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         Portugal History:     more books (100)
  1. A history of Spain & Portugal by William C. Atkinson,
  2. A SHORT HISTORY OF PORTUGAL by Caetano Beirao, 1960
  3. History of the Jews of Spain and Portugal (Research and Source Works Ser. : No. 4) by Elias H. Lindo, 1970-06
  4. BIRTH OF MASS POLITICS INSPAIN (Modern European History, Spain and Portugal) by Mosher, 1991-06-01
  5. History of Spain and Portugal: Volume 2 by Samuel Astley Dunham, 2002-09-23
  6. A short history of Portugal by Caetano Beirão, 1960
  7. A New History of Portugal by H. V. Livermore, 1976
  8. A New History of Portugal by H. V. Livermore, 1967
  9. History of Portugal. 2 Volumes.
  11. Journey to Portugal: In Pursuit of Portugal's History and Culture. by JosŽ. SARAMAGO, 1990
  12. History of Spain and Portugal: Volume 1 by Samuel Astley Dunham, 2002-09-23
  13. The Historians History of the World (Spain & Portugal, Volume X) by History Association, 1907
  14. History of Spain and Portugal: Volume 5 by Samuel Astley Dunham, 2002-09-23

81. European Voyages Of Exploration: The Portuguese Empire
exploration. An Overview of portugal s history (temporarily unavailable). portugal s Monarchy and its Maritime history. The region
The European Voyages of Exploration PORTUGAL Geographical Overview An Overview of Portugal's History (temporarily unavailable)
Portugal's Monarchy and its Maritime History
The region that would become Portugal was settled by the Celts around 700 B.C.E. It soon attracted a succession of peoples and was colonised in turn by the Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans and Visigoths. The Moors crossed the Strait of Gibraltar in the eighth century and commenced a long occupation over much of the Iberian Peninsula. They introduced their culture, architecture, and agricultural techniques to the region until Christian resistance grew into the Reconquista that finally ejected the Moors in the twelfth century. Portugal was born from this struggle to reconquer Iberia from the Moors. Young aristocrats from all over Europe went to Iberia to battle the Moors and while reconquering the peninsula for the Christian kings, they won hereditary titles and land grants for themselves. It was Henry, a son of the Duke of Burgundy, who fought as a vassal for the king for Navarre and was rewarded with a principality and the title of Count of Portucale in the eleventh century. It was his son, Afonso Henriques (1128-1185), seeking independence from the Crown of Navarre, who petitioned and won from the pope the title of King of Portugal. Philippa of Lancaster, Queen of Portugal

82. History
portugal s most illustrious dynasty, the House of Aviz. It presided over the Age of Discovery, an epoch of achievement unsurpassed in Portuguese history.
H istory I nvaders N ationhood ... oday INVADERS Several centuries before Christ, the Phoenicians from city-states on the coast of what is now Syria and Lebanon set up trading posts in the Algarve as they had done all along the Mediterranean. They were particularly interested in mining inland deposits of Iberian tin, copper and silver. The Carthaginians took over from the Phoenicians and under the great generals Hamilcar and Hannibal established an empire of which the Algarve formed the extreme west. After the Romans defeated the Carthaginians in the Second Punic War (218-202BC), they absorbed southern Portugal into their empire. The Romans firmly implanted their language, laws and culture and remained the dominant power throughout Portugal for 500 years. The main Roman town in the Algarve was Ossanoba, probably on the site of present-day Faro. The Romans also introduced a new religion: Christianity. It replaced paganism in the Algarve in the second or third century AD. In the fifth century, Germanic tribes swept through the Roman empire. The Suevi and the Vandals fought one another to gain power in northern and central Portugal, but a larger tribe, the Visigoths, eventually superseded them and penetrated to the far south. The influence of the Visigoths in the Algarve was not great or lasting and when serious divisions broke out between them, they were a push-over for a new wave of invaders from North Africa. The new occupiers, who arrived in the eighth century, were a mixture of Arabs and Berbers known as the Moors. Their religion was Islam and they brought with them an entirely different culture. Within a decade of their arrival in the year 712, the Moors had conquered almost all of Portugal as well as Spain. They settled throughout most of the Iberian peninsula, but preferred the south where they dominated the economic and cultural life for well over five centuries.

83. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Corporate Site
url to article date of access. For example portugal, history of For example portugal, history of. Vers.
About Us Company History Products Business with Britannica ... Help/Contact Us
Frequently Asked Questions
Policies How do I cite material from How do I obtain permission to use images from What are ... What are the criteria editors use to select web sites? Products and Services Where can I find information about Britannica Online? Where can I find information on Britannica CD-ROMs or DVDs? What happened to the ... Free E-mail? Feedback How do I report a problem with the site? How can I comment on a article? ... Where can I send general feedback? Business What advertising opportunities does offer? What should I do if I'm interested in advertising with Merriam-Webster? ... syndication program? Employment How can I work for

84. Portugal
and travel. portugal history. portugal Description and travel. portugal history Spanish dynasty, 15801640. F gt B 53....... Spain
Portugal Alvarez de Colmenar, Juan, fl. 1707-1741. ANNALES D'ESPAGNE ET DE PORTUGAL : CONTENANT TOUT CE QUI S'EST PASSE L'ETABLISSEMENT DE CES DEUX MONARCHIES JUSQU'A PRESENT : AVEC LA DESCRIPTION PRESENT, LEURS INTERETS, LA FORME DU GOUVERNEMENT, L'ETENDUE DE LEUR COMMERCE, 4 v. : ill., maps, plates ; 29 cm. (4to). Spain History. Spain Description and travel. Portugal History. Portugal Description and travel. F gt AL 8. ANNAES MARITIMOS E COLONIAES. PUBLICACAO MENSAL REDIGIDA SOB A DIRECCAO DA ASSOCIACAO MARITIMA E COLONIAL. Lisboa, Imprensa Nacional. v. 21 cm. Fgx As7. Birago, Giovanni Battista. HISTORIA DELLA DISUNIONE DEL REGNO DI PORTOGALLO DALLA CORONA DI CASTIGLIA ... DAL MOLTO RDO P. MAESTRO FRA FERDINANDO HELEVO ... CON L'APENDICE DI UNA SCRITTURA D'UN MINISTRO DI SPAGNA. Amsterdam, Niculau Van Ravesteyn, 1647. 1 v. (various paging) 16 cm. Portugal History Spanish dynasty, 1580-1640. F gt B 53. Carnota, John Smith Athelstane, Conde da, 1813-1886. THE MARQUIS OF POMBAL. BY THE CONDE DA CARNOTA. London Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer, 1871.

85. The Portuguese Coat Of Arms And Its History
history of the portuguese coat of arms. At the time this coat of arms represented the United Kingdom of portugal, Brazil and Algarve.
The Portuguese coat of arms and its history
Last modified: by antonio martins
Keywords: coat of arms: inescutcheons armilliary sphere castle (yellow) bezant ... quinas
Links: FOTW homepage search write us mirrors ...
  • The armilliary sphere See also:
    History of the portuguese coat of arms
    The first documented portuguese coat of arms goes back to the first half of the eleventh century, at the time of Sancho I and Sancho II. It was silver, charged by five blue escutcheons disposed in the form of a cross; the points of the side ones pointing toward the center. Each escutcheon was chardged by silver dots, later called 'bezants'
    From 1252 circa, under Afonso III, the shield was added with the red border with the golden castles. On Afonso III coat of arms the eschuteons had six or more bezants and from eight to twelve castles. At the time of Afonso IV (1325-57), the bezants were many and the castles twelve.
    'quinas' ), until then subjected to variations.
    The coat of arms didn't change until 13 May 1816 when the gold armillary sphere on a blue field was added to the shield and a royal crown placed overall. At the time this coat of arms represented the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarve. The shield was sustained by two green dragons and circled by the collar of the Order of Avis.
    Mario Fabretto, 22 May 1997
  • 86. BBC NEWS | World | Europe | Country Profiles | Country Profile: Portugal
    portugal s history has had a lasting impact on the culture of the country with Moorish and Oriental influences in architecture and the arts.


    ... Programmes
    Last Updated: Wednesday, 5 May, 2004, 14:20 GMT 15:20 UK E-mail this to a friend Printable version Country profile: Portugal
    Portugal, a country with a rich history of seafaring and discovery, looks out from the Iberian peninsula into the Atlantic Ocean. When it handed over its last overseas territory, Macau, to Chinese adminstration in 1999, it brought to an end a long and sometimes turbulent era as a colonial power
    LEADERS MEDIA The roots of that era stretch back to the 15th century when Portuguese explorers such as Vasco da Gama put to sea in search of a passage to India. By the 16th century these sailors had helped build a huge empire embracing Brazil as well as swathes of Africa and Asia. There are still some 200 million Portuguese speakers around the world today. Portugal's history has had a lasting impact on the culture of the country with Moorish and Oriental influences in architecture and the arts. Traditional folk dance and music, particularly the melancholy fado, remain vibrant. For almost half of the 20th century Portugal was a dictatorship in which for decades Antonio de Oliveira Salazar was the key figure. The dictatorship's stubborn refusal to relinquish its grip on the former colonies as demands for independence gained momentum there resulted in expensive wars in Africa.

    87. Portugal (Portuguese) Genealogy: Resources For Family History Research
    Space. portugal (Portuguese) Genealogy. FREE 14Day Access to almost 2 Billion Records @ Ethnic Genealogy Resources. history Culture.
    Search Our Site
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    Libraries, Archives
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    Newspapers Genealogy on CDRom
    Start your Genealogy Data CD collection now! Space Portugal (Portuguese) Genealogy FREE 14-Day Access to almost 2 Billion Records @ Census, Voter and Tax Records Military Records Directories General Resource Links Ethnic Genealogy Resources Miscellaneous Resources

    88. Title Details - Cambridge University Press
    Home Catalogue A Concise history of portugal. Related Areas Area Studies. A Concise history of portugal. 2nd Edition. David Birmingham. £14.99.

    89. Title Details - Cambridge University Press
    Home Catalogue A Concise history of portugal. Related Areas Area Studies. A Concise history of portugal. 2nd Edition. David Birmingham. £40.00.

    90. Portuguese Revolution 1974
    Worker s history Portuguese Revolution 1974. Capitalism is dead in portugal wrote the Times in 1975. And yet today it lives. How was it able to survive?
    Worker's History - Portuguese Revolution 1974
    "Capitalism is dead in Portugal" wrote the Times in 1975. And yet today it lives. How was it able to survive? What lessons can we learn from the Portuguese Revolution of 1974? On the morning of April 25th 1974, as tanks rolled into Lisbon under the direction of the young officers of the Armed Forces Movement (AFM), hundreds of thousands of workers crowded the streets to celebrate the overthrow of the hated Caetano regime. This was no mere palace coup. In the words of The Sunday Times, "the crash made the statesmen and nations of at least two continents tremble. For like the single stone that starts an avalanche, Portugal's coup may be more a beginning than an end of things." The fascist regime in Portugal had lasted longer than any other of its kind. How was it able to maintain itself and what forces finally brought about its downfall? The pioneering days of the Portuguese slave traders of the 15th and 16th centuries we read about at school were doomed by Portugal's narrow home economic base. The struggle against piracy and contraband could not be sustained, and domination by Spain for 60 years up to 1640 strangled Portugal as a world power. Rapidly overtaken by Britain and Holland, the loss of Brazil saw the beginning of the break up of its empire, and throughout the 19th century it was racked by financial bankruptcy. The great revolution of 1910 deposed the rotten Portuguese monarchy but inevitably broke down into its antagonistic class components. In the three years following the assassination of the dictator, placed in power by a military coup in 1917, there were no less than 16 governments. In just 5 years the currency fell to 5% of its previous value. Then, after years of coups, strikes, uprisings and repression, the heroic working class finally fell exhausted before the fascist thugs, who aped their victorious "heroes" in Italy.

    91. Vombatus
    An index to Bob Hay's sites, including travel in portugal, his phallic sculptures, Haystacks , Sydney Gay history Waks, and Flowers of the Aranda Bushland.
    Where do you want to go.... ? A bit about me
    My interests and personal history in a nutshell My Portugal page
    Some pictures and the story of my first visit to Portugal, February-March 2001. My life in Canberra
    My surroundings; my house - as it was and the renovations - and my garden Vombatus
    My pix/my page
    Macro-photographs of flowers in my garden and in the Aranda Bushland Haystacks
    One hundred of my 'Haystacks' appeared in The Sydney Star/Sydney Star Observer between January, 1984 and April, 1988. They were re-published on the Web to celebrate the 21th anniversary of this, Australia's first and biggest gay community newspaper. Sydney Gay History Walks
    The "pink places" of Sydney
    with the Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence and on urban bush-walks with SCOG. The Sydney Gay History Walks have now been archived by the National Library of Australia as a site of national significance and can be accessed there either through the NLA catalogue or at the
    Archive The collections below are no longer available on the Web but are listed just in case you have been directed here by a search engine which has not updated.

    92. Medieval Sourcebook: Iberia
    very little material available in etext form, as yet, about medieval Spain and portugal. Spain 12121492 A site dedicated to Latin American history, but with
    ORB Main Page Links to Other Medieval Sites Medieval Studies Course [Halsall]
    Halsall Home
    ... Byzantine Studies Page
    Other History Sourcebooks: African East Asian Indian Islamic ... Celtic States Iberia Italy Intellectual Life Medieval Church Jewish Life ... Exploration Contents General There is very little material available in etext form, as yet, about medieval Spain and Portugal. There are three offsite archives:

    93. Naval History: Portugal.
    Naval history portugal. List of Ships of War, which were lying in the Tagus, 1806. Naval Chronicle, Vol. 18 (1807), p 229230.
    Naval History: Portugal.
    List of Ships of War, which were lying in the Tagus, 1806
    Naval Chronicle , Vol. 18 (1807), p 229-230.
    Updated 1997-06-13 by Lars Bruzelius The Maritime History Virtual Archives Naval History

    CRYPTOJEWS and MARRANOS Those Jews who had been unable to leave portugal were baptized de Castro and Antonio Jose da Silva, who was known to history as The
    Crypto Jews of Portugal
    The Jews that integrated into Portuguese Christian society were able to retain relative autonomy and their own organization by a delicate balance of compromise, concession and interdependence, until the 15th. century. According to legend, the first Jews came to the Iberian Peninsula at the time of Nabucodonosor, King of the Chaleans (6th century) or even before, at the time of Solomon who reigned in Israel from 974B.C. to 937B.C. While these hypotheses may lie in the legendary domain, it has been ascertained that the Jewish presence in Iberia preceded and accompanied that of the Romans. From the 5th. century onward the Jews reinforced their position and remained active in Peninsular society during the Visigoth and Muslim periods of occupation.
    When the kingdom of Portugal was formed, in the 12th century, there were already a number of important Jewish communities in several cities reconquered by the Christians.
    Generally speaking, Portuguese Jews enjoyed the protection of the Crown during the first dynasty. D. Afonso Henriques entrusted Yahia Ben Yahi III with the post of supervisor of tax collection and nominated him the first chief rabbi of Portugal. D. Sancho I (1185-1211)continued the same policy as his father, making Jose Ben Yahia, the grandson of Yahia Ben Yahia, High Steward of the Realm. The clergy, however, invoking the restrictions of the Lateran Council, brought considerable pressure to bear against the Jews during the reign of D.Dinis (1279-1325), but the monarch maintained a conciliatory position.

    95. Cyndi's List - Portugal
    The COBRA Family Genealogy history and genealogy of the Cobra Family in portugal and its modern branches in Canada, Brazil, and the USA;
    The index links below work best if you allow
    your web browser to load the entire page first.
    Category Index:

    Related Categories:
    Planting Your Family Tree Online
    Preview the Table of Contents

    Cyndi's List The BOOK!

    2nd Edition
    2 Volumes Netting Your Ancestors Genealogy Bookstore
    In association with Ancestry Magazine GPC and Clearfield Company Genealogy Warehouse Submit a New Link Report a Broken Link Update a Link
      General Resource Sites
      • Online telephone directory for Portugal.
      • Links to the web sites of various levels of judicial courts.
      • Forum, indices, maps, etc.
      • Portuguese Genealogist Master Database.
      • Portuguese-English translations of genealogy terms.
      • History and genealogy of the Portuguese families, including immigrants from the Azores, the Cape Verde Islands, and the Madeira Islands, who settled on Martha's Vineyard.

    96. Met@farma - English Speaking Visitors
    English speaking visitors. Portuguese. This page is the entrance point to the English language content of a site devoted to the history of Pharmacy in portugal.
    English speaking visitors
    This page is the entrance point to the English language content of a site devoted to the History of Pharmacy in Portugal. It is kept by the GEHSF (Gabinete de Estudos Históricos e Sociais da Farmácia / Cabinet of Historical and Social Studies of Pharmacy) located at the Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Lisbon, which is also responsible for the Portuguese History of Pharmacy bulletin "Medicamento, História e Sociedade".
    This is a Portuguese based Internet site and the most part of its content is in Portuguese.
    You may access in English:
    International E-mail Directory of Historians of Pharmacy
    How to contact researchers in the History of Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Therapeutics world-wide. A selection of electronic mail lists in the History of Science, Technology and Medicine.
    A note on the present state of the Historiography of Pharmacy in Portugal
    An abridged and WWW oriented version of a paper we presented at the History of Pharmacy Symposium in the Lisbon 1994 FIP Congress.
    A resume of the author of this page
    We may enlarge the information available in English in the future. Keep in touch.

    97. Portugal - History, News And Information
    Short history. portugal moved from authoritarian rule to parliamentary democracy following the 1974 military coup against dictator Marcello Caetano, himself a
    Russian News Network

    Portuguese Republic

    Short Form: Portugal Geography Location: Southwestern Europe
    Portugal borders the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain Area
    Total: 92,391 sq km
    Land: 91,951 sq km note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands
    Water: 440 sq km
    Total: 10,102,022
    Ethnic groups: homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal Religions: Roman Catholic 94%, Protestant Languages: Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official - but locally used) Principal Cities Capital: Lisbon Short History Portugal moved from authoritarian rule to parliamentary democracy following the 1974 military coup against dictator Marcello Caetano, himself a continuation of the long-running dictatorship of Antonio Salazar. After a period of instability and communist agitation, Portugal ratified a new Constitution in 1976. Subsequent revisions of the Constitution placed the military under strict civilian control; trimmed the powers of the president; and laid the groundwork for a stable, pluralistic liberal democracy, as well as privatization of nationalized firms and the government-owned communications media. Portugal joined the European Union in 1986, and has moved toward greater political and economic integration with Europe ever since. The four main branches of the national government are the presidency, the prime minister and Council of Ministers (the government), the Assembly of the Republic (the parliament), and the judiciary. The president, elected to a 5-year term by direct, universal suffrage, also is commander in chief of the armed forces. Presidential powers include confirming the prime minister and Council of Ministers; dismissing the prime minister; dissolving the assembly to call early elections; vetoing legislation, which may be overridden by the assembly; and declaring a state of war or siege. The Council of State, a presidential advisory body, is composed of six senior civilian officers, former presidents elected under the 1976 constitution, five members chosen by the assembly, and five selected by the president.

    98. Books - Spain And Portugal - History
    eNotAlone Shopping Books Spain And portugal history. 1391 results for Spain And portugal - history The Story of Spain by Mark Williams (01 July, 2000) And Portugal - History

    Official site of the government agency Investments, Trade and Tourism of portugal. Provides general information on the country and localities, and on buying, investing and tourism, and links to related sites.
    Welcome to Here you will find information about Portugal tourism trade investment , as well as general information about the country Planning a visit? Whether it is sunny beaches or bustling cities, here is what you need to know from currency and climate to history, lodging, tours and more.
    Make your next vacation plans to Portugal. Visit our section.
    Euro 2004. In 2004, Portugal will host the 2004 European Soccer Championship

    News/Portugal (Portuguese)

    If your are having problems viewing this site, click here to update your Flash player.
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    100. PORTUGAL INFO Quem? O Que? Onde? E Quando? Em Portugal
    Portal global sobre portugal.
    portugal PORTUGAL INFO

    a sua fonte de informação em portugal
    PORTUGAL info Pesquisar Portugal All

    Arte e Cultura

    Carreira ...
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