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         Number System:     more books (108)
  1. The Nashville Number System by Chas Williams, 2005-07-15
  2. The Structure of the Real Number System by Leon W. Cohen, Gertrude Ehrlich, 1963
  3. The Structure of Number Systems (Teachers' Mathematics Reference Series) by Francis D. Parker, 1966
  4. The Number System (Dover Books on Mathematics) by H. A. Thurston, 2007-04-19
  5. Practice Problems in Number: Systems, Logic and Boolean Algebra by Edward Burstein, 1977-07
  6. Can You Count in Greek?: Exploring Ancient Number Systems, Grades 5-8 by Judy Leimbach, Kathy Leimbach, 2005-06-01
  7. Landmarks In The Hundreds: The Number System
  8. Landmarks in the Thousands: The Number System (Investigations in Number, Data and Space Series by Andee Rubin, Susan J. Russell, et all 1997-05
  9. The Secret Life of Math: Discover How (And Why) Numbers Have Survived From The Cave Dwellers To Us! (A Williamson's Kids Can! Book) by Ann McCallum, 2005-09-15
  11. The History of Zero: Exploring Our Place-Value Number System (Math for the Real World) by Tika Downey, 2004-08
  12. The Number Systems: Foundations of Algebra and Analysis (AMS Chelsea Publishing) by Solomon Feferman, 2005-01
  13. Number Systems and the Foundations of Analysis by Elliott Mendelson, 2008-12-18
  14. Introduction to Mathematical Thinking: Algebra and Number Systems by Will J. Gilbert, Scott A. Vanstone, 2004-08-01

1. Chinese Numbers
of the Chinese number system. 0. 1. 2 uses its native Chinese character number system. The Chinese......All About Chinese Numbers. Find Chinese equivalents to English numbers. A Brief
Chinese Numbers
Number: Output as: Picture Traditional Simplified Pinyin Formal (checks) This page converts a number into Chinese. It works for numbers up to 1 billion. Just type in a number like "8890" (no decimal points please) and click "Show Chinese".
Number: Output as: Arabic Numbers This page can also show the value of a Chinese number. Just type or paste in a number in Big5 Chinese (no decimal points please) and click "Show English". I've written a Perl module to convert between Chinese character numbers and Arabic numbers that you are welcome to download and use.
A Brief Description of the Chinese Number System
Traditional Simplfied Formal Trad. (Daxie) Formal Simp. (Daxie) Pinyin While China has for many uses adopted the Arabic numeral system familiar around the world, it also still uses its native Chinese character number system. The Chinese system is also a base-10 system, but has important differences in the way the numbers are represented. Chinese has characters for numbers through 9, as seen above. In addition to the character shown above for zero, a simple circle is also used. Pronunciation for the characters uses the standard Romanization scheme in China called "pinyin" . The number at the end of the pinyin indicates the tone. Eleven in Chinese is "ten one". Twelve is "ten two", and so on. Twenty is "Two ten", twenty-one is "two ten one" (2*10 + 1), and so on up to 99. One-hundred is "one hundred". One-hundred and one is "one hundred zero one". One hundred and eleven is "one hundred one ten one". Notice that for eleven alone, you only need "ten one" and not "one ten one", but when used in a larger number (such as 111), you must add the extra "one". One thousand and above is done in a similar fashion, where you say how many thousands you have, then how many hundreds, tens, and ones. An exception to this is for zeroes. When a zero occurs in the number (except at the end), you need to say "zero", but only once for two or more consecutive zeroes. So one-thousand and one would be "one thousand zero one", where zero stands in for the hundreds and tens places. Try different numbers in the converter above to practice and check on other numbers.

2. National Emergency Number Assn. (NENA)
NENA's mission is to foster the technological advancement, availability, and implementation of a universal emergency telephone number system.
Home About/Contact NENA Initiatives 911 Facts ...
Online Store
Current News in 9-1-1 Other News
NENA Public Education Committee's consumer education packages available:
The NENA public education committee has worked in recent months with telecom industry participants to create two consumer education packages, for dissemination by service providers to their customers via various media. The first package concerns wireless 9-1-1 and includes 9-1-1 marketing messages and FAQs for those making 9-1-1 calls from wireless phones. The second package concerns number portability and includes 9-1-1 information to provide porting customers (primarily wireless, however, can also be used by wireline) and for marketing/sales associate training. All providers are encouraged to utilize the applicable information in these packages, as a service to their customers and 9-1-1. NENA Wireless Checklist and Modules Operational Information Document 57-502: The NENA Wireless Checklist and Modules Operational Information Document (OID) was approved by the NENA Operations Committee leadership, May 24, 2004. It is intended to serve as a best practice for deployment of wireless E9-1-1 phase I and phase II.

3. Links To Information On Number Systems
Babylonian Mathematics. Babylonian number system. Sumerian and Babylonian Numerals.Chinese. Mayan Numbers. Mayan number system. Roman. Decipher Roman Numeral.
Suzanne Alejandre
Information Links
Links to Information on Number Systems
Suzanne's Math Lessons Suzanne's Workshop Ideas
Arabic Arabic Mathematics Arabic mathematics:
forgotten brilliance?
Arabic Numbers ... Arabic Numeral System Babylonian Babylonia Babylonian Mathematics - Dr. Ramsey Babylonian Mathematics Babylonian Number System ... Sumerian and Babylonian Numerals Chinese The Abacus Abacus in Various Number Systems The Chinese Calendar Chinese Numbers ... Mathematics in China Egyptian Egypt Egyptian Mathematics Egyptian Mathematics - Mark Millmore Egyptian Numerals ... Egyptology Resources Greek Ancient Greek Number Codes Mathematics in Ancient Greece Greek Mathematics Greek Numbers and Arithmetic ... Greek Number Systems Mayan Mayan Arithmetic by Steven Fought Maya Civilization Mayan Mathematics Mayan Numbers ... Mayan Number System Roman Decipher Roman Numeral Dr. Math FAQ on Roman Numerals Evolution of Arabic Numerals from India Roman Numeral Clock ... Contact Us
Send comments to: Suzanne Alejandre

4. California Articulation Number System (CAN)
Send mail to with questions or comments about thisweb site. © 2003 California Articulation number system. CAN
CAN Online
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New CAN Website.
Your cornerstone to the transfer process!
Online CAN Guide
CAN Catalog of Courses


CAN Information
New Fall 03 CAN Catalog
Featured College
Send mail to with questions or comments about this web site.
© 2003 California Articulation Number System.
"CAN" is the official mark of the California Articulation Number System
Every reasonable effort is made to keep the information provided here accurate and up-to-date. Neither the California Articulation Number System nor the institutions of California's post-secondary system participating in CAN are held liable for errors in or omissions. All final decisions regarding the transferability of courses should be confirmed with the institutions involved.

5. Links To Information On Number Systems
Links to Information on number systems Arabic, Babylonian, Chinese, Egyptian, Greek, Mayan, and Roman number systems, two to ten links in each category. Suzanne Alejandre

6. Number Systems
Decimal number system Base10 This number system uses TEN different symbolsto represent values. The set values used in decimal are. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Data Structures And Number Systems
This courseware uses HTML 3.0 extensions Introduction A number system defines a set of values used to represent quantity. We talk about the number of people attending class, the number of modules taken per student, and also use numbers to represent grades achieved by students in tests. Quantifying values and items in relation to each other is helpful for us to make sense of our environment. We do this at an early age; figuring out if we have more toys to play with, more presents, more lollies and so on. The study of number systems is not just limited to computers. We apply numbers every day, and knowing how numbers work will give us an insight into how a computer manipulates and stores numbers. Mankind through the ages has used signs or symbols to represent numbers. The early forms were straight lines or groups of lines, much like as depicted in the film Robinson Crusoe , where a group of six vertical lines with a diagonal line across represented one week. Its difficult representing large or very small numbers using such a graphical approach. As early as 3400BC in Egypt and 3000BC in Mesopotamia, they developed a symbol to represent the unit 10. This was a major advance, because it reduced the number of symbols required. For instance, 12 could be represented as a 10 and two units (three symbols instead of 12 that was required previously).

7. Introduction, Bits, Bytes, BCD, ASCII, Characters, Strings, Integers And Floatin
Data Structures And number systems © Copyright Brian Brown, 19842000. Allrights reserved. Binary is a number system which uses BITS to store data.
Data Structures And Number Systems
Part 1
Reference Books:
  • Program Design : P Juliff IBM Microcomputer Assembly Language : J Godfrey Programmers Craft : R Weiland Data Storage in a computer : CIT Microcomputer Software Design : S Campbell
Just as learning to design programs is important, so is the understanding of the correct format and usage of data. All programs use some form of data. To design programs which work correctly, a good understanding of how data is structured will be required. This module introduces you to the various forms of data used by programs. We shall investigate how the data is stored, accessed and its typical usage within programs. A computer stores information in Binary format. Binary is a number system which uses BITS to store data. BITS
A bit is the smallest element of information used by a computer. A bit holds ONE of TWO possible values,
Value Meaning OFF ON A bit which is OFF is also considered to be FALSE or NOT SET; a bit which is ON is also considered to be TRUE or SET. Because a single bit can only store two values, bits are combined together into large units in order to hold a greater range of values.

8. Phi Number System From MathWorld
Phi number system from MathWorld For every positive integer n, there is a corresponding finite sequence of distinct integers k_1, , k_m such that n=\phi^{k_1}+\dots+\phi^{k_m}, where \phi is

9. Abacus In Various Number Systems
Abacus in Various number systems. Abacus Each wire corresponded toa digit in a positional number system, commonly in base 10. A
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Abacus in Various Number Systems
Abacus abacus to the Phoenician abak (sand). American Heritage Dictionary points to the Greek word abax , which might have originated from Hebrew avak (dust). There is little doubt that Ancients used a flat surface with sand strewn evenly over it as a disposable tool for writing and counting. It's said that the great Archimedes was slain by a Roman soldier while concentrating on figures drawn in sand. Later day abaci had grooves for small pebbles and later yet wires or rods on which counters could freely move back and forth. Each wire corresponded to a digit in a positional number system , commonly in base 10. A very curious state of affairs was mentioned by M. Gardner with a reference to K.Menninger. For more than 15 centuries the Greek and Romans and then Europeans in the Middle Ages and early Renaissance calculated on devices with authentic place-value system in which zero was represented by an empty line, wire or groove. Yet the written notations did not have a symbol for zero until it was borrowed by Arabs from Hindus and eventually introduced into Europe in 1202 by Leonardo Fibonacci of Piza in his Liber Abaci The Book of Abacus ). According to D. Knuth, counting with abaci was so convenient and easy that, at the time when only few knew how to write, it might have seemed preposterous to scribble some symbols on expensive papyrus when an excellent calculating device was readily available.

10. Greek Numbers
These in turn led to small differences in the number system between different statessince a major function of a number system in ancient times was to handle
Greek number systems
Greek index History Topics Index
There were no single Greek national standards in the first millennium BC. since the various island states prided themselves on their independence. This meant that they each had their own currency, weights and measures etc. These in turn led to small differences in the number system between different states since a major function of a number system in ancient times was to handle business transactions. However we will not go into sufficient detail in this article to examine the small differences between the system in separate states but rather we will look at its general structure. We should say immediately that the ancient Greeks had different systems for cardinal numbers and ordinal numbers so we must look carefully at what we mean by Greek number systems. Also we shall look briefly at some systems proposed by various Greek mathematicians but not widely adopted. The first Greek number system we examine is their acrophonic system which was use in the first millennium BC. 'Acrophonic' means that the symbols for the numerals come from the first letter of the number name, so the symbol has come from an abreviation of the word which is used for the number. Here are the symbols for the numbers 5, 10, 100, 1000, 10000.
Acrophonic 5, 10, 100, 1000, 10000

11. Babylonian Numerals
Certainly in terms of their number system the Babylonians inheritedideas from the Sumerians and from the Akkadians. From the number
Babylonian numerals
Babylonian index History Topics Index
The Babylonian civilisation in Mesopotamia replaced the Sumerian civilisation and the Akkadian civilisation. We give a little historical background to these events in our article Babylonian mathematics . Certainly in terms of their number system the Babylonians inherited ideas from the Sumerians and from the Akkadians. From the number systems of these earlier peoples came the base of 60, that is the sexagesimal system. Yet neither the Sumerian nor the Akkadian system was a positional system and this advance by the Babylonians was undoubtedly their greatest achievement in terms of developing the number system. Some would argue that it was their biggest achievement in mathematics. Often when told that the Babylonian number system was base 60 people's first reaction is: what a lot of special number symbols they must have had to learn. Now of course this comment is based on knowledge of our own decimal system which is a positional system with nine special symbols and a zero symbol to denote an empty place. However, rather than have to learn 10 symbols as we do to use our decimal numbers, the Babylonians only had to learn two symbols to produce their base 60 positional system. Now although the Babylonian system was a positional base 60 system, it had some vestiges of a base 10 system within it. This is because the 59 numbers, which go into one of the places of the system, were built from a 'unit' symbol and a 'ten' symbol.

12. Number Systems
number systems. by Dr Jeffrey J. Gosper, Brunel University. Lets look in detail ata decimal number system and recall the rules associated with this system.
Number Systems
by Dr Jeffrey J. Gosper , Brunel University
Binary Numbers
See - See Computing, N. Waites and G. Knott, Business Education Publishers, 2nd Edition, 1996, Ch. 1, 2, and 3. Note: Chapter 3 of Waites and Knott's book contains a series of major errors, I have compiled a list of these errors Having grown up with decimal number we all tend to take then for granted. However in our study of computers we need to use number which differ from the decimal (base 10). Lets look in detail at a decimal number system and recall the 'rules' associated with this system. First consider the following decimal number:
136.25. What does this actually mean? In its full incantation this number means: * 5 = 0.05 total = 136.25 Now consider the binary number 1101.01. Again in its full form this means: * 1 = 1000.0 (8 in decimal) 2 * 1 = 100.0 (4 in decimal) 2 * = 00.0 (0 in decimal) 2 * 1 = 1.0 (1 in decimal) 2 * = 0.0 (0.0 in decimal) 2 * 1 = 0.01 (0.25 in decimal) total = 1101.01 (13.25 in decimal) The following shows the first integers and their binary equivalents (and how they are derived): decimal binary 0000 (0 * 2
Adding Binary Numbers
Just as decimal numbers can be added together to give a new value two binary numbers can be added together. The basic rules are:

13. BBC - KS2 Revisewise - Number Maths
Factsheet Test Worksheet, Number The number system. If you cannot see theFlash Movie playing then you may not have the flash player installed.
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14. Residue Number System Based Multiple Code DS-CDMA Schemes
Residue number system Based Multiple Code DSCDMA Schemes A novel multi-code direct-sequence code division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) system based on the so-called residue number system (RNS) or

15. Center For Archaeoastronomy: A&E News Archive
Jose Barrios Garca describes some of the findings of his doctoral dissertation on the mathematical and astronomical practices of 14th and 15th-century Guanches and Canarians.
Center for Archaeoastronomy Main Page NEWS Find Out More What is Archaeoastronomy? More About the Center for Archaeoastronomy More About ISAAC Publications of the Center ... Lost Codex Used Book Sale Outside Links Archaeoastronomy Archaeology Astronomy History of Science ... Museums

by Jose Barrios Garca In the 14-15th centuries Grand Canary and Tenerife were inhabited by Berber populations, called Canarians and Guanches. They presumably came from the nearby continent on different occasions between the first millennium BC and the first millennium AD. These populations remained relatively isolated until the European rediscovery of the Islands in late 13th century. At this time the population of each Island was about 40-60,000 inhabitants, sustaining a developed agricultural (barley, wheat) and stock raising (goats, sheep, pigs) economy. Written sources from c. 1300 AD on certify the arithmetical and calendrical activities of these groups. On this basis, I started the research on the mathematical and astronomical practices of these people that crystallized into my doctoral dissertation (editors note: congratulations to Jose for his recent defense of thesis at the University of La Laguna, Tenerife). For each Island the study considered: 1) the economical, social, political and religious organization of the Island 2) the written and archaeological evidence regarding numerical and calendrical activities 3) the economic and cultural context of the number systems and the calendars.

16. Number Systems Of The World
their language. The irregularity of the English number system makesit harder for children to count numbers properly. English words
A Playground of Thoughts
Number Systems of the World
Japanese page

I am collecting number systems of world languages. The languages shown below are listed according to the complexity of the way of counting numbers in my opinion.
vingt et un (21) and quatre-vingt-dix-neuf
Please let me know if you find a mistake. A list of numbers in your language is welcome.
Some pages use the character set UTF-8. Latest web browsers automatically choose a proper character set.
Rank Language Language Family, Subfamily Native speakers
population Spoken Area Nimbia Afro-Asiatic, Chadic Nigeria Hindi Indo-European, Indo-Iranian Northern India Tzotzil Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan Mexico Ainu (language isolate) Alamblak Sepik-Ramu, Sepik Papua New Guinea Nahuatl Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan Mexico Malagasy Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian Madagascar Yoruba Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo Nigeria, Benin Breton Indo-European, Celtic Brittany (France) Manx Indo-European, Celtic Isle of Man (U.K., extinct) Scots Gaelic Indo-European, Celtic Scotland (U.K.) Georgian South Caucasian, Georgian

17. The Number System Of Ganda
A Playground of Thoughts number systems of the World The NumberSystem of Ganda The number system of Ganda. This page is based
A Playground of Thoughts Number Systems of the World
The Number System of Ganda
This page is based on A Basic Grammar of Luganda . (Luganda is another name of Ganda)
It's interesting that bigger numbers have simpler names than smaller numbers.
Number Reading Meaning zeero emu bbiri ssatu nnya ttaano mukaaga musanvu munaana mwenda kkumi kkumi n'emu 10 and 1 kkumi na bbiri 10 and 2 kkumi na ssatu 10 and 3 kkumi na nnya 10 and 4 kkumi na ttaano 10 and 5 kkumi na mukaaga 10 and 6 kkumi na musanvu 10 and 7 kkumi na munaana 10 and 8 kkumi na mwenda 10 and 9 amakumi abili amakumi abili mu emu ) and 1 amakumi abili mu bbiri ) and 2 amakumi abili mu ssatu ) and 3 amakumi abili mu nnya ) and 4 amakumi abili mu ttaano ) and 5 amakumi abili mu mukaaga ) and 6 amakumi abili mu musanvu ) and 7 amakumi abili mu munaana ) and 8 amakumi abili mu mwenda ) and 9 amakumi asatu amakumi asatu mu emu ) and 1 amakumi asatu mu bbiri ) and 2 amakumi asatu mu ssatu ) and 3 amakumi asatu mu nnya ) and 4 amakumi asatu mu ttaano ) and 5 amakumi asatu mu mukaaga ) and 6 amakumi asatu mu musanvu ) and 7 amakumi asatu mu munaana ) and 8 amakumi asatu mu mwenda ) and 9 amakumi ana amakumi ana mu emu ) and 1 amakumi ana mu bbiri ) and 2 amakumi ana mu ssatu ) and 3 amakumi ana mu nnya ) and 4 amakumi ana mu ttaano ) and 5 amakumi ana mu mukaaga ) and 6 amakumi ana mu musanvu ) and 7 amakumi ana mu munaana ) and 8 amakumi ana mu mwenda ) and 9 amakumi ataano amakumi ataano mu emu ) and 1 amakumi ataano mu bbiri ) and 2 amakumi ataano mu ssatu ) and 3 amakumi ataano mu nnya ) and 4 amakumi ataano mu ttaano ) and 5

18. Hexadecimal Number System
Go to Home Page Erik Østergaard Hexadecimal number system. Return Bottom ofThis Page. Hexadecimal number system. The Hexadecimal Number Base System.

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Hexadecimal Number System
The Hexadecimal Number Base System
A big problem with the binary system is verbosity. To represent the value 202 requires eight binary digits. The decimal version requires only three decimal digits and, thus, represents numbers much more compactly than does the binary numbering system. This fact was not lost on the engineers who designed binary computer systems. When dealing with large values, binary numbers quickly become too unwieldy. The hexadecimal (base 16) numbering system solves these problems. Hexadecimal numbers offer the two features:
  • hex numbers are very compact it is easy to convert from hex to binary and binary to hex.
Since we'll often need to enter hexadecimal numbers into the computer system, we'll need a different mechanism for representing hexadecimal numbers since you cannot enter a subscript to denote the radix of the associated value. The Hexadecimal system is based on the binary system using a Nibble or 4-bit boundary. In Assembly Language programming, most assemblers require the first digit of a hexadecimal number to be 0, and we place an H at the end of the number to denote the number base. The Hexadecimal Number System:
uses base 16 includes only the digits through 9 and the letters A, B, C, D, E, and F

19. Octal Number System
Go to Home Page Erik Østergaard Octal number system. Return Bottomof This Page. Octal number system. The Octal Number Base System.

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Octal Number System
The Octal Number Base System
Although this was once a popular number base, especially in the Digital Equipment Corporation PDP/8 and other old computer systems, it is rarely used today. The Octal system is based on the binary system with a 3-bit boundary. The Octal Number System:
uses base 8 includes only the digits through 7 (any other digit would make the number an invalid octal number)
The weighted values for each position is as follows:
Binary to Octal Conversion
It is easy to convert from an integer binary number to octal. This is accomplished by:
  • Break the binary number into 3-bit sections from the LSB to the MSB. Convert the 3-bit binary number to its octal equivalent.
  • For example, the binary value 1010111110110010 will be written:
    Octal to Binary Conversion
    It is also easy to convert from an integer octal number to binary. This is accomplished by:
  • Convert the decimal number to its 3-bit binary equivalent. Combine the 3-bit sections by removing the spaces.
  • For example, the octal value 127662 will be written:

    20. Number Systems - Mathematics And The Liberal Arts
    Mathematics Teacher 74 (1967), 76268. A discussion of the base 20 Mayan numbersystem. A $2\sp{n}$number system in the arithmetic of prehistoric cultures.
    Number Systems - Mathematics and the Liberal Arts
    To refine search, see subtopics The Hindu-Arabic Numerals The Quipu TallySystems , and Finger Numerals . To expand search, see Arithmetic . Laterally related topics: Numerology Magic Squares Bookkeeping Modular Arithmetic ... The Negative Numbers , and Imaginary and Complex Numbers The Mathematics and the Liberal Arts pages are intended to be a resource for student research projects and for teachers interested in using the history of mathematics in their courses. Many pages focus on ethnomathematics and in the connections between mathematics and other disciplines. The notes in these pages are intended as much to evoke ideas as to indicate what the books and articles are about. They are not intended as reviews. However, some items have been reviewed in Mathematical Reviews , published by The American Mathematical Society. When the mathematical review (MR) number and reviewer are known to the author of these pages, they are given as part of the bibliographic citation. Subscribing institutions can access the more recent MR reviews online through MathSciNet Ascher, Marcia. Before the conquest.

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