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         Portugal History:     more books (100)
  1. The Basque History of the World: The Story of a Nation by Mark Kurlansky, 2001-02-01
  2. The Mirror of Spain, 1500-1700: The Formation of a Myth (History, Languages, and Cultures of the Spanish and Portuguese Worlds) by Jocelyn N. Hillgarth, 2000-09-20
  3. A History of US: Book 2: Making Thirteen Colonies, Teacher's Guide (History of U. S.) by Joy Hakim, 1996-06-10
  4. Spain: A History
  5. History of the Conquest of Peru by William H. Prescott, 2007-11-01
  6. In the Lands of the Enchanted Moorish Maiden: Islamic Art in Portugal (Islamic Art in the Mediterranean)
  7. Traveller's History of Portugal by Ian Robertson, 2002
  8. El mejor Portugal de la historia.(Copa del Mundo Japón-Corea 2002)(TT: The best Portugal of the history.)(TA: World Cup Japan-Korea 2002)(Artículo Breve): An article from: Semana
  9. The Contest of Christian and Muslim Spain: 1031 - 1157 (A History of Spain) by Bernard F. Reilly, 1996-01-17
  10. Los Borbones incomodos/ The Annoyed Bourbons (Ensayo- Historia/ Essay- History) by Juan Balanso, 2004-09-10
  11. History of the Origin and Establishment of the Inquisition in Portugal by Alexandre Herculano, 2003-07-26
  12. Essential Histories 60: The Spanish Invasion of Mexico 1519-1521 by Charles Iii, Charles M. Robinson III, 2003-12
  13. The Man Who Stole Portugal by Murray Teigh Bloom, 1992-05
  14. Early Medieval Spain (New Studies in Medieval History) by Roger Collins, 1995-07-15

41. Portugal's History On-line Documents
1964; Telegramme from the US Department of State, to the US Embassy in portugal, Washington, 1806h, 17 January 17, 1964; Memorandum
site net



cphrc documents colonial wars goto: homepage documents Colonial Wars (1961-1974) See also: exhibitions of 180 declassified US official documents concerning the Colonial Wars in former Portuguese Africa (includes some documents relating to East Timor at the same time). Other colonial war documents:

42. Portugal -- Primary Documents
history of portugal Primary Documents. Medieval Sourcebook portugal ( Translations)Treaty Between Spain and portugal, Concluded at Alcacovas ( 7 June 1494; synoptic facsimiles and transcriptions)The Letter of Pero Vaz de Caminha 20 May 1769; transcription) Naval history portugal ( 1807; transcriptions).Political Documents from Portuguese history
History of Portugal:
Primary Documents
Medieval Sourcebook: Portugal
(Translations) Treaty Between Spain and Portugal, Concluded at Alcacovas
(4 September, 1479; English translation)
Tratado de Tordesilhas
The Treaty of Tordesilhas, dividing the colonizable world between Spain and Portugal
Presented by the Portuguese Biblioteca Nacional
(7 June 1494; synoptic facsimiles and transcriptions) The Letter of Pero Vaz de Caminha
This scribe informed the King of Portugal about the discovery of Brazil
(1 May 1500; Portuguese-language transcription) Exploration and Expansion
(Translations and transcriptions). Lei elevando o Santo Offício à categoria de Magestade
Royal act granting to the Portuguese Inquisition the status of Royal Tribunal,
granting it independence and administrative autonomy.
(20 May 1769; transcription) Naval History: Portugal
(1807; transcriptions). Political Documents from Portuguese History
(1821-1911; Portuguese-language transcriptions) Documents and Sources from the Contemporary Portuguese Politics and History Research Centre
A collection of documents related to Portuguese history and politics.
(1910 to present; facsimiles, transcriptions, translations and statistics).

43. Lisbon History | Lonely Planet World Guide
Lisbon history. (It took another century for Christian forces to complete the reconquest of portugal.) In the mid13th century Lisbon replaced Coimbra as
home search help worldguide ... Postcards
Lisbon dates back to pre-Roman times - legend has it that Ulysses founded the city, although it was more probably the Phoenicians. Its early years were spent as a constant battleground, with Phoenicians, Greeks and Carthaginians in turn overthrown. In 205 BC the Romans began their two-century reign in Lisbon, and it became the most important city in the western Iberian region, renamed Felicitas Julia by Julius Caesar. In 714 the powerful Moors arrived from Morocco, replacing a succession of northern tribes. They fortified the city and held out against Christian attack for an impressive 400 years. By 1147 the Moors' luck had turned and the Christians finally recaptured Lisbon. (It took another century for Christian forces to complete the reconquest of Portugal.) In the mid-13th century Lisbon replaced Coimbra as Portugal's capital and developed rapidly on the back of booming maritime and inland trade. The 15th century brought the Age of Discoveries - Portugal's golden era of sea exploration. Not satisfied with repelling the Moors from Portuguese soil, Prince Henrique (Henry the Navigator) decided to sap Islam's economic power by finding a way around it by sea. He put to work the best sailors, map makers, ship builders and astronomers he could find. In 1434 one of his ships sailed beyond the much-feared Cape Bojador on the West African coast, breaking a maritime superstition that this was the end of the world. The Prince was rewarded with gold and slaves from West Africa. In 1497 came Vasco da Gama's famous discovery of the sea route to India. The wealth from these expeditions transformed Lisbon into the opulent seat of a vast empire. It also spawned the extravagant Manueline architectural style, best typified in the Mosteiro dos Jer³nimos in Bel©m.

44. Estoril's Coast / Costa De Estoril, Portugal - History
portugal Virtual, Estoril Cascais history.
Estoril Cascais
History Portugal Tourism Lisbon Estoril Cascais History e-Mail
Cascais Estoril
Lodging Cascais Estoril Lodging Lisbon Coast ... Sightseeing Guided Tours
The picturesque towns of Estoril and Cascais with theirs pretty little palaces overlooking the sea have been inhabited from the remotest ages. From various interesting finds, it is known that paleolithic man lived there, and it is believed neolithic people lived in local caves 4000 years old.
There is also much evidence from the Roman period, dating from 1 AD. Villas have been excavated and inscriptions found of family names, names of the Gods they worshipped and names chosen for their sons.
Cascais Estoril
Lodging Cascais Estoril Lodging Lisbon Coast Beaches ... Estoril Cascais History e-Mail History
Estoril Cascais

45. Estoril's Coast / Costa De Estoril, Portugal - History
portugal Virtual, Het was hier dat in 1560 de Duke of Alba, in dienst van Koning Filipe II van Spanje , voet aan wal zette bij het innemen van portugal.
Estoril Cascais
Geschiedenis Portugal Toerisme Lisbon Estoril Cascais Geschiedenis e-Mail
Acomodatie in de omgeving
Estoril Cascais Stranden ... Sightseeing Rondrit met gids
De pittoreske stadjes Estoril en Cascais, met hun mooie kleine palijsjes die over de zee uitkijken waren reeds sinds lang bewoond. Verschillende opgravingen tonen aan dat hier mensen woonden van het paleotisch tijdperk en dat men hier woonden in grotten in het neolitische periode (4000 jaar oud).
Er is ook veel bewijsmateriaal van de Romeinse periode (1 na C.) Villas werden opgegraven en opschriften met familienamen, namen van hun zonen en goden werden gevonden.
Van de Arabische bezetting werden ook namen gevonden. Ibne Mucane werd geboren in Alcabideche en het was hij die de eerste beschrijving maakte over de introductie van windmolens in Europa. Hij was een Arabische poeet en heeft een herinneringsmonument dichtbij de windmolen op de weg die vanuit het dorp vertrekt richting Autodrome.
Na het heroveren van het land op de Moren in 1147, richte het volk van Cascais zich op de visvangst. Algemeen wordt aangenomen dat Cascais is afgeleid van "cascas" wat betekent "schelpen" zinspelend op de enorme hopen lege zeeschelpen. Deze connectie met de zee gaf aan de inwoners van Cascais de mogelijkheid hun onafhankelijkheid van Sintra, hetwelk werd toegestaan in 1364 door Koning Pedro I, aan

46. Tournaments
Portuguese football history. Modern football was introduced to portugal in 1884 by Guilherme Pinto Basto, who had recently returned from studying in England.

47. Portugal/History - Encyclopedia Article About Portugal/History. Free Access, No
encyclopedia article about portugal/history. portugal/history in Free online English dictionary, thesaurus and encyclopedia. portugal/history.
Dictionaries: General Computing Medical Legal Encyclopedia
Word: Word Starts with Ends with Definition Throughout the centuries which witnessed the conquest of Lusitania Lusitania , an ancient Roman province approximately including current Portugal and part of western current Spain, named after the Lusitani people. The Lusitani were strong warriors whose origins are uncertain; some authors presume they may have descended from the central Spanish Lusoni The first colonized by the Lusitani was probably the Douro valley and the region of Beira Alta; in Beira they stayed until they defeated the Celts and other tribes, then they expanded to cover a territory that reached Estremadura before the arrival of the Romans.
Click the link for more information. and destruction of Carthaginian Carthage (from the Phoenician Kart-Hadasht, the "New City", written without vowels in Punic as Qrthdst ), was a city in north Africa located on the eastern side of Lake Tunis, across from the center of modern Tunis in Tunisia. It remains a popular tourist attraction.
Founding of Carthage
In approximately 814 BC, Carthage was founded by Phoenician settlers from the city of Tyre, bringing with them the city-god Melkart. Traditionally, the city was founded by Dido, and a number of foundation myths have survived through Greek and Roman literature.

48. Portugal - History
portugal, throughout its history, has had difficult relations with its powerful peninsular neighbour (Castela/Espanha), struggling with the expansion of the
Essential Info General Information
Portugal, throughout its history, has had difficult relations with its powerful peninsular neighbour (Castela/Espanha), struggling with the expansion of the Meseta (old part of the Iberian Peninsula, divided in two by the Luso-Castelhano System) and sending its men to the sea to safeguard its freedom and independence.
Existing as an independent state since the 12th century, the territory that actually forms Portugal, already had in 10th and 11th centuries, in between-the-Douro-and-Minho regions, the sketch of a political, social and economist organization, seperate from the Kingdom of Lion.
The Atlantic has given Portuguese the knowledge and spirit that distinguish maritime populations, allowing them to prepare much earlier for European maritime expansion. The presence of strong jewish and arab communities also guaranteed the necessary scientific teachings to the discoveries movement, that would begin in the 15th century under the management of the Royal house.
In 1415, the Portuguese went to the sea on an epic trip, which would turn them into the first nation discovering the maritime routes to India, Brazil, China and Japan. On their many adventures, exchanges have been done and these 'exchanges' have made Portugal a very rich country, not only in spices brought from India, but also in gold and jewels found in Brazil.

49. Tomar Cheese - Cheese Of Portugal - Roteiro Gastronómico De Portugal
Translate this page many details about the exact origin of this food are ignored, history confirms its of cheese is very important for in many countries like portugal there is a

Receitas Doces Receitas Regiões ... Restaurantes

The art

International Cheese
envie a sua receita
Enviar Receita

According to the legend cheese has been discovered by one of Alpo’s sons, Aristeu, king of Arcadia. Although many details about the exact origin of this food are ignored, history confirms its antiquity. As a malted of fact it’s supposed to be invented before butter. Assyrian, Chaldean and Egyptians and subsequently Greek and Romans appreciated cheese, from which they produced several kinds and whose virtues they knew for they used it in soldiers and athletes nourishment. In Planto, at the Roman comedian, one can read about the class cheese ( caseus ) reached in ancient Rome. Cheese trade was born in Rome, Llegaban the capital of all Italian provinces, but the "caseus alpino" was also imported to Rome from other distant regions as Nimes, Saboya and sections of present Switzerland.

50. Not Found
Portuguese history The Kingdom of portugal emerged in the 12th century connected with the process concerning the Christian reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula.
Sorry, but the page you are looking for has been moved or cannot be found. Follow this link to the European Schoolnet's Homepage, and please let know about this broken link and the referring page. European Schoolnet

51. Columbus World Travel Guide - Europe - Portugal - History And Government
World Travel Guide portugal - history and Government - includes information on the constitution and politics.
OAS_sitepage = URL + '/Europe/Portugal/HistoryandGovernment'; document.write('Research Portugal hotels at TripAdvisor'); Contact Addresses

General Information

... Europe /Portugal PORTUGAL History and Government
History: The part of Iberia which is now Portugal was occupied by a people known as the Lusitanos, who are thought to be direct ancestors of the Portuguese people. The region was invaded and occupied by the Romans and later the Moors; it remained under the latter’s control until the 11th century, when Ferdinand, ruler of the Kingdom of Leon and Castilla (in what is now Spain) conquered much of the territory. Over the next 200 years, the remaining Moors were driven out and the boundaries of Portugal fixed; and it was during this period (in 1143) that Portugal first became recognised as an independent entity, under the rule of King Afonso Henriques. The Castilians were themselves expelled in 1385 after defeat at the hands of João of Aviz (who became King João I) at the Battle of Aljubarotta. From this point, the Portuguese went on to build a colonial empire in Africa, Latin America, India and the Far East. One of the most famous figures during this period was Prince Henry the Navigator, amongst whose acquisitions were the Azores and Madeira. One of the best-known visitors to Madeira was Christopher Columbus, who married a daughter of one of the island’s governors and lived for some time on Porto Santo. The island survived a brief invasion by a French pirate in 1566, but in 1580, along with the rest of Portugal, came under Spanish domination.

52. Portugal's History Of Flight
portugal. The Airships and dirigibles came to portugal through the army, after their use in France, at the end of the 19th century. The
PORTUGAL Airships and dirigibles came to Portugal through the army, after their use in France, at the end of the 19th century. The first airplanes flew in Portugal in 1909, again with French influence. The Portuguese contribution of an expeditionary force in France during World War I marked the beginning of military aviation in Portugal. In the period between the wars there were many notable flights. From 30 March to 17 June 1921, Gago Coutinho and Sacadura Cabral flew a Fairey hydroplane from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro in the first crossing of the South Atlantic. The longest leg, between Guinea, Africa, and Recife, Brazil, was longer than the aircraft's range, requiring fueling from a ship in the mid-South Atlantic near a group of cliffs called Fernando de Noronha. The critical task of navigating to this precise point was performed using the Aeronautical Sextant," which Coutinho developed from the naval sextant used by Portuguese navigators more than 300 years before. The first night crossing of the South Atlantic took place from 2 March to 18 April 1927 in a Dornier-Wall seaplane. Other Portuguese aviators had flown from Lisbon to Macau from 7 April to 20 June 1924. Other flights connecting Portugal to its colonies scattered around the world were made, all at about the same time by aviation pioneers from several nations.

53. Portugal S History
history. portugal is one of the oldest nation states in Europe its foundation in 1139 predates that of its neighbour, Spain, by nearly 350 years.

54. ABX LOGISTICS - Portugal - History
history – portugal – English. © Copyright 2003 ABX LOGISTICS. Legal Notices.
Select Country Argentina Australia Austria Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Canada Chile Egypt France Germany Indonesia Ireland Italy Japan Malaysia Mexico Netherlands Nigeria Philippines Portugal Russia Singapore South Korea Spain Switzerland Taiwan Thailand Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom United States Of America Index History Careers Contacts
History – Portugal – English
Legal Notices

55. ABX LOGISTICS - Portugal - History
history – portugal – Portuguese. © Copyright 2003 ABX LOGISTICS. Legal Notices.
Select Country Argentina Australia Austria Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Canada Chile Egypt France Germany Indonesia Ireland Italy Japan Malaysia Mexico Netherlands Nigeria Philippines Portugal Russia Singapore South Korea Spain Switzerland Taiwan Thailand Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom United States Of America Index History Careers Contacts
History – Portugal – Portuguese
Legal Notices

56. Portugal - History
the future, was the consolidation of a system of parliamentary democracy, the first successful such system in the country s history. portugal Table of Contents.
Portugal Table of Contents The revolution eventually played itself out. Many of its feared consequences, such as a communist takeover or a civil war, did not occur. Moreover, many of the actions, for example, nationalizations and collectivizations that were implemented during the revolution, had been reversed to a great extent by early 1993, and the serious damage done to the overall economy was gradually being repaired. The economy grew rapidly in the second half of the 1980s and continued to show respectable growth rates in the early 1990s. As another indication of improving economic health, Portugal's currency, the escudo, was strong enough to be placed in the exchange rate mechanism of the European Monetary System (see Glossary) in April 1992. The revolution's legacy also had a positive side, however, and nearly two decades after the sequence of events that began in April 1974, some remarkable achievements could be seen. After centuries of isolation and backwardness, Portugal had become an fully integral part of Western Europe through its membership in the European Community (EC). In the first half of 1992, Portugal assumed the presidency of the EC and fulfilled the obligations of this office in a professional manner. Even more significant, perhaps, were the establishment and consolidation of a system of parliamentary democracy. After a troubled start, this democracy, watched a had given the country a strong and competent government able to bring about peaceful change.

57. 500 Anniversary Of The Jews Of Portugal
informed the Catholic King of Spain; There are no more Jews in portugal (1) Sourse A history of the Marranos, 5th Ed, SepherHermon Press, Inc New York, 1992.

by Arthur Benveniste
October 1997
Five years ago we commemorated the expulsion of the Jews from Spain. The founders of this temple and most of its members today are descendants of those Jews. The story of the Spanish Expulsion is well known. Not so well known is what happened five years later in the neighboring country of Portugal. It is to honor the memory of the victims of that event that we gather here tonight. Of those Jews who chose to flee Spain in 1492, a large number went to Morocco, Italy,and to the Ottoman Empire. But, the greatest number, perhaps half of the total went to Portugal. King Joao II of Portugal, allowed them to enter. He was preparing for war against the Moors and he needed the taxes collected from these Jews to finance that war. He also was aware of the great talent of the Jews in many fields including the mechanics of arms making, which he hoped he would call upon and he did not want that talent to be available to the Moors. But his welcome was not complete. Permanent residence was granted only to 630 wealthy families who were allowed to establish themselves in several parts of the country upon payment of 100 cruzados. A number of craftsmen, skilled in arms making were also granted permanent residence. Others were allowed to settle for only eight months upon payment of eight cruzados for each adult.

58. Review Of Anarchist Intellectuals, Workers And Soldiers In Portugal's History By
Freedom Fighters Anarchist Intellectuals, Workers and Soldiers in portugal s history Joao Freire Black Rose Books. This book is a disappointment.
Freedom Fighters:
Anarchist Intellectuals, Workers and Soldiers in Portugal's History

Joao Freire
Black Rose Books
This book is a disappointment. It fails as a portrayal of the history of Portuguese anarchism. Rather, it is a snapshot of that movement during its peak (the 1900s to 1930s) and a somewhat unconvincing "sociological analysis" of it, backed up with copious data. Which is a shame, as a book on Portuguese anarchism is sorely needed. However, saying that, the book does present an often fascinating picture of an anarchist movement which rooted itself in working class life and struggle. Unlike Spain, social-democracy dominated the early labour movement. The anarchists successfully undermined this and by the 1920s the main union federation was anarcho-syndicalist in nature with around 90,000 members enrolled it in. This movement had a healthy interest in theory as well as action, with unions regularly discussing not only day to day issues but also revolutionary goals such as the socialisation of industry. Needless to say, similar discussions took place in the substantial number of anarchist groups and federations that existed. What strikes the reader is that the Portuguese movement got its strength by applying its ideas in practice. The unions and their struggles were organised in libertarian fashion by mass assemblies and bottom-up federations. The anarchist groups, like the unions, federated from below upwards, organically growing wider and wider as time went on. Both the unions and the anarchist groups spent time creating centres, libraries, schools and other forms of mutual aid.

59. Portugal - History Documents
My Country portugal Information National Flag National Hymn Brief history Documents My City - Chaves In the Army Link Exchange GuestBook BigEye Portfolio
My Country
Family tree of Kings of Portugal until D. João IV.
Warriors of the Century XII, Iluminuras of the Apocalypse
one of the rare existent illuminated manuscripts in Portugal. * Courtesy of Flaviense Museum

National Flag

National Hymn

Brief History

60. Travel In Azores Islands - Portugal - History -®
Translate this page®-Information about Azores Islands,portugal,history,Gallery,Photos,restaurants,hotels,car rental,rentals,campings,travel agencies.!
ADVERTISING INFORMATION Azores Islands - History The Azores Anthem
Original Portuguese version:

Pela nossa autonomia.
Da bandeira que nos guia Para a frente! Lutar, batalhar
Pelo passado, imortal.
No futuro a luz semear,
De um povo triunfal.
Largos voos, com ardor firmamos,
Para a frente! Lutar, batalhar
Pelo passado imortal,
No futuro a luz semear, De um povo triunfal. Translated in English This is not intended as a translation of the Azores Anthem! It is no more than the author's wish (Pierre Le Velly de Sousa Lima) to convey its "deep feeling contents" to readers; we know it should not be done therefore ask for your forgiveness! Faith and firmness gave birth In the splendour of a new chant The Azores are our assurance Of tracing the glory of a people Ahead! In communion

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