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         Lichens:     more books (100)
  1. Lichens of North America by Irwin M. Brodo, Sylvia Duran Sharnoff, et all 2001-10-01
  2. Lichens of the North Woods (North Woods Naturalist Series) by Joe Walewski, 2007-07-16
  3. LICHENS PB (Natural World Series) by Purvis W, 2000-09-17
  4. Craft of the Dyer: Colour from Plants and Lichens by Karen Leigh Casselman, 1993-08-11
  5. Mosses Lichens & Ferns of Northwest North America (Lone Pine Guide) by Dale H. Vitt, Janet E. Marsh, et all 1988
  6. Trouble with Lichen by John Wyndham, 1973-05-31
  7. Lichens for Vegetable Dyeing by Eileen Bolton, 1972-06-26
  8. Lichen handbook;: A guide to the lichens of eastern North America, by Mason E Hale, 1968
  9. Lichen Biology
  10. Lichens above Treeline: A Hiker's Guide to Alpine Zone Lichens of the Northeastern United States by Ralph Pope, 2005-05-31
  11. Low-dose UVA-1 may markedly improve extragenital lichen sclerosus. (Even Extensive Long-Standing Disease).(phototherapy): An article from: Skin & Allergy News by Bruce Jancin, 2002-03-01
  12. The Lichen Symbiosis by Vernon Ahmadjian, 1993-06
  13. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region by Robert H. Ellis, 2004-01
  14. American Arctic Lichens: The Microlichens by John W. Thomson, Bethia Brehmer, 1997-12-30

1. Milwaukee Public Museum -- Lichens & Pollution
Brief article.
Air Pollution, Lichens and Mosses
by Kevin J. Lyman
A s early as the mid 1800's, botanists became aware that lichens and mosses were becoming uncommon in areas within and surrounding large towns and cities. They began to recognize that air pollution emitted from these urban areas was affecting the colonization and growth of these organisms. I n 1866, William Nylander, a Finnish naturalist, was the first to link the disappearance of lichens and air pollution. He noticed that some lichen species present within Luxembourg Gardens, Paris, were missing in other parts of the city. He attributed these differences to air quality. Over the next thirty years, fumes from coal-burning industrial furnaces gradually led to the eradication of the lichen population within the park. A long with lichens, mosses too have been disappearing from large cities since the late 1800's. Even though some species of mosses and lichens can be found in the harshest environments (Antarctic, Arctic and deserts), most species are very sensitive to air pollution. There are, however, a few species that can survive in areas where the pollution levels are relatively high and there are several other species that can tolerate moderate levels of air pollution. By knowing which of these species are most sensitive to air pollution and documenting their presence or absence, it is easy to determine how "clean" or "dirty" the air is. S ulfur dioxide (SO ) does the most widespread damage to lower plants, even though it is only one of several air pollution components in the atmosphere. Sulfur dioxide pollution is the result of industrial and urban emissions.

2. Introduction To Lichens
Introduction to lichens. an alliance between kingdoms. lichens are unusual creatures. A lichen is not a single organism the way most other living things are, but rather it is a combination of two organisms which live together intimately.
Introduction to Lichens
an alliance between kingdoms
Lichens are unusual creatures. A lichen is not a single organism the way most other living things are, but rather it is a combination of two organisms which live together intimately. Most of the lichen is composed of fungal filaments , but living among the filaments are algal cells, usually from a green alga or a cyanobacterium In many cases the fungus and the alga which together make the lichen may each be found living in nature without its partner, but many other lichens include a fungus which cannot survive on its own it has become dependent on its algal partner for survival. In all cases though, the appearance of the fungus in the lichen is quite different from its morphology as a separately growing individual. The true identity of lichens as symbiotic associations of two different organisms was first proposed by Beatrix Potter, who is best remembered for her children's books about Peter Rabbit. In addition to her books, she spent time studying and drawing lichens. Her illustrations are still appreciated for their detailed and accurate portrayal of the delicate beauty of these bizarre organisms. Click on the buttons below to learn more about lichens.

3. Walton Hall Nature Trail Lichens
lichens consist of a symbiosis between an algae and a fungus. The algae contains the pigment chlorophyll which it uses during photosynthesis to produce carbohydrates. Most of the lichens in the
Lichens consist of a symbiosis between an algae and a fungus. The algae contains the pigment chlorophyll which it uses during photosynthesis to produce carbohydrates. These are required by the algae itself but are also absorbed and used for growth by the fungus. Thus the fungus obtains nutrients from the algae, the fungal tissue in turn may provide shelter for the algae allowing it to grow in harsh conditions such as rock surfaces where it would otherwise be destroyed. Most of the lichens in the churchyard are crustaceous species, forming a crust over the substrate, and may grow as little as 1mm per year. In other, less polluted and wetter, parts of Britain such as the west coast of Wales and Scotland there are many leafy (foliose) and shrubby (fruticose) lichens which can grow at several centimetres per year. Some of these used to be collected on a commercial scale for dying wool. Indeed our own bright orange Xanthoria parietina was also used in medieval times as a remedy for jaundice.
Some notes on the cryptogams within the churchyard at the OU
by Richard Tofts Churchyards are of acknowledged importance for lichens in Britain, and the British Lichen Society's Churchyard Project is now well under way. Churchyards provide one of the best and longest established 'outcrops' of stone in lowland England, and many different types of stone may be present in a small area, each supporting characteristic species of bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) and lichens.

4. Lichens Of North America
lichens OF NORTH AMERICA. Information about lichens and wildlife,including invertebrates, can be found at lichens and Wildlife.
The Book Lichen Biology and the Environment Lichens and Wildlife Lichens and People ... Useful Links
LICHENS OF NORTH AMERICA This website grew out of the activities of Sylvia and Stephen Sharnoff, who did the photographic fieldwork for the book Lichens of North America, by Irwin M.Brodo and the Sharnoffs, published in November, 2001 by Yale University Press. For more information about the book, please go to The Book . For a brief introduction to lichen biology and how lichens interact with the greater environment, go to Lichen Biology and the Environment . Information about lichens and wildlife, including invertebrates, can be found at Lichens and Wildlife . For a description of how people have made use of lichens, including an extensive bibliographical database, click on Lichens and People . Check out the Useful Links For photos of lichens see: Lichen Sampler
  • "and what do lichens look like, Steve?" Toronto public radio host
  • amazing diversity of forms and colors
Lichen Portrait Gallery
  • over 80 species portraits from the book
"Are you taking pictures of lichens?" Nose to the ground, I was examining my photo subject with a magnifier, my complicated-looking camera and flashes next to me. I was startled. In more than 20 years (sometimes sporadic, sometimes obsessive) of this odd behavior, this was only the second passer-by to mention lichensSylvia Sharnoff

5. Lichens, Education, Taxonomy, Database
LichenLand. Fun with lichens. Discover the World of lichens Learn how to Identifythese Mysterious Organisms Our Webto-Database Technology will Guide You.
Fun with Lichens
from Oregon State University
Discover the World of Lichens
Learn how to Identify these Mysterious Organisms
Our Web-to-Database Technology will Guide You
Lichens are a successful alliance between a fungus and an alga. Each doing what it does best, and thriving as a result of a natural cooperation. They live as one organism, both inhabiting the same body. Here we offer some ways of finding out more. Lichens - A friendly alliance! - Witness the meeting - Find out about Lichen Biology LichenLand Main Door ; A fun way for novitiates to get into the game, with teaching aides to help you learn about lichens. LichenLand Lite , For first time users, walk through user's guide. Synoptic Key to Some NW Lichens, Provides additional character choices. These lichen pages provided with NSF funding and in association with
Northwest Alliance for Computational Science and Engineering

Dept of Computer Science, Oregon State University

Dept of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University
Database Queries Powered by HyperSQL
by Mark Newsome
Authors' Home Pages and Acknowledgements
Developed by

6. Lichen Education: Biology And Symbiosis
The Sensitive Lichen. Many lichens are very sensitive to pollution in theair. Useful lichens. lichens are important in many ways in the habitat.
The Fungus meets an Alga
Mr. Fungus is ready to greet our friend the alga
Friend alga cell is prepared to greet Mr. Fungus.
The Lichen is created between the fungus and the alga.
  • After the first meeting If the fungus and alga are compatible, they can make a lichen body (thallus). This means that only certain algae and certain fungi can get together to form a lichen. Thus each fungus and alga form a unique type of thallus body; we can use this thallus body to help assign them names and make identifications.
  • The alga will begin to use sunlight to make sugars or food which will feed both the fungus and the alga. The fungus will create a thallus or body that will house both organisms.
  • When you finish with this page, try out a query and see some photographs - there is a link at bottom of page.
The Lichen - A Description
  • The drawing above represents a generalized foliose lichen. Each of the characteristics shown is described fully with photographs and text on the Query page.
  • The illustration below shows a cross-cut section through a real lichen. It is only about as thick as a pencil lead .
  • The top of this lichen has a hard surface called a cortex, but none on the lower surface. Most foliose lichens have a cortex on the lower, but some do not. Crustose lichens are attached directly to the surface of the rock or tree (the

7. Lichen Biology And The Environment
THE SPECIAL BIOLOGY OF lichens. Go to lichens and Ecosystems (Nutrientcycling, soils, and environmental monitoring with lichens).
Home The Book Lichens and Wildlife Lichens and People ... Useful Links
LICHEN BIOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT THE SPECIAL BIOLOGY OF LICHENS Go to Lichen Vocabulary (A discussion of lichen growth forms and structures) Go to Lichens and Ecosystems (Nutrient cycling, soils, and environmental monitoring with lichens) Lichens are composite, symbiotic organisms made up from members of as many as three kingdoms. The dominant partner is a fungus. Fungi are incapable of making their own food. They usually provide for themselves as parasites or decomposers. "Lichens are fungi that have discovered agriculture" lichenologist Trevor Goward.
The lichen fungi (kingdom Fungi) cultivate partners that manufacture food by photosynthesis. Sometimes the partners are algae (kingdom Protista), other times cyanobacteria (kingdom Monera), formerly called blue-green algae. Some enterprising fungi exploit both at once. Click on photos for enlarged views.) Lobaria pulmonaria (left) and a section through it (below) that shows a layer of green algae under an outer skin of fungus, a dark brown internal clump of cyanobacteria (called a cephalodium ), and a non-sexual reproductive structure called a

8. Natural Perspective: Lichens (Phylum: Mycophycophyta)
Page 16 of 38. Natural Perspective. The Fungus Kingdom lichens. ( Last modified 15 July 1997) If the other fungi are nature's recyclers, lichens are nature's pioneers. lichens are among the most fascinating organisms on this planet
Page 16 of 38
Natural Perspective
The Fungus Kingdom : Lichens
(Last modified: 15 July 1997) If the other fungi are nature's recyclers, lichens are nature's pioneers. Lichens find their homes in some of the most barren and inhospitable parts of the world. From there they slowly begin the process of creating a foundation for habitation by others. Lichens are among the most fascinating organisms on this planet. Their very structure is unique: a symbioses of two organisms a fungus and algae so complete that they behave and look like an entirely new being. A lichen can literally eat stones, survive severe cold, and remain dormant for long periods without harm. Lichens rank among the least well known forms of life. Common names, when available, typically apply to the entire genus rather than to indvidual species. Classification of lichens is undergoing change as well. In fact, Mycologists now suggest eliminating the Lichens as a Phylum and, instead, reclassifying each invidual lichen according to its fungal component mostly Sac Fungi ( Ascomycota . Never-the-less, lichens look so different from other fungi that they deserve separate treatment here.

9. The Friendly World Of Lichens
Front page to the Friendly World of lichens

10. Churchyard Lichens Fact Sheet
Provides answers to common questions with a list of other sources of information.
back to the index page
EDITION 8 ~ January 2004 (Updated annually) Many requests for information about churchyard lichens are received. This fact sheet is an attempt to provide at least some partial answers and to suggest other sources of information. THE IMPORTANCE OF CHURCHYARDS: It is estimated that there are 20,000 churchyards in England alone, each taking up roughly an acre of land. In lowland England, where natural outcrops of rock are absent, the churchyard is the most important site for lichens growing on stone. To date, over 160 churchyards and the precincts of two cathedrals (Salisbury and Winchester) have each been found to contain more than 100 species. Some species rarely occur in other habitats. For example, Churchyard Lecanactis, a form of Lecanactis grummulosa is confined to plaster walls on ancient churches in S. England. In Britain as a whole, 677 species (well over a third of the British list) have been found mainly on stone, but also on wood, trees and soil in churchyards, cemeteries and the surrounds of abbeys and cathedrals. THE CHURCHYARDS PROJECT: Bulletin DATA COLLECTION: Surveys of churchyard lichens are carried out regularly by committee members and by other members of the Society. A standard A4 survey sheet is used. On the front, this lists 192 of the more commonly found or characteristic churchyard species and provides room for substratum and habitat details. Beginners who may wish to make use of these 'mapping cards' must note that the species names are shown in an abbreviated form (e.g.

11. Lichens
The Microbial World lichens. Produced by Jim Deacon. Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, The University of Edinburgh lichens have been described as "dual organisms" because they are symbiotic associations between two (or sometimes to 17 000 species of lichens, extending from the tropics to the

The Microbial World:
Lichens Produced by Jim Deacon
Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, The University of Edinburgh
Lichens have been described as "dual organisms" because they are symbiotic associations between two (or sometimes more) entirely different types of microorganism -
  • a fungus (termed the mycobiont a green alga or a cyanobacterium (termed the photobiont
There are many examples of symbiosis in nature, but lichens are unique because they look and behave quite differently from their component organisms. So, lichens are regarded as organisms in their own right and are given generic and species names. However, for taxonomic purposes the names are actually fungal names: lichens are regarded as a special group of fungi - the lichenised fungi There are an estimated 13,500 to 17,000 species of lichens, extending from the tropics to the polar regions. Some of them grow on the bark of temperate trees or as epiphytes on the leaves of trees in tropical rain forests. Others occupy some of the most inhospitable environments on earth, growing on cooled lava flows and bare rock surfaces, where they help in the process of soil formation, and on desert sands where they help to stabilise the surface and enrich it with nutrients (see Cyanobacteria ). Some other types of lichen grow abundantly on tundra soils, providing a vital winter food source for animals (including reindeer and caribou) in arctic and sub-arctic regions.Yet other lichens grow on or in the perennial leaves of some economically important tropical crop plants such as coffee, cacao and rubber, where they are regarded as parasites.

12. Lichens Info
Information about lichens. 1. What are lichens? lichens are in fact a symbioticlifeform between a fungus and a alga. 2. Structure of lichens.
Information about lichens
1. What are lichens?
Lichens are in fact a symbiotic lifeform between a fungus and a alga. This symbiosis is so intens that seemingly a new lifeform generates: the lichen.
For a long time lichens even were concidered to be a seperate taxonomic group. Until in the 18th century lichens were even concidered to be mosses.
A difference between mosses and lichens is that lichens are able to make dishlike fruitbodies, just like fungi: apothecia (7)
A symbiosis is a lifeform where all the partners have profit of each other. Often the partners get so dependant on each other, that they are not able to live separately any more. In the case of the lichens, the fungus delivers water and minerals to the alga, while the alga takes care of the fotosynthesis ans supplies suchars to the fungus. The fungus sucks these products out of the cells of the algae by means of haustoria (suction-pipes) which penetrates the algal cells. Due to this special liveform, lichens are able to survive extreem conditions: they live on rocks, in freezing conditions, very dry regions...
2. Structure of lichens.

13. Towards A Checklist Of Mediterranean Lichens
A project supported by the OPTIMA Commission For lichens.
Pier Luigi Nimis
Towards a checklist of Mediterranean lichens
Activity between 1989-1993

Activity after 1993

Delimitation of the "Mediterranean" region

Abstract Nimis, P.L.: Towards a checklist of Mediterranean lichens. - Bocconea 6:
5 - 17. 1996 - ISSN 1120-4060.
The OPTIMA Commission For Lichens is supporting an international project for
a compilation of a general checklist of lichens of the Mediterranean
region. This paper describes the history of the project and the present
State of the Art, with some critical considerations about the delimitation of the Mediterranean area for a lichen checklist, and a short outline of the main phytogeographic features of southern Europe, as far as lichens are concerned. It is suggested that the national checklist produced in the framework of the project should become available on the Internet, with a possibility of continuous updating by the international lichenological community. Introduction In the last years, mainly as a consequence of the UNESCO Conference of Rio and of the associated increase in research funding, biodiversity has become

14. The British Lichen Society
The first society in the world devoted to the study of lichens.
The Site is maintained by Clifford Smith and was last updated on
7th. May 2004 First contact ...
  • Possible problems with the use of commercial bleaches for 'C' test ... For more information click here

The B.L.S.
(updated annually)
The aims of the Society, its Honorary Members and Officers.

What the Society does, its categories of membership and subscription rates.

The Constitution of the Society Membership Application Form A printable form. Subscription Status (updated annually) Ordinary Members can see whether, or not, their subscriptions have been paid for the coming year. General Information (updated regularly) Advice about identification, collecting, chemicals and the BLS mapping scheme. Meetings, Workshops and Courses (updated on 20th. December 2003 Details of forthcoming BLS meetings, workshops and other courses,. Local Contacts, Regional and Specialist Referees

15. Endangered Lichens
ENDANGERED lichens IUCN Global Red List of lichens. lichens that areprotected by law in the countries listed. UNITED KINGDOM. Under
IUCN Global Red List of Lichens
Lichens that are protected by law in the countries listed. UNITED KINGDOM Under the provisions of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. Species listed on Schedule 8. Bryoria furcellata Forked hair-lichen Buellia asterella Starry breck-lichen Caloplaca luteoalba Orange-fruited elm-lichen Caloplaca nivalis Snow caloplaca Catapyrenium psoromoides Tree catapyrenium Catillaria laureri Laurer's catillaria Cladonia stricta Upright mountain-lichen Collema dichotomum River jelly-lichen Gyalecta ulmi Elm gyalecta Heterodermia leucomelos Ciliate strap-lichen Heterodermia propagulifera Coralloid rosette-lichen Lecanactis hemisphaerica Churchyard lichen Lecanora achariana Tarn lecanora Lecidea inops Copper lecidea Nephroma arcticum Arctic kidney-lichen Pannaria ignobilis Caledonian pannaria Parmelia minarum New Forest parmelia Parmentaria chilensis Oil-stained parmentaria Peltigera lepidophora Ear-lobed dog-lichen Pertusaria bryontha Alpine moss-pertusaria Physcia tribacioides Southern grey physcia Pseudocyphellaria lacerata Ragged pseudocyphellaria Psora rubiformis Rusty alpine psora Solenopsora liparina Serpentine solenopsora Squamarina lentigera Scaly breck-lichen Teloschistes flavicans Golden hair-lichen For further information contact Dr. B. Coppins.

16. Foto's Van Nederlande Korstmossen (Dutch Lichens)
On this site you will find several photos and descriptions of Dutch lichens. Belowcopyrightfree photo s of lichens CLICK on the small picture to enlarge!
Welkom Op deze site vind je diverse foto's en omschrijvingen van Nederlandse korstmossen. On this site you will find several photos and descriptions of Dutch lichens. Hieronder bevinden zich rechtenvrije foto's van korstmossen. Door op een foto te klikken wordt deze vergroot en wordt een omschrijving weergegeven.
Klik op een foto !
Klik voor index op soortnaam Click for index by name of the species De foto's mogen worden gebruikt voor wetenschappelijke doeleinden of publicaties You may use pictures of this site without any permission for scientific use. Meer foto's op staan op de extra pagina's More pictures on the extra pages Klik hier voor meer infomatie over de fysiologie van korstmossen Click here for more information about lichen-biology in english! Voor vragen, opmerkingen, meer foto's of betere resolutie e.d.: stuur me een mailtje If you have any questions, remarks, want more or better resolution photos: mail me korstmos korstmos korstmossen korstmos korstmossen korstmos korstmossen korstmos korstmossen korstmos lichens lichenes lichen lichenes lichenes lichen lichenes lichen lichens lichen lichens lichen lichens lichen lichens flecht flechten flecht flechten flecht flechten flecht flechten flecht flechten flecht flechten

17. Lichens On German Web
Translate this page Photos of lichens taken during British Lichen Society field trips in Britain. Contains general informatio
Viewing this page requires a browser capable of displaying frames.
The browser you are currently using does not seem to support this feature. Some browsers do partially support frames, that means, that they cannot display them, but you can use this site by displaying the navigation frame and following the links in this frame. You can return to this frame by going up in your browser's history.
But for full comfort, we recommend using a modern browser capable of displaying all HTML 4.01 features such as frames and tables as well as CSS (Cascading Style Sheets). The four browsers that are most-used are
Internet Explorer ( ), which I do not recommend due to security bugs;
Mozilla (
Opera ( ), a very fast browser;

18. Taxonomy Of Philippine Lichens
Brief information and links by researcher Isidro T. Savillo.
Taxonomy of Philippine Lichens Scientific Links: This Web Page is dedicated to the Taxonomic Identification of Philippine Lichens . New species and varieties as well as those subjected to nomenclature change/modification will be highlighted with their photographs displayed. Welcome to the Lichens of the Philippines Information Center!
WebPage of Prof. Isidro Antonio T. Savillo* **
*He was a recipient of the Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst (DAAD) Research and Study Visit
**At present, he is a Research Associate/ Collaborating Scientist in the Philippines in the U.S. funded project, Planetary Biodiversity Inventory: The Global Biodiversity of Eumycetozoans
SWS (Society for Wetland Scientists) ASIA CHAPTER is being organized!!! Visit the Proposed SWS Asia Chapter Web Page!!!
Proposed SWS Asia Chapter Web Page

*By going places, unexpectedly , one encounters interesting lichens thus these two forthcoming articles: A Foliicolous Lichen Enclountered in Guimaras Island and the other article, Ramalina sp . at an aging Ceiba pentranda The latter was on the middle of a farmland of a former student. The Foliicolous lichen was seen on leaves of a

19. Lichens Of North America
lichens of North America This site introduces lichen biology and describes how lichens interact with the greater environment. It explains how lichens relate to ecosystems, wildlife such as

20. Mycologia
Published papers on all aspects of fungi, including lichens. Subjects include physiology, biochemistry, ecology, pathology, development and morphology, systematics, cell biology and ultrastructure, genetics, molecular biology, evolution, applied aspects, and new techniques.
Subscriptions About the journal Editorial board Instructions to authors ...
The Mycological Society of America
publishes Mycologia. Stanford University Libraries' assists in the publication of Mycologia Online Free Trial Has Now ENDED Activate Your Subscriptions Now
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