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         Plant Diseases & Pathogens:     more books (100)
  1. Nature and Practice of Biological Control of Plant Pathogens by R. James Cook, 1983-12
  2. Ecology & Management of Soilborne Plant Pathogens by A. D. Rovira, K. J. Moore, 1985-01
  3. Same pathogens people and plants: some bacteria can cross the line.: An article from: Science News by Susan Milius, 2007-10-20
  4. Plant Pathogens: The Prokaryotes by R. S. Singh, 1990-07
  5. Handbook of Molecular Technologies in Crop Disease Management by P. Vidhyasekaran, 2007-02-20
  6. Plant Resistance to Herbivores and Pathogens: Ecology, Evolution, and Genetics
  7. Mechanisms of Plant Defense Responses (Developments in Plant Pathology)
  8. Plant Viruses As Molecular Pathogens by Jawaid A. Khan, Jeanne Dijkstra, 2001-11-08
  9. Zoosporic Plant Pathogens: A Modern Perspective
  10. Bacteria As Plant Pathogens (Aspects of Microbiology, Vol 14) by Eve Billing, 1987-10
  11. Plant Pathogenesis and Resistance: Biochemistry and Physiology of Plant-Microbe Interactions by Jeng-Sheng Huang, 2001-07-25
  12. Histology, Ultrastructure and Molecular Cytology of Plant-Microorganism Interactions (Developments in Plant Pathology)
  13. Vectors of Disease Agents: Interactions with Plants, Animals, and Man
  14. The Gene-for-Gene Relationship in Plant-Parasite Interactions

61. Harman: Trichoderma For The Control Of Plant Pathogens
in sufficient numbers to cause disease. Once the pathogens are established on thefoliage, the soilapplied biocontrol agent no longer can protect the plant.
From Basic Research to Commercialized Products
Gary E. Harman
Departments of Horticultural Science and of Plant Pathology
Cornell University NYSAES
Geneva, NY 14456
Trichoderma In my laboratory, we have been developing technology for the biocontrol of plant pathogens for about two decades. This paper will briefly discuss this effort, and the progress from basic research to products now available commercially.
The basic requirements of successful biocontrol.
Our early work demonstrated that Trichoderma systems
  • A highly effective biocontrol strain or other material must be obtained or produced. Such strains must not only have appropriate mechanisms for biocontrol Pythium Rhizoctonia solani Fusarium Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotium rolfsii, Sclerotinia homoeocarpa. However, development of biocontrol systems has only begun when an effective strain is identified. In our research, we have used only T. harzianum T. virens
  • Inexpensive production and formulation of the biocontrol agent or other material in question must be developed. The production process must result in biomass with excellent shelf life even under adverse storage conditions. In many respects, the requirements for production of products for agricultural use are more difficult to meet than those required for pharmaceutical products. If agricultural materials are to be successful, they must be very inexpensive, able to be produced in large quantities, and maintain good viability without specialized storage systems.
  • 62. Bio-5--Plant Disease Diagnostics
    The diagnostic kits are based on a method that uses proteins called antibodiesto detect diseasecausing organisms of plants (plant pathogens).
    Topics Plant Disease Diagnosis: Moving Out of the Lab and Into the Field
    ELISA Diagnostic Kits

    Direct Tissue Blotting

    Nucleic Acid Probes
    Plant Disease Diagnosis: Moving Out of the Lab and Into the Field
    The first and most important step in managing a plant disease is to correctly identify it. Although some diseases can be diagnosed quickly by visual examination, others require laboratory testing for diagnosis. These laboratory procedures may take days or even weeks to complete and are, in some cases, relatively insensitive. Delays are frustrating when a quick diagnosis is needed so that appropriate disease control measures may be taken to prevent plant injury, especially when high value cash crops, turf grass, or ornamentals are at stake.
    Fortunately, as the result of advances in biotechnology, new products and techniques are becoming available that will complement or replace time-consuming laboratory procedures. Many products already are available for use, while others are still in developmental stages. Some procedures require laboratory equipment and training, while other procedures can be performed on site by a person with no specialized training.
    ELISA Diagnostic Kits
    A number of disease detection kits have been developed for use at the site where a disease is suspected. These kits, which in most cases do not require laboratory equipment, are especially useful to growers. Some tests only take five minutes to perform.

    63. Stop Ornamental Diseases Before They Start
    This article discusses ornamental plant diseases and ways to manage plant diseases. Information on foliar diseases is also given. Ornamental plant diseases can significantly affect the aesthetic
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    Stop Ornamental Diseases before they Start
    By Loren J. Giesler, University of Nebraska
    Mar 1, 2003 12:00 PM
    E-mail this article
    Ornamental plant diseases can significantly affect the aesthetic quality of many plants in the landscape. Not only do some of these diseases impact appearance in this season, but they also impact overall plant health and survival during seasonal weather changes. Managing ornamental diseases begins with the selection of resistant ornamental plants, maintaining adequate nutrition and irrigation, adopting appropriate cultural practices and providing the right environment for plants. To avoid a never-ending disease prone condition, it is critical to adopt a disease management program before getting to the point where fungicide applications are necessary. For some budget-stressed grounds managers, fungicides are not an available option. Consequently, this article focuses on non-fungicidal disease-management programs. When we consider options for plant disease management it is important to consider how our management plans augment disease development (See Figure 1, page 25).

    64. Biotechnology In Agriculture
    set of tools that can be used in plant disease diagnostics is to that of the DNA orRNA of the pathogen. the probes can be used to identify specific diseases.
    Biotechnology in Agriculture
    A Lot More than Just GM Crops Plant Disease Diagnostics Biotechnology has also allowed the development of diagnostics which has assisted farmers worldwide in managing different diseases affecting their crops. To successfully manage a plant disease, it is critical to correctly identify the cause of the disease in its early stages. Delaying this can result in extensive crop damage and financial loss to farmers. Some diseases can be diagnosed quickly by visual examination although sometimes, visual detection at the plant level is usually only possible after major damage to the crop has been done, by which time, it is too late. Other diseases require laboratory testing for diagnosis which may take days or even weeks to complete and are, in some cases, relatively insensitive. Delays are frustrating when a quick diagnosis is needed so that appropriate measures may be taken to prevent plant injury and loss. Fortunately, new diagnostic techniques are now available that require minimal processing time and are more accurate in identifying pathogens. These diagnostics are based on rapid detection of proteins or DNA that are specific to each pathogen, disease or condition. Some procedures require laboratory equipment and training, while other procedures can be performed on site by a person with no special training.

    65. Articles On Plant Disease, An Online Guide To Plant Disease Control, Oregon Stat
    pathogens and Pesticides.
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    Agricultural Spray Adjuvants Crown Gall Disease of Nursery Crops Damping-off in Vegetable Seedlings Diagnosis and Control of Phytophthora Diseases Diagnosis and Control of Plant Diseases Diseases Caused by Pseudomonas syringae Fumigating Soils for Nematode Control Fungicide Families Fungicide Resistance and Fungicide Families Fungicide Theory of Use and Mode of Action Fungicides and Pollen Interactions Fungicides for Disease Control in the Home Landscape Horticultural Spray Oils Impatiens Necrotic Spot: New Name, Same Threat Improving Spray Efficiency Limes in Sprays for Disease Control Mycorrhiza Mycotoxins Nematodes Oregon’s Most Unwanted: Invasive species Parasitic Plants of Oregon Preparing Tank-mix Bordeaux Mixture Rose Cultivar Resistance Thatch in Home Lawns Tree Decline Tree Wound Paints Virus Certification Program for Tree Fruit Winter Injury of Landscape Plants in the Pacific Northwest
    Pathogens and Pesticides
    T here are many topics to choose from in the list above. Some are focused on specific pathogens that occur on a single or several crops. Others are focused on various chemicals used to control plant pathogens. Please select the article that you'd like to view from the list above and press Go!

    66. Plant Clinic Information, An Online Guide To Plant Disease Control, Oregon State
    Chemotherapy Treatment of disease by chemicals (chemothera-peutants) working directlyor indirectly on the pathogens without injury to the host plant.
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    Acervulus (pl. Acervuli) - A saucer-shaped, spore-producing body of a fungus embedded in host tissue. Actinomycetes - Filamentous bacteria that produce several antibiotics and give soil its earthy smell. Alternate Host - One of two kinds of plants on which a parasitic fungus (e.g., rust) must develop to complete its life cycle. Anthracnose - Disease caused by acervuli-forming fungi (order Melanconzales ) and characterized by sunken lesions and necrosis. Antibiotic - A complex chemical substance produced by one microorganism that inhibits or kills other microorganisms (e.g., streptomycin). Antibody - A specific protein formed in the blood of warmblooded animals in response to the injection of an antigen. Antigen - Any foreign chemical (normally a protein) that induces antibody formation in animals. Antiseptic - A substance that prevents, retards, or destroys microorganisms. Apothecium - An open, cuplike, or saucer-shaped sexual fungal fruiting body containing asci. Ascomycetes - A group of fungi characterized by the production of sexual spores within an oval or tubular membranous sac called an ascus.

    67. Plant Diseases
    Web by the Department of Botany and plant Pathology at or searched, and the recordfor each disease provides information on the pathogen or causal
    low graphics
    plant diseases
    broader: diseases other: mildews plant disease control plant pathogens plant pathology ... plant viruses narrower: forest decline fruit rots fungal diseases root rots ... ProMED-mail International mailing list which serves as a global electronic outbreak reporting system, monitoring emerging infectious plant, animal, and human diseases. Open to all and free of political restraint. Posts are screened by expert moderators. Also available in digest form. Subscribe via the website. Links to Portuguese, Spanish, Japanese and Chinese homepages are also provided here. plant diseases outbreaks infectious diseases International Society for Plant Pathology (ISPP) The website of the International Society for Plant Pathology (ISPP), a charity which promotes the world-wide development of plant pathology and the dissemination of knowledge about plant diseases and plant health management. The site contains information on the Society's objectives and structure, bimonthly editions of its newsletter, instructions for membership, and links to associated national societies. Also features a list of names of plant pathogenic bacteria from 1864 (with bibliographic references) and details of recent reports and forthcoming events. plant pathology plant pathogens plant diseases international organizations ... British Society for Plant Pathology (BSPP) The British Society for Plant Pathology (BSPP) is a UK organization for the study and advancement of plant pathology. Their site contains details of membership, contact information and journal publications. The site hosts web pages for special interest groups of the Society, several of which provide information on current work in specific areas. Some have full text reports and abstracts of conference papers which can be viewed. A diary of meetings is maintained. New Disease Reports, an online global reporting service for new and significant plant disease situations, was launched in January 2000.

    68. Exercises In Plant Disease
    of Populations of Airborne pathogens; Determining Sample Spread Models; Simulationof Disease Spread and of Sanitation, Vectors and plant Susceptibility for
    Edited by Leonard F. Francl and
    Deborah A. Neher

    Features include:
    Practical exercises that offer hands-on learning and career-long reference.
    Accepted methods of analysis plus new quantitative techniques.
    Public domain software conveniently compiled on diskette.
    Example data sets on diskette.
    Annotated computer code that enables students and scientists to perform state-of-the-art statistical analyses.
    Consisting of a spiral-bound laboratory manual and four supplementary computer diskettes, this dual-purpose publication is designed as both a student workbook and a stand-alone reference for anyone working in population biology. The manual includes 34 exercises that illustrate major themes and emergent techniques in plant disease epidemiology. Appropriate for graduate level courses in epidemiology or plant disease management, the exercises encourage hands-on learning with a mix of computer and non-computer activities. Readers are guided through problem solving lessons in temporal and spatial analysis, measurement of diseases and pathogens, host-parasite population dynamics, yield loss assessment, and diseases management and prevention. The chapters within each topic include the following standard sections: preparation, introduction, procedure, evaluation, and further reading. Answers for the exercise problems are given in an appendix. The diskettes include hard-to-find public domain software, spreadsheets, example data sets, and annotated computer code that enables users to perform state-of-the-art statistical analyses.

    69. Plant Industry Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory
    physical and chemical disease management measures designed to eliminate the sourceof the disease, stop the spread and prevent escape of plant pathogens.

    70. HortFACT - Glossary Of Terms Relating To Plant Diseases
    systemic pertaining to a disease in which the pathogen (or a single infection)spreads generally throughout a plant; pertaining to chemicals that spread
    HortFACT - Disease Causing Agents in Plants - Symptoms and Control Glossary of Terms Relating to Plant Diseases
    acervulus -
    saucer shaped or cushion-like fungal fruiting body bearing conidiophores, conidia, and sometimes setae. anamorph - the asexual form (also called the imperfect state) in the life cycle of a fungus, when asexual spores (such as conidia) or no spores are produced. anthesis - the time of pollination or bloom. anthocyanin - blue, purple, red, or pink water-soluble flavanoid pigment in cell sap. anthracnose - disease caused by acervuli-forming fungi (order Melanconiales) and characterised by sunken lesions and necrosis. ascocarp - sexual fruiting body (ascus-bearing organ) of an ascomycete. ascomycete - member of a class of fungi that produce sexual spores (ascospores) endogenously within an ascus. ascospore - sexual spore borne in an ascus. ascus - saclike cell in which ascospores (typically eight) are produced. asexual - vegetative; without sex organs, sex cells, or sexual spores, as the anamorph of a fungus. basidiomycete - member of a class of fungi that form sexual spores (basidiospores) on a basidium.

    To do this, plant pathologists study such factors as mechanisms that pathogens useto cause disease, and interactions between pathogens and host
    Martha Mikkelson, Plant Disease Diagnostician, Montana State University
    WHAT IS A PLANT DISEASE? Plants and plant products are tremendously important for human survival since they provide food, clothing, furniture, a stable environment, and often housing. Plants, whether cultivated or wild, generally grow well when the soil provides them with sufficient nutrients and moisture, sufficient light reaches their leaves, and the temperature stays within a "normal" range. However, like people, plants can get sick. Agents similar to those that cause disease in people also can cause diseases in plants.
    The broadest definition of plant disease includes anything that damages plant health. This definition can include such diverse factors as pathogens, insufficient nitrogen, air pollution, lawnmower damage, and deer damage.
    A stricter definition usually includes any persistent irritation resulting in plant damage and characteristic symptoms. This definition includes such factors as pathogens, insufficient nitrogen, and air pollution.. However, it excludes factors such as lawnmower injury to trees and lightning injury since this damage presumably is a one-time occurrence.

    72. Natural Disease Control—A Common-sense Approach To Plant First Aid
    Most garden diseases are caused by fungi more than 8,000 species are known plantpathogens and either inhabit the aboveground portions of plants or are
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      Least-Toxic Controls of Plant Diseases
      by William Quarles
      The best way to control plant diseases is to make sure they don't get a foothold in the garden in the first place. ( Click here for Nine Steps to Disease Prevention ) However, if they are already established, you may feel it's necessary to resort to one of the controls described below. Most of these mentioned here have low acute toxicity to mammals, including humans, and are not toxic to beneficial insects. Some, such as baking soda, are practically non-toxic, while others, including bordeaux mixture, lime-sulfur, concentrated silicate salts, and streptomycin should be used with caution. Always follow application instructions carefully and apply only at the appropriate time in the plant's growth cycle and at the proper time of day. Be sure to protect yourself using the proper precautions when applying these controls. It is wise to avoid inhaling any kind of pesticide spray.
    • Fungal Diseases
      • Salt Sprays Horticultural Oils Soaps ... Controlling Soilborne Pathogens
      • Controlling Fungal Diseases
        Most garden diseases are caused by fungi: more than 8,000 species are known plant pathogens and either inhabit the aboveground portions of plants or are denizens of the soil. Most of the fungicides described below are essentially preventive measures, acting as barriers between pathogenic agents and plant tissues, and must be applied before new leaves or other susceptible plant parts appear, at the first sign of disease, or when weather conditions are favorable for disease.

    73. Rural Farmers Explore Causes Of Plant Disease
    interactions and limited access to information in rural areas, Central American farmersdo not know about the causes of biotic plant disease plant pathogens.

    74. BBSRC Features - Plant Disease Diagnostics Come Of Age (April 2001)
    It is now possible to detect plant disease agents with a higher degree of We canalso quickly determine particular genetic properties of pathogens, such as

    News and Events


    BBSRC events

    Magazine features
    About this site

    See also: Research database
    BBSRC News and Events Features ... April 2001
    Plant disease diagnostics come of age
    Professor John Lucas of the Institute of Arable Crops Research (IACR) describes how new DNA-based diagnostics could revolutionise the detection of disease-causing organisms in crops.
    Trapped spores of the light leaf spot pathogen Molecular diagnostics are an everyday part of clinical medicine, but in crop protection their use to date has been more limited and restricted to particular problems, such as the detection of imported disease agents (pathogens), or the diagnosis of diseases not easily identified on the basis of visual symptoms. The costs involved have also precluded routine use of molecular methods, except in special cases. Developments in the use of DNA diagnostics based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have changed this scenario. It is now possible to detect plant disease agents with a higher degree of specificity and sensitivity than previously. We can also quickly determine particular genetic properties of pathogens, such as whether they are resistant or sensitive to the chemicals used for their control. By using appropriate primer sequences, the technique can target specific pathogen genes or mutations in such genes. It is also possible to detect several pathogens simultaneously in a single test.

    75. BBSRC Features - New "DeTechtor" For Plant Disease(July 2000)
    These problems highlight the need for disease diagnostic techniques that can be Antibodybasedmethods for the identification of plant pathogens are not new

    News and Events


    BBSRC events

    Magazine features
    About this site

    See also: Research database
    BBSRC News and Events Features ... July 2000
    New "DeTechtor" for plant disease LF series DeTechtor "dipsticks" showing a negative result with a single control line and a positive result with two lines
    Dr Nigel Lyons of Horticulture Research International (HRI) describes two new plant disease diagnostics that give results in minutes and can be used by growers in the field. The systems, marketed through HRI's commercial arm HortiTech under the product brand name DeTechtor, are available in two different kit formats and are fully self-contained. The LF series is suitable for use against viruses, bacteria and fungi, and uses a 'dipstick' format where two coloured lines develop if the target pathogen is present. It is suited to testing small numbers of samples, each pack containing 4 individual test kits.
    The SA series DeTechtor uses a slide agglutination technique for bacterial pathogens and is more suitable where routine screening is required. The SA-Series are available in 50, 100 and 250 sample sizes.

    76. Crop Rotations For Managing Plant Disease
    residue free of cereal leafspot pathogens for minimum of a possible increase in leafspotdiseases (Table 1). stubble unless all volunteer wheat plants in that
    North Dakota State University
    NDSU Extension Service
    Crop Rotations for Managing Plant Disease
    PP-705 (Revised,) October 1999
    Marcia P. McMullen and H. Arthur Lamey , Extension Plant Pathologists Crop rotation can help minimize plant disease potential by reducing populations of disease organisms surviving in the soil or on crop refuse. Although crop rotation reduces the risk of many row crop and cereal diseases, it does not eliminate them. Small amounts of the disease organism may persist in the soil or crop refuse over extended periods. In addition, crop rotation does not affect disease organisms that survive on or in the seed, such as the cereal smuts. Crop rotation also does not affect disease organisms that blow in from the south, such as the cereal rusts. "Unfavorable" rotations do not automatically result in serious disease outbreaks, because disease development often is dependent on favorable weather. However, growing successive crops that are susceptible to the same disease organism greatly increases the odds of severe disease losses. When crop rotations are limited or short term, vigorous disease and pest monitoring is essential. Some plant disease organisms are unique to a particular crop; others attack many crops. The presence of a particular disease within a crop has important implications for the next crop in that field. Common disease problems and rotations to help avoid them will be discussed.

    77. Welcome To ISPPWeb
    should be used for all similar diseases of different hosts when the pathogen is the B)To approve common names of plant diseases considered to be appropriate.
    Welcome to ISPPWeb Common names Bacterial Names Plant Pathology Internet Guide Book ISPP World Directory of Plant Pathologists Committee on Common Names of Plant Diseases As announced in the October 1999 issue of the ISPP Newsletter (5): 2, ISPP appointed its 21st committee, the Committee for Common Names of Plant Diseases (ISPP-CCN). This Committee will work with plant pathologists worldwide to establish principles (guidelines) for the naming of new plant diseases. Also, where multiple names, sometimes as many as 7 or 8 names, are being used for the one disease, the Committee will undertake discussion aimed at choosing the most appropriate name. The aim is to encourage the use of common names which describe a major symptom of a disease in words which are internationally meaningful. Eventually lists of internationally approved common names of plant diseases will be produced, which will assist authors, editors, quarantine officers and others communicating internationally. These lists will be placed on this ISPP-CCN website. You are invited to comment on the Committee’s Aims, which include recommended Principles (guidelines) and Working Rules (see the ISPP-CCN website below). Send your comments immediately to the Committee Chair, Dr David Teakle, at

    78. Plant Disease Proceedings
    . . 109 The major plant pathogens occurring in ecosystems of southwestern Australia. . . 123 The ecological impact of plant disease on plant communities.
    E cological S ociety of A ustralia
    I ncorporated
    Plant Diseases in Ecosystems:
    threats and impacts in south-western Australia
    A symposium jointly convened by
    The Royal Society of Western Australia
    The Ecological Society of Australia
    on 16 April 1994 Copies of the Symposium Proceedings available for sale. Presentations were made on contemporary research on the ecological and social impact of plant diseases in natural ecosystems of south-western Western Australia, including Phytophthora Armillaria , canker and other diseases. Invited speakers were scientists with research experience in disease impact on plant and animal life, landscape, resource industries, recreation and other social values, and in disease control measures and disease resistance. Papers presented by invited speakers have been refereed and published in 90 pages as Vol 77 (4) of the Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia. Foreword. W A Cowling and R T Wills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Symposium Summary. S H James . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Session 1: Biology. K Old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Session 2: Impact on ecology. S Hopper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Session 3: Impact on industry. L Mattiske . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Session 4: The Future S H James . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Ecosystem pathogens: a view from the centre (east). P Bridgewater and B Edgar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 The major plant pathogens occurring in ecosystems of south-western Australia. B L Shearer . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Role of environment in dieback of jarrah: effects of waterlogging on jarrah

    79. Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory / Gilat Research Center
    an integral part of the plant Pathology Unit Yearround disease diagnosis for allcrops Quantitative diagnosis of pathogens (bacterial, fungal, nematodal, and
    Home Research Units Phytopathology
    Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory
    Tel: 972 (8) 992-8661
    Fax: 972 (8) 992-6337
    Scientific Director: Leah Tsror
    Laboratory Staff: Orly Erlich, Sarah Lebiush and Menashe Aharon he Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (PDDL) is an integral part of the Plant Pathology Unit at Gilat. Here, technologically advanced diagnostic procedures are available - principally to Negev farmers, but some tests are also available to any interested party. The PDDL's close relationship with Gilat enables professional support and the adaptation of methods to the needs of agriculturists - all in a timely fashion. The following services are available (see the Hebrew version for details on specific procedures):
    • Year-round disease diagnosis for all crops: vegetables, flowers and ornamentals, field crops, industrial crops, and fruit trees. Quantitative diagnosis of pathogens (bacterial, fungal, nematodal, and insect-vectored) - the primary objective being to prevent the spread of disease through potential contaminants.

    has infected stock plants, the cuttings taken from those plants will carry thedisease as well especially if the pathogens are found inside the plant.

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