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         Legal History Trials & Historical Cases:     more detail
  1. The Case of Abraham Lincoln: A Story of Adultery, Murder, and the Making of a Great President by Julie M. Fenster, 2007-11-13
  2. Notorious Woman: The Celebrated Case of Myra Clark Gaines (Southern Biography Series) by Elizabeth Urban Alexander, 2001-11
  3. A Judgment for Solomon: The d'Hauteville Case and Legal Experience in Antebellum America (Cambridge Historical Studies in American Law and Society) by Michael Grossberg, 1996-02-23

61. U.S. Senate: Art & History Home > Historical Minutes > 1801-1850 > Senate Tries
for the third time in its brief history, the Senate Its trial managers hoped to prove that Chase had and unjust way by announcing his legal interpretation on
Home Historical Minutes
November 30, 1804
Senate Tries Supreme Court Justice On November 30, 1804, for the third time in its brief history, the Senate began an impeachment trial. The first trial in 1798 and 1799 had involved a senator previously expelled on grounds of treason. Because that senator no longer served, the Senate dismissed the case citing lack of jurisdiction. The second trial, in 1804, removed a federal judge for reasons of drunkenness and probable insanity. More than the first two proceedings, however, third trial challenged the Senate to explore the meaning of impeachable crimes. Samuel Chase had served on the Supreme Court since 1796. A staunch Federalist and a volcanic personality, Chase showed no willingness to tone down his bitter partisan rhetoric after Jeffersonian Republicans gained control of Congress in 1801. Representative John Randolph of Virginia orchestrated impeachment proceedings against Chase, declaring he would wipe the floor with the obnoxious justice. The House accused Chase of refusing to dismiss biased jurors and of excluding or limiting defense witnesses in two politically sensitive cases. Its trial managers hoped to prove that Chase had "behaved in an arbitrary, oppressive, and unjust way by announcing his legal interpretation on the law of treason before defense counsel had been heard." Highlighting the political nature of this case, the final article of impeachment accused the justice of continually promoting his political agenda on the bench, thereby "tending to prostitute the high judicial character with which he was invested, to the low purpose of an electioneering partizan."

62. Social Studies Development Center
The Supreme Court historical Society This organization, founded in 1974 The Timetable of World legal history. Titanic Virtual Trial Created by a law firm as part
Civic Education, Law-Related Education, and Government Links
  • Teaching and Research Resources
    Government Information

  • Teaching, Research, and Citizen Group Resources Active Citizenship: Empowering America's Youth Features a 17-lesson curriculum unit for grades 7-12; information about citizenship education, civic values, service learning, and in-service programs on all these topics. The American President This is the official Web site for the PBS documentary series by the same name. It features lesson plans based on the series; in-depth information about all 41 U.S. Presidents; learning activities; historical documents; essays on a wide range of presidential topics; a political magazine by and for students; and a section devoted to following and learning about the 2000 election. Anatomy of a Murder: A Trip Through Our Nation's Legal Justice System Visitors to this site can follow the fictional story of a murder trial, complete with legally accurate details. Provided to enhance the educational purposes of this site are an introduction to the legal justice system, a glossary, information on Supreme Court cases, and actual documents filled out during an arrest. Ben's Guide to U.S. Government for Kids

    63. Native American Sovereignty On Trial: A Handbook With Cases, Laws, And Documents
    series from ABCCLIO, Native American Sovereignty On Trial examines the history of court litigation and important legal controversies involving
    Native American Sovereignty on Trial: A Handbook With Cases, Laws, and Documents (On Trial)
    Native American Sovereignty on Trial: A Handbook With Cases, Laws, and Documents (On Trial)

    by Authors: Bryan H. Wildenthal , Charles L. Zelden
    Released: April, 2003
    ISBN: 1576076245
    Sales Rank:
    List price:
    Our price: Book > Native American Sovereignty on Trial: A Handbook With Cases, Laws, and Documents (On Trial) > Customer Reviews: Average Customer Rating:
    Native American Sovereignty on Trial: A Handbook With Cases, Laws, and Documents (On Trial) > Customer Review #1: An A-Z list of crucial individuals, laws, and ideas

    The latest in the "On Trial" series from ABC-CLIO, Native American Sovereignty On Trial examines the history of court litigation and important legal controversies involving Native American treaty rights, especially concerning the historical background and modern-day implications of Native American sovereignty. Painstakingly compiled by Bryan H. Wildenthal (Associate Professor and Director of the Center for Law and Social Justice at the Thomas Jefferson School of Law, San Diego, California), Native American Sovereignty On Trial presents primary source documents such as court decisions and rulings, as well as an A-Z list of crucial individuals, laws, and ideas, a chronology. All this and more fill the pages of this informed and informative casebook which is especially commended for inclusion with Native American Studies reading lists and American Jurisprudence Studies reference collections.

    64. Summer For The Gods: The Scopes Trial And America's Continuing Debate Over Scien
    our century s most contentious dramas the Scopes trial and the material with the author s keen legal and historical of this pivotal event in American history.
    Summer for the Gods: The Scopes Trial and America's Continuing Debate Over Science and Religion
    AUTHOR: Edward J. Larson
    ISBN: 0674854292
    Compare price for this book

    Historical Study Editorial Review from Amazon
    Summer for the Gods: The Scopes Trial and America's Continuing Debate Over Science and Religion
    - Book Review, by Edward J. Larson
    The New York Times Book Review, Rodney A. Smolla

    Edward J. Larson provides an excellent cultural history of the case in Summer for the Gods, though his book is wanting as trial drama.... Bryan's and Darrow's ghosts still haunt us, and the Scopes trial still holds resonance, as we continue to litigate the role of religion in public life and the power of the state to prescribe what shall be taught in public schools. Read Summer for the Gods for that well-told story. For the trial of the century, rent the movie.
    The Los Angeles Times Sunday Book Review, Edward McGlynn Gaffney Jr.
    Edward Larson's training both in legal history and in the history of science serves him well in Summer for the Gods.... Larson unlocks the past and renders it gracefully accessible in a narrative style that is easy to follow, despite the complexity of the intellectual currents and counter-currents of his theme. From Booklist Few courtroom dramas have captured the nation's attention so fully as that played out in 1925 when Tennessee prosecuted John Scopes for teaching evolutionary science in the classroom. Seventy years later, Larson gives us the drama again, tense and gripping: the populist rhetoric of Scopes' chief accuser, William Jennings Bryan; the mordant wit of his defender, Clarence Darrow; the caustic satire of the trial's most prominent chronicler, H. L. Mencken. But as a legal and historical scholar, Larson moves beyond the titanic personalities to limn the national and cultural forces that collided in that Dayton courtroom: agnosticism versus faith; North versus South; liberalism versus conservatism; cosmopolitanism versus localism. Careful and evenhanded analysis dispels the mythologies and caricatures in film and stage versions of the trial, leaving us with a far clearer picture of the cultural warfare that still periodically erupts in our classes and courts.

    65. English Historical Review: The Trial In History. Vol. I: Judicial Tribunals In E
    of the nineteenth century, students of the history of the Trial was not understood as it is today as an evidence from record sources and legal treatises for
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    YOU ARE HERE Articles English Historical Review Feb, 2004 Content provided in partnership with
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    Tell a friend Find subscription deals The Trial in History. Vol. I: Judicial Tribunals in England and Europe, 1200-1700 - Book Review
    English Historical Review
    Feb, 2004 by John H. Langbein
    ed. Maureen Mulholland and Brian Pullan (Manchester: Manchester U.P., 2003; pp. 186. 40 [pounds sterling]); Vol. II: Domestic and International Trials, 1700-2000, ed. R.A. Melikan (Manchester: Manchester U.P., 2003; pp. 196. 40 [pounds sterling]). JOHN H. LANGBEIN Yale University
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    66. American Women's History: Legal Sources
    Guides to Using legal Sources. of Congress Guide for the Study of Women s history and Culture Women s Rights on Trial 101 Historic trials from Anne Hutchinson
    American Women's History: A Research Guide
    Home Page Last Update: 8/14/2002 Suggestion Box
    Guides to Using Legal Sources
    Craig, Pamela Barnes. "Law Library of Congress." In American Women: A Library of Congress Guide for the Study of Women's History and Culture in the United States , edited by Sheridan Harvey, Janice Ruth, Barbara Natson, Sara Day, and Evelyn Sinclair. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 2001.
    Cushman, Clare, ed. Supreme Court Decisions and Women's Rights: Milestones to Equality . Washington, D.C.: CQ Press and The Supreme Court Historical Society, 2001.
    This illustrated guide includes overviews of more than 75 Supreme Court cases. Topics covered include "Jury Duty," "Sex Discrimination," "Discrimination in the Workplace," "Sexual Harassment," "Pregnancy and Childbirth," and "Reproductive Rights." Frost-Knappman, Elizabeth, and Kathryn Cullen-Dupont, eds. Women's Rights on Trial: 101 Historic Trials from Anne Hutchinson to the Virginia Military Institute Cadets . Detroit: Gale Research, 1997. 478p. Mikula, Mark, and L. Mpho Mabunda, eds.

    67. Wisconsin State Law Library - Historic Documents
    archives, rare books, historical photographs, etc. of legal documents including trial transcripts, indictments Wisconsin s legal history (State Bar of Wisconsin
    Historic Documents Wisconsin State Law Library Ask A Site Search
    Dred Scott
    For the Constitution, its history, and related historical documents, see Constitutions
    Emancipation Proclamation
    Gettysburg Address
    United States Statutes at Large
    Document Collections
    AMDOCS: Documents for the Study of American History
    American Memory: Historical Collections for the National Digital Library

    Multimedia collection of digitized documents, photographs, recorded sound, moving pictures and text from the Library of Congress Americana Collection. Over 7 million items from more than 100 multimedia collections can be searched by keyword or browsed by topic. Collections related to political science and the law include: Abraham Lincoln Papers
    Collection of digitized, full-text United States congressional documents dating from the Continental Congress to the 42nd Congress. Documents include the

    68. Jury Trials For The Classroom
    9 Bringing the Scottsboro Boys Into the US history Classroom Portfolio SAM SHEPPARD Sam Sheppard trials An Impartial Jury legal Requirement or
    var thisPage="trial_classroom.html"; THE AMERICAN JURY
    About the Project
    Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago
    National Endowment for the Humanities
    AN ONLINE RESOURCE GUIDE Jury Trials for the Classroom
    Lessons and Activities

    Jury Trials for the Classroom


    from the Chicago Historical Society
    Site Index

    Origins of the American Jury
    Formation of the American Jury STRUCTURE Introduction to Trial by Jury Grand Jury Right of the Accused to Trial by Jury Jury Selection: Voir Dire ... Jury Deliberation ISSUES Evidence Jury Nullification Jury Trials and the Media Jury Damage Awards ... Comparative Jury Systems FUTURE Jury in American Society Jury Reform Future of the American Jury This section of "The American Jury" is devoted to jury trials that participating teachers researched, designed, and field-tested in their classrooms. It also includes lessons that integrate a jury component into mock trials based on historical or hypothetical fact patterns. LIST OF TRIALS Chicago 7 Civil War Comparative Trials Haymarket ... Sam Sheppard CHICAGO 7 Chicago 7 Trial Resources from the Chicago Historical Society CIVIL WAR The Trial of Henry Wirz COMPARATIVE TRIALS The American Jury: Four Cases in Legal and Historical Perspective Additional Resources HAYMARKET Analyzing the Haymarket Riot Resources from the Chicago Historical Society Good Men and True? Lesson on the Voir Dire in the Haymarket Trial

    69. Legal History Of American Marijuana Prohibition - Table Of Contents
    OF KNOWLEDGE AN INQUIRY INTO THE legal history OF AMERICAN footnote that someone should attempt a history of the Seizure; 2. Entrapment. D. The Pro Forma Trial.
    Sign the Resolution for a Federal Commission on Drug Policy Contents Feedback Search ... Major Studies VIRGINIA LAW REVIEW VOLUME OCTOBER NUMBER THE FORBIDDEN FRUIT AND THE TREE OF KNOWLEDGE: AN INQUIRY INTO THE LEGAL HISTORY OF AMERICAN MARIJUANA PROHIBITION 'Assistant Professor of Law, University of Virginia. B.A., Johns Hopkins University; LL.B., 1969, University of Virginia. "Assistant Professor of Law, University of Virginia. A.B., 1965, Princeton University; LL.B., 1968, Yale University. Zip File of the entire report - about 217K Mr. Snell. What is the bill? Mr. Rayburn. It has something to do with something that is called marihuana. I believe it is a narcotic of some kind. Colloquy on the House floor prior to passage of the Marihuana Tax Act.
    We wish to express our sincere appreciation to the students who assisted us in the preparation of the tables at Appendix A. Because the drug statutes of the several states are particularly confusing and difficult to find, and because so many jurisdictions have recently changed their drug laws, the preparation of the chart required long, tedious work which so many were kind enough to perform. To them, our most sincere thanks. We should like to thank especially Michael A. Cohen, John F. Kuether, W. Tracey Shaw, Alan K. Smith, and Allan J. Tanenbaum, all students at the University of Virginia School of Law, whose research assistance and tireless effort were invaluable.

    70. FAQs And Web Resources On The Impeachment Process Impeachment
    on the Background history of Impeachment Cornell s legal Information Institute impeachment backgrounder provides an Trial Managers Brief on the Articles of
    You currently do not have JavaScript enabled in your web browser.
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    To fully experience the ABA site, please enable javascript.
    FAQs and Web Resources on the Impeachment Process Impeachment Links
    JURIST JURIST's ever-growing site of resources contains selected links pertaining to all areas of impeachment, including definition of, historical and constitutional contexts, procedures, Supreme Court cases and the current Clinton controversy. The site also features a section of links to scholarly literature on the subject. JURIST has created "mini-guides" to organize its links to sites for Senate impeachment trials and censure. Following are some of the more outstanding links featured on JURIST's site: Senate Impeachment Trial Rules This document, revised in 1986, is part of the Senate's Rules and Manual of the Senate and outlines the procedures, specified in 26 rules, to be followed by the Senate during an impeachment trial. Legal Information Institute Cornell's Legal Information Institute impeachment backgrounder provides an in-depth look at impeachment, using the text of the Constitution and historical practice. It also includes links to sites for the

    71. Amistad At Mystic Seaport
    to the revolt and subsequent trial of enslaved characters involved in the two legal disputes arising Gilder Lehrman Institute of American history The Gilder
    Amistad at Mystic Seaport
    Exploring Amistad The Mystic Seaport site, Exploring Amistad , explores the Amistad Revolt of 1839-1842 and how we make history of it.
    Amistad America, Inc. Amistad America, Inc. built a recreation of the freedom schooner Amistad at Mystic Seaport. Keel laying was on March 8, 1998 which was the nearest weekend day to March 9, the date the Supreme Court handed down its decision in favor of the Amistad Africans.
    Construction photos and more details are available at the Amistad America site.
    Amistad CD-ROM Project Cinegram Media and Mystic Seaport have developed a CD-ROM "The Amistad incident" available through the Mystic Seaport Museum Store.
    The Amistad Friendship Quilt Project The Amistad Friendship Quilt Project is a community effort to provide imaginative quilts for the bunks of the schooner Amistad . Quilt blocks were be created and contributed by individuals from around the world, then assembled and donated to the ship. This effort, promoted by Montgomery College in Maryland, Amistad America, and Mystic Seaport, reflects a primary goal of the Amistad project, to unite people of diverse cultural backgrounds in the achievement of a common goal.

    72. Supreme Court Queensland - Supreme Court History Program
    papers relating to the law and legal profession, but 50,000 pages of transcript from the trial, the full available via the Supreme Court history Program website
    Historical Collections
    A significant component of the Supreme Court History Program’s efforts to preserve legal history is through the collection and preservation of significant documents and items of legal memorabilia. The Supreme Court Library currently holds a number of special collections, which have been built up from donations and consist of a wide array of items ranging from manuscripts and diaries to photographs and legal dress. These items are used for displays and are also an important resource available to researchers of legal history. Details of each collection are listed below. Large Collections Smaller Collections Large collections The Woolcock collection Donated by Mrs Dorothy Woolcock, these are items relating to the life of the Honourable John Laskey Woolcock. Woolcock went to Sydney University, where he completed an Arts degree. This was the start of a long and productive career, which included a stint as Griffith’s private secretary. In this role, he accompanied Griffith overseas and to several

    73. FindLaw's Writ - Lazarus: The History And Precedential Value Of The Supreme Cour
    glossed over or avoided many of the hardest legal questions the violating the law of war), but the trial of an The Lessons of history Why We Need Not Rely on
    FindLaw Legal Professionals Students Business ... MY FindLaw top(document.URL); Legal News Entertainment Sports Newsletters ... Lawyer Search State AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE DC FL GA HI ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN MS MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX UT VT VA WA WV WI WY AS GU MP PR VI Select a Practice Area Administrative Law Adoption Agriculture Law Alternative Dispute Resolution Aviation Bankruptcy Law Business Organizations Child Support Civil Rights Constitutional Law Construction Law Consumer Protection Contracts Criminal Law Criminal Law Federal Debtor/Creditor Discrimination Divorce DUI/DWI Education Law Elder Law Eminent Domain Employment Law Employee Employment Law Employer Energy Law Environmental Law Estate Planning Family Law Franchising Gaming Law Government Contracts Insurance Law Intellectual Property Law International Law Internet Cyberspace Labor Law Landlord/Tenant Legal Malpractice Lemon Law Medical Malpractice Law Military Law Motor Vehicle Accidents Plaintiff Native Peoples Law Natural Resources Law Nursing Home Patents Personal Injury Defense Personal Injury Plaintiff Products Liability Law Professional Malpractice Law Real Estate Law Securities Law Sexual Harassment Social Security Disability Taxation Law Toxic Torts Trademarks Traffic Violations Transportation Law Trusts Wills Workers' Compensation Law Writ: Commentary Search Writ Front Page Forums



    2000 Elections

    Guest Columnists

    Law Students
    Book Reviews ... Email This

    74. Connecticut State Legal Resources - (Law Libraries Website)
    Connecticut Official legal Forms from the Judicial Branch PDF and Connecticut Trial Court System s Catalog (Webpac). Doses of Connecticut Judicial history.
    Attorney Tools for Practice Connecticut State Administrative Decisions Connecticut Cases Connecticut State Agencies ... Find Your Representatives
    Local, State, Federal Connecticut Laws Connecticut Legal Associations Forms Connecticut Municipalities Attorney Tools for Practice Connecticut Cases

    75. Irving's War - Introduction
    work that has been researched and written about that horrific period of history. There are certain problems in dealing with this trial as a legal event.
    by Yale F. Edeiken From January 11, 2000, through March 16, 2000, an extraordinary trial captioned "Irving v. Penguin Books and Lipstadt" took place in London. The Holocaust was not on trial in London. Neither was this case merely about whether statements made in Prof. Lipstadt's book "Denying the Holocaust" (1993) about David Irving were false and defamatory. This trial was about the freedom to criticize bigotry masquerading as scholarship. This case was nothing other than a single battle in a war waged by David Irving to silence his critics. In the sense that a historical event like the Holocaust can be put "on trial," the Holocaust has been in that position since the IMT trial at Nuremberg and it has withstood all challenges. The fact that the Third Reich engaged in the planned genocide known as the Holocaust has been established in hundreds of civil and criminal trials under American, British, French, Canadian, German and Israeli law in the half century since the end of World War II. None of the fraudulent allegations of the lunatic fringe which denies the Holocaust has even been established as worthy of belief in any of those trials. These articles do not deal with the issues, direct or indirect, of that trial. They are about the legal realities of the trial and reasons why David Irving failed to prove his case. It is important because of the penchant of Irving and his followers to twist and distort not only the history of the Holocaust but of their battles against it. The spinning of what happened in that courtroom in London began even before the verdict was announced. David Irving's final argument was not even addressed to the court, but to the lunatic fringe that was already proclaiming that Irving won the trial and would be deprived of victory only by the dishonesty of the legal system.

    76. Law Resources -
    Organization; Ipso Facto links to legal history and legal a timeline and coverage of the trial being held Self-Help Law Center - online legal assistance for
    Search Net Facts Subject Index Facts Encyclopedia Newspapers USA/World ... HOME
    Search the Web
    Search Tips

    Help Support Refdesk
    LAW/LEGAL INFORMATION RESOURCES Order Results with General Legal Focus:
  • A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation - Library of Congress
  • All Law - comprehensive legal directory and search engine.
  • American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers
  • American Bar Association
  • American Civil Liberties Union Freedom Network
  • American Law Sources On Line - full-text legal documents from the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. U.S. contents include: Decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court, U.S. District and Circuit Courts, State Court of Appeals, State Constitutions, Codes, and Legislation and more.
  • - information about patents and trademarks, a warning about inventor scams, a fee trademark online search, and a "ask a patent attorney a question" form that allows visitors to ask a patent or trademark question and get a free answer from a patent attorney.
  • Appellate Counsellor Home Page
  • Attorney Finder
  • Basic Legal Citations - Guide to the general rules of citation, with examples of how to cite cases, statutes, and regulations.
  • Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law - Web site of nonprofit organization devoted to advocacy for the legal rights of those with mental disabilities.
  • 77. Legal History Reading List, Preliminary
    Kluger, Richard, Simple Justice The history of Brown v Solomon The d Hauteville Case and legal Experience in Summer for the Gods The Scopes Trial and America History reading list.htm
    20 April 2004 Legal History reading list, preliminary The following are, by and large, fundamental books that anyone doing legal history should read; most other books build on or respond to these works. (Many of these are older works because my intention has been to provide the foundation upon which more recent studies have been based.) I've arranged the list into three main groups: first, there are some basic studies which provide an overview of the field; second I have set out some books in a basic chronology; and third, I have put some books under topical headings. Many of the books, obviously, fit into more than one slot, so you should skim through all the sections to see if there are books in one that are relevant to others. Overviews Friedman, Lawrence M., American Law in the Twentieth Century Friedman, Lawrence M., Crime and Punishment in American History Friedman, Lawrence M., History of American Law (2d edition, 1985). Hall, Kermit, The Magic Mirror: Law in American History Urofsky , Melvin and Paul Finkelman The March of Liberty: A Constitutional History of the United States , two volumes (2002).

    78. The Illinois History Resource Page
    Lincoln s legal Career in Illinois. The 1969 Chicago Seven Trial. history of Bridgeport and the Origin of the Illinois Michigan Canal.
    The Illinois History Resource Page
    Welcome to Illinois' First History and Government Resource Page
    Established by Mark W. Sorensen on December 12, 1995.
    For non-history Factoid information about the weather, average temperature, highest point, population, statistics, rate of unemployment, etc. contact the Illinois State Library reference service or call their Information Line at (217) 782-7596. Also check Help with School Work: State Symbols, History, Genealogy, Fourth Grade Reports, History Fair before you write me for help. The word "ILLINOIS" is the French form of the Algonquin name ILLINI which means "superior men." It is how some native Americans in this area referred to themselves.
    Information about Illinois Government and the State Capitol:
    Official State of Illinois Home Page or Governor Rod R. Blagojevich

    79. Trial Jury Reform
    HTML Version or Menu history of Trial by Jury, William Forsyth. (1875) — Tells story of how it evolved, as seen by a legal scholar who missed the point
    Trial Jury Reform
    The jury system was made part of our Constitution because the Founders did not trust judges, but ever since the Constitution was adopted, there has been a struggle between judges and juries, with judges trying to confine juries to deciding the "facts" in a case, leaving the judges to decide the "law". In most criminal cases today, the constitutional and legal issues are not argued in the presence of the jury, and the jury does not get to read the legal briefs filed in the case. Judges try to intimidate juries into following their instructions, which are only advisory, and prosecute attorneys for contempt if they try to inform jurors of their right and power to decide the law as well as the "facts" in the case. In response, reformers are working to make sure jurors know their duty. Click on the button to get the indicated file format: Format HTML Text WP PDF RTF Word Image Local Remote
    • Principles of Jury Reform You are summoned for jury duty If you are called for jury duty in a criminal trial ... Original Intent , a speech on the floor of the House of Representatives, by Rep Ron Paul (R-TX), August 1, 1997. Discusses the original intent of the Framers concerning juries.

    80. Trial And Error: Capital Punishment In U.S. History
    Trial and Error Capital Punishment in US history. Although there are valuable sociological and legal studies of penalty, there is no detailed history of the
    Printer-Friendly Version
    Trial and Error: Capital Punishment in U.S. History
    by William S. McFeely
    The death penalty has not been a constant in American history. It has undergone numerous changes and reforms in the past two centuries, falling in and out of public favor. Immediately after the American Revolution, some legislators removed the death penalty as punishment for many crimes. In the genteel nineteenth century, government officials went even further, ending public hangings that once entertained large crowds of curious onlookers. Officials deemed it more seemly to conduct executions in prisons, away from public scrutiny. In the 1840s reformers called for the elimination of the death penalty. In 1846, the Michigan legislature made that state the first government in the world to remove the death penalty altogether. Historian Louis Masur has argued in that the death penalty might well have ended in the whole nation if the Civil War, and the brutalizing of society that it engendered, had been averted. Other reforms have influenced the methods of putting prisoners to death. With the advent of electricity at the close of the nineteenth century, the electric chair was introduced as a more humane alternative to hanging. Recently, with similar motivation, many states have adopted the practice of lethal injection, where a deadly chemical is delivered intravenously. Lethal injection is seen as less stressful to the prisoner and the witnesses than the electric chair.

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