeth Prettejohn raises new and provocative questions about the group's social and artistic identity. Was it the first avant-garde movement in modern art? What role did women play in the Pre-Raphaelite fraternity? How did relationships between the artists and models affect the paintings? The author also analyzes technique, pinning down the distinctive characteristics of these painters and evaluating the degree to which a group style existed. And she considers how Pre-Raphaelite art responded to and commented on its time and place a world characterized by religious and political controversy, new scientific concern for precise observation, the emergence of psychology, and changing attitudes toward sexuality and women.

70. Ashmolean Museum: Western Art - Pre-Raphaelites (0)
Ashmolean Museum of art and Archaeology Department of Western art HandbookOxford and the preraphaelites. Click here to see a selection
Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology
Department of Western Art
Handbook: Oxford and the Pre-Raphaelites
The Author : Jon Whiteley is Assistant Keeper in the Ashmolean Museum Oxford and the Pre-Raphaelites Handbook describes how the artists of the Pre-Raphaelite movement came to Oxford in the mid-nineteenth century and how their art was affected by the life of the University. The colour illustrations, which include most of the paintings and a number of the drawings of the Pre-Raphaelites in the Ashmolean and elsewhere in Oxford, trace the history of the movement from its origins in the 1840s to the end of the century.
used here and in its Museum Web pages.
Last updated: jcm/25-oct-1999

71. Ashmolean Museum: Western Art - Pre-Raphaelites (1.1)
Ashmolean Museum of art and Archaeology Department of Western art Handbook preraphaelites- Illustrations (page 1 of 2). Enlarge Row. Pretty Baa-Lambs Plate 3.
Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology
Department of Western Art
Handbook: Pre-Raphaelites - Illustrations page 1 of 2 Enlarge
Pretty Baa-Lambs Plate 3 The Seeds and Fruit of
English Poetry
Plate 1 The Return of the Dove
to the Ark
Plate 10 Enlarge
The Afterglow in Egypt Plate 13
The Schoolgirl's Hymn Plate 14 London Bridge,
Royal Marriage Plate 15 Previous Page Title Page Next Page used here and in its Museum Web pages. Last updated: jcm/25-oct-1999

72. Wauu.DE: Arts: Art History: Movements: Pre-Raphaelites
preraphaelites - The Aesthetic Movement Gallery and notes Romantic Mysticism in BritishArt c 1860 http// pre-raphaelites
Home Arts Art History Movements : Pre-Raphaelites Search DMOZ-Verzeichnis:
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73. The Pre-Raphaelites And The New Romantic Tradition
more than Rossetti s, which was the major influence on the next generation of preraphaelites the artists dubbed The Last Romantics by art historian John
The Pre-Raphaelites
and the New Romantic Tradition
by Terri Windling
by Gabriel Rossetti
The Pre-Raphaelite movement began as the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in 19th-century England seven young artists protesting against the confining ideals of High Victorian art, as well as the strict, rote methods of painting they were required to learn at London's Royal Academy. They disparaged all Academic art as "slosh" and referred to the head of the Royal Academy, Sir Joshua Reynolds, as "Sir Sloshua." These young men longed to paint as they imagined the early Italian artists (pre-Raphael) had painted: with freedom and simplicity. (For a closer look at the history and stories of the Pre-Raphaelites, see the column on the Pre-Raphaelites in the Forum section of this Web site.)
Of the seven original members of the PRB, three went on to lasting fame: John Millais, William Holman Hunt and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Of these, it is Rossetti who we most associate with Pre-Raphaelite art today. His paintings of sultry ladies with long white necks and masses of flowing hair have come to define the Pre-Raphaelite style: one rich in romanticism, symbolism, mythic imagery, and deep nostalgia for an ideal medieval world that never was. Rossetti, of Italian ancestry, was deeply influenced by the works of Dante, the great Florentine poet who wrote The Inferno and The Divine Comedy . The legend of Dante's life-long love for Beatrice, married to another man, lay at the core of Rossetti's romanticism, in his art and his life. Rossetti's paintings portray Beatrice and other idealized, mythologized women surrounded by allegorical symbols of Love love lost, love won, love broken and betrayed. "One face looks out from all his canvasses," the Victorian poet Christina Rossetti wrote in a poem about her famous brother. In Dante Gabriel Rossetti's youth that face was the enigmatic Elizabeth Eleanor Siddal, a working girl and model whom he would marry . . . and who would then die young, which haunted the man for the rest of his life. Later, a dark-haired "stunner" appears in his paintings, over and over again the great love of his later years, Jane Morris, the wife of another man.

74. "MYTH, MYSTICISM AND MAGIC: The Pre-Raphaelites"
disciplines, today we know them collectively as The preraphaelites. Some yearsago Steven Brust asked me to give a talk about Pre-Raphaelite art at the 4th
by Terri Windling "La Pia de' Tolomei"
by Dante Gabriel Rossetti
"I made a new religion," wrote the great Irish poet William Butler Yeats, "of poetic tradition, of a fardel of stories, and of personages, and of emotions, inseparable from their first expression, passed on from generation to generation by poets and painters. I wished for a world where I could discover this tradition perpetually, and not in pictures and poems only, but in tiles round the chimney piece and in the hangings that kept out the draft."
In 19th-century England, a group of idealistic men and women dreamed of creating such an ideal world spinning their bright, richly colored dreams against the drab, smoky background of the Industrial Revolution. Although they came from different walks of life and different artistic disciplines, today we know them collectively as The Pre-Raphaelites. Some years ago Steven Brust asked me to give a talk about Pre-Raphaelite art at the 4th Street Fantasy Convention, held annually in Minneapolis. He explained that he wanted me to speak not only about the history of this art, but why it is that one encounters so many Pre-Raphaelite fans in the modern fantasy field. This article is drawn from the 4th Street talk, and many conversations that followed it about the lasting power of Pre-Raphaelite art to engage, enchant, and inspire.
As I sit here now at my desk in a 16th-century English cottage with Morris patterns on the wallpaper, the curtains, and the cloth of my skirt; with Burne-Jones prints framed on the walls and Kelmscott facsimile editions on the shelves I suppose I could have titled this column Confessions of a Pre-Raphaelite Wannabe as a friend teasingly suggested this morning. Indeed, I plead guilty to a thorough fascination with the Pre-Raphaelites, but point out that it is one I share with a number of others in the fantasy field, including Thomas Canty, Robert Gould, Brian and Wendy Froud, Alan Lee, Charles Vess, Michael Moorcock, Robert Holdstock, and Delia Sherman, to name just a few. It seems that those of us drawn to this art are often drawn as well to its encompassing vision: the idea that art is not just something to look at but a way of life a religion of Beauty, of Romanticism, that surrounds one (as Yeats would say) right down to the tiles round the chimney piece.

75. Indecent Images
preraphaelites were to paint the sensuous, tangible reality that they saw, ratherthan the frozen, iconic images which were popular in accepted art circles at
Indecent Images is a gallery of evocative pre-Raphaelite paintings, with commentary and background by Steven William Rimmer.
September 21, 2001
If you like this page and wish to share it, you are welcome to link to it, with our thanks.
The American Communication Decency Act is a disturbing reminder of how fragile the freedoms we regard as being fundamental to our society really are. All it really takes to dispense with them are a few politicians having a bad hair day. This server hails from Canada. At least in theory, Canadians enjoy the protection of their right to expression as an aspect of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Therein it is written:
Fundamental Freedoms
2. Everyone has the following fundamental freedoms:
(a) freedom of conscience and religion;
(b) freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of the press and other media of communication;
(c) freedom of peaceful assembly; and

76. Annuaire Des Meilleurs Sites D'arts/Directory Of The Best Art Websites
of christ,resurrection,saints,middle ages,middleages,passion cycle,passion ofchrist,resurrection,saints,legends,folklore,pre-raphaelites,art gallery,oil

77. Pre-Raphaelites Bibliography
PreRaphaelite Brotherhood. Adams, S. The art of the pre-raphaelites. LondonApple Press, 1988. Barnes, Rachel. The pre-raphaelites and their world.
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
Adams, S. The Art of the Pre-Raphaelites . London: Apple Press, 1988. Barnes, Rachel. The Pre-Raphaelites and their world . London : Tate Gallery, 1998. Bartram, Michael. The Pre-Raphaelite camera: aspects of Victorian photography Bartram, Michael. Pre-Raphaelite photography: an exhibition . London: British Council, c1983. Bennett, M. Artists of the Pre-Raphaelite Circle: The First Generation . London: Lund Humphries, 1988. Bowness, Alan. The Pre-Raphaelites . London: Tate Gallery/Penguin Books, c1984. Bryden, Inga. The Pre-Raphaelites: writings and sources . London: Routledge, 1998. Clark-Amor, A. William Holman Hunt: The True Pre-Raphaelite . London: Constable, 1989. Daly, G. Pre-Raphaelites In Love . Glasgow: Fontana, 1990. Engen, Rodney K. Pre-Raphaelite prints : the graphic art of Millais, Holman Hunt, Rossetti and their followers . London : Lund Humphries, 1995. Faxon, A.C. Dante Gabriel Rossetti . Oxford: Phaidon Press, 1989. Harding, Ellen. Re-framing the Pre-Raphaelites : historical and theoretical essays .Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1996

78. Art Posters: Fine Art / Pre-Raphaelites
preraphaelites. Return to Fine art. All of pre-raphaelites. Anderson, S. Blair-Leighton. Strudwick.Waterhouse. Watts. Fine art pre-raphaelites (1 of 52 pages ),c2112/en/
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Pre-Raphaelites Return to Fine Art All of Pre-Raphaelites Anderson, S. Blair-Leighton ... Fine Art Pre-Raphaelites (1 of 52 pages ) Rest in Harvest
by Adolphe-William Bouguereau
28 x 19 inches US$21.60
Framed Mounted Waiting
by Edmund Blair-Leighton
20 x 25 inches US$24.53
Framed Mounted Favour
by Edmund Blair-Leighton
22 x 38 inches US$22.50
Framed Mounted Day Dream by Dante Gabriel Rossetti 23 x 35 inches US$31.50 Enlarge Framed Mounted William Morris by Abigail Kamelhair 24 x 34 inches US$32.40 Enlarge Framed Mounted Le Repose by Adolphe-William Bouguereau 24 x 36 inches US$8.99 Enlarge Framed Mounted Twilight Fantasies, 1911 by Edward Robert Hughes 36 x 24 inches US$8.99 Enlarge Framed Mounted My Sweet Rose by John William Waterhouse 24 x 36 inches US$8.99 Enlarge Framed Mounted Fair Rosamund, 1917 by John William Waterhouse 24 x 36 inches US$8.99 Enlarge Framed Mounted Home ... © 2003, LLC

79. The Wild Bunch/Art/The Pre-Raphaelites
PreRaphaelite art and other pictures that the CDA would not permit on line; TheVictorian Web Brilliant site for anything Victorian ; pre-raphaelites Try this
The Pre-Raphaelites
Pre Raphaelites was the name given by a group of artists and poets formed in London in 1848, originally consisting of William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Thomas Woolner, and Frederic Stephens joined later. Their endorsement of the detailed and idealized depiction of nature in early Italian painting led them to adopt the title of Pre-Raphaelites, and to stress their rejection of academicism, which they traced to Raphael and the High Renaissance. The guiding principle of the Brotherhood is summed up in their maxim "Truth to Nature."
This, as understood by the Pre-Raphaelites, was in fact a limited kind of truth. It was exact and precise detail. They had a craving to paint every leaf with botanical accuracy, every wrinkle and accident of form with a microscopic faithfulness...
The group used bright colours, complex symbolism and elaborate detail. Their realistic treatment of religious subjects caused great indignation, and the group's motives were attacked by critics. However in 1851 they became widely acclaimed after John Ruskin defended them, praising their aims and efforts.
The artists in the Brotherhood painted scenes of the childhood of Jesus and the Virgin and represented contemporary scenes with a moral message; as a whole the group had a strongly religious and moralizing cast. The group broke-up in 1853 but enjoyed a brief revival when Rosseti formed a second partnership with William Morris and Edward Burne-Jones in 1856 at Oxford.

80. Online Art Magazine - The Pre-Raphaelites And The Real
ago. He was a designer who agreed with the importance of naturalismand realism in art that the preraphaelites advocated. Morris
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October 2002 The Pre-Raphaelites and the Real by: Caroline Baker
"Soon there will be noting left except the lying
dreams of history, the miserable wreckage of our museums and picture-galleries, and the carefully guarded interiors of our aesthetic drawing-rooms, unreal and foolish, fitting witnesses of the life of corruption that goes on there."
~William Morris
Is this quote a description of what has become of Art today? Many people might agree. William Morris, a contemporary and sympathizer of the Pre-Raphaelites, was the man who said this approximately a century ago. He was a designer who agreed with the importance of naturalism and realism in art that the Pre-Raphaelites advocated. Morris was interested in bringing the decorative arts back to the handmade, rather than the machine made because he saw no real enjoyment or purpose for art without human endeavor. Morris is one of the most direct links that contemporary culture has to the Pre-Raphaelite school because of his influence on the Aesthetic movement and Arts and Crafts movement. Of course, the association may not have pleased him because our link is through the mass reproduction and imitation of his work. Our time is one rife with change that comes increasingly faster. We are on the edge of such innovations as "thinking" computers, biotechnology, and nano-technology, while our spiritual grounding seems to be on the wane. Many of us wonder at what the role of Art should be, if we even think about it at all. We seem not to be able to get a grip on what Art is, only what we can consider as good art or bad art, and we have considerable difficulty agreeing on which is which. The message of the Pre-Raphaelites is that we should look closer at what we consider as reality, and that Art is one of the primary venues for doing so. Perhaps we should re-examine this message before coming to the conclusion that any particular work of Art is useless or simply "bad." Certainly we need to realize that Art does have purpose even if it cannot be categorized as easily as in ages past.

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