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         Government Analysis Ngos:     more detail
  1. Basic Education in Rural Pakistan: A Comparative Institutional Analysis of Government, Private and NGO Schools by Shahrukh Rafi Khan, 2006-01-06
  2. Community participation and quality of life for ex-templeton centre residents: policy, theory and practice: an opportunity for NGO collaboration.(non-government ... from: Social Policy Journal of New Zealand by John R. Grant, 2007-03-01
  3. Ngo Involvement in International Organizations: A Legal Analysis by Sergey Ripinsky, Peter van den Bossche, 2007-12-14
  4. Vital Voices: advocacy and service work of NGOs in the fight against human trafficking.(NGOWatch): An article from: UN Chronicle by Wenchi Yu Perkins, 2005-03-01
  5. NGO's with an attitude and bayonets: a consideration of transnational criminal organizations.(non-government organizations): An article from: Denver Journal of International Law and Policy by John D. Becker, 2003-12-22
  6. Room at the table: voices of NGOs.: An article from: Endangered Species Update by Mary Maruca, 2006-01-01
  7. Relationships and partnerships among governments, NGOs, CBOs and indigenous groups in the context of the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought: (an analysis of progress) by Lea M Scherl, 1996
  8. Social Capital and Associations in European Democracies: A Comparative Analysis (Routledge Research in Comparative Politics) by W.A. Maloney, 2006-12-06
  9. Policy Analysis in Canada: The State of the Art (IPAC Series in Public Management and Governance)

1. Blair Government Meets International NGOs
September 1997 Blair government Meets International ngos. Blair government Meets International ngos Short emphasized the importance of a gender analysis in eradicating poverty
Home WEDO Publications September 1997
Blair Government Meets International NGOs September, 1997 During Earth Summit +5 at the UN, WEDO Executive Director Susan Davis was among a dozen international NGO representatives who met Tony Blair, the U.K.'s new Labour Prime Minister, and Clare Short, the new head of the Overseas Development Agency. Ms. Davis spoke to the Prime Minister about the relationship of gender equality to sustainable development and the U.K. government's commitment to implementing the Beijing Platform for Action at home and abroad. Articulating Labour's commitments on British overseas development assistance, Short emphasized the importance of a gender analysis in eradicating poverty. She said it would take a few years for the full impact of Labour's new directions to be felt, but "business as usual is over." Back to September 1997 Contents

2. NGOs And Global Policy-Making - Global Policy Forum - NGOs
Nonethelsss, some accuse ngos of being structurally undemocratic and unaccountable.Elected government officials often defend themselves against NGO criticism
about GPF What's New Newsletter Sitemap ... *Opinion Forum
NGOs and Global Policy-Making
By James A. Paul
Executive Director, Global Policy Forum
June 2000 Organizations like Oxfam, Greenpeace, Amnesty International and thousands of others serve the public on a national and international scale. Known variously as "private voluntary organizations," "civil society organizations," and "citizen associations," they are increasingly called “NGOs,” an acronym that stands for "non-governmental organizations." The United Nations system uses this term to distinguish representatives of these agencies from those of governments. While many NGOs dislike the term, it has come into wide use, because the UN system is the main focus of international rule-making and policy formulation in the fields where most NGOs operate. Charitable and community organizations, separate from the state, have existed in many historical settings, but NGOs are primarily a modern phenomenon. With the extension of citizenship rights in Europe and the Americas in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, people founded increasing numbers of these organizations, as instruments to meet community needs, defend interests or promote new policies. The French writer Alexis de Toqueville emphasized the importance of what he called “political associations” as institutions of democracy, uniquely numerous and influential in the United States at the time of his famous visit in 1831. New legal rules for private corporations, emerging at this same time, provided modern juridical authority for the organizations and increased their defenses against state interference.

3. W. Mark Roberts, Ph.D., Consultant - Conservation, Ecology And The Environment
International consultant to ngos, government, academia and industry. Expertise in research and analysis of biological information, biodiversity, endangered species, and wildlife problems. Based in Canada.
Research and analysis for NGOs, government, academia and the private sector Cost-effective development of any or all
stages of your scientific project, including: Expertise in: Literature search and review Locating data sources Population viability analysis (PVA) Exploratory data analysis Solutions to wildlife problems Statistical analysis Animal behaviour Report writing Experimental design Editing Analysis of complex data Graphic design Multimedia presentation Learn more ... Learn more ... Past clients include: The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment Department of Environmental Protection - State of New Jersey, USA Environmental Defense British Columbia (Canada) Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Foods Learn more ...

4. Women In Local Government In Asia And The Pacific A Comparative
government in the analysis of issues of womens participation and representation in government. 2) Relevant gender statistics. 3) The steps taken by government organisations, ngos

5. BOND International Development
04 Training Needs analysis of UK ngos is completed The Training Needs analysis bringstogether a wide range of The UK government was reminded of the commitment
Welcome to BOND's Website BOND is the network of more than 280 UK based voluntary organisations working in international development and development education. CURRENT ISSUES
Job Vacancy at BOND:
£25,616 rising to £26,973 pa (after probation)
Based London, N1
You will develop BOND’s innovative programme of support to members’ learning, development and organisational learning capacities: developing learning methodologies, facilitating inter-organisational learning groups, managing training events and publishing how-to guides. Charities Bill Briefing and Consultation
BOND is joining forces with NCVO on 14 June for a free briefing and consultation event on the new Charities Bill , and new guidelines from the Charity Commission on charity campaigning, political activities and human rights work. This is a chance to get up to date on the issues and to feed into, and shape, BOND's response to these changes.
At the EU European Union elections will be held 10-13 June to elect new Members of the European Parliament (MEPs). This will be accompanied by a restructuring of the European Parliament (EP), with manifold implications for how policy decisions on development are made.

6. REC: New Regional Environmental Centers: Government Needs: Background
government Needs analysis. 3.1 Background. Supporting ngos is a priority goal of RECBudapest. This support, however, would be ineffective without constructive and cooperative relationships with national governments in CEE. The government needs analysis is based on the comprehensive national substudies "Central government Needs
Government Needs Analysis
3.1 Background
Supporting NGOs is a priority goal of REC-Budapest. This support, however, would be ineffective without constructive and cooperative relationships with national governments in CEE. We assume that REC-Budapest represents a good model of how to facilitate a participatory approach in environmental decision-making and to stimulate a bottom-up approach in environmental initiatives. These considerations are taken as key assumptions in assessing the needs of central governments and regional and local authorities. The needs of governmental agencies that have jurisdictional responsibility for formulating and executing environmental policy at different levels are by and large similar in all countries of the CIS. However, the balance of power between different levels and branches of government can vary. One must differentiate clearly between the needs of environmental authorities as they represent the public interest, and the institutional needs of governmental bodies as they represent the political and administrative interests of the institutions themselves. In summarizing the needs, this analytical report discusses several types of needs. First, it details a country's priority needs. Second, it reviews the needs a NREC could address effectively. For example, while a country may have a critical need to undertake a costly environmental remediation project or build a waste water treatment facility, a NREC would not undertake such expensive projects. This report pays particular attention to government needs entailing public participation and government-NGO relations. Finally, the needs that the countries have in common are discussed. These shared needs prove important for this report since the probability exists that other countries in the CIS face similar needs. The reader should bear this in mind when reading the country discussions.

7. NGO Monitor - Human Rights NGOs - Arab Israeli Conflict
NGO Monitor analysis (Vol. 2 No. Canadian government Funding NGO’s antiIsraelPropaganda. Alternatives demonstrates the ease with which ngos can contradict

About NGO Monitor Our Mission Statement Who are We? Aims and Objectives About NGOs What is an NGO? Different Types of NGOs How do NGOs operate? Who funds NGOs? Archives Previous Editions Special Editions Correspondence Op-eds ... Links Issues of Importance EU Support for Politicized
Durban Conference 2001 UN-HRC ... Defensive Shield/Jenin
NGO Monitor Analysis (Vol. 2 No. 6) 15 February 2004
Canadian Government Funding NGO’s anti-Israel Propaganda
The Montreal-based organization Alternatives demonstrates the ease with which NGOs can contradict their own stated objectives by obscuring contexts and distorting facts. This NGO claims that it "meets the needs and responds to the demands of progressive Canadians, and tries to create a more equitable and sustainable world for all." In response to these objectives, it has won partial funding from the Canadian International Development Agency through its NGO Project Facility . Yet the group engages in a wide variety of highly unbalanced and politicized activities both within Canada and abroad. Rather than "truly mirror(ing) the expectations of all Canadians," the organization’s focus on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict reveals an extreme approach. Alternatives’ activities fall under the two broad categories of domestic advocacy and overseas projects. The former includes articles published in Canada through the organization’s newsletter and on its website, both designed as clearinghouses for progressive thought and opinion. The latter includes partnerships and funded projects outside of Canada, including projects based in the Palestinian Territories.

8. General Analysis Role Of NGOs
General analysis Role of ngos. ngos and Global PolicyMaking (June, 2000 a "potent voice in the framing of this new global government". ngos Unwelcome at Forum (November 30 1999
about GPF What's New Newsletter Sitemap ... *Opinion Forum
General Analysis: Role of NGOs
NGOs and Global Policy-Making (June, 2000)
An analysis by GPF Director James Paul, provides historical background and emphasizes NGOs growing contemporary importance, diversity, impact on policy, etc.
Taking NGOs and Activists Seriously (August 24, 2000)

The credibility of NGOs has increased as they now fill an information vacuum created by some governments. However some member states of the UN and corporations are still avoiding contact with NGOs. ( Earth Times Go, NGOs, Go! (August 23, 2000)
This article from the Asia Intelligence Wire encourages NGOs to continue their vital role at the UN but warns them against “ toadying up to officialdom”. ( FT Asia Intelligence Wire How a Little Band of London Activists Forced the Diamond Trade to Confront the Blood on its Hands (July 24, 2000)
Global Witness, an NGO based in London, deftly linked the trade in illicit diamonds with bloody African wars and forced into the public consciousness the uncomfortable truth that diamonds can be the best friend for rebel forces. ( Independent - London NGOs Call on the UN to Withdraw Endorsement of "A Better World for All" (June 2000)
This joint statement from a caucus of NGOs criticizes the "Better World" report, as being presented as a new consensus between the United Nations, the OECD, the IMF and the World Bank. By doing so it has "reinforced the perspectives from the North and disempowered the South. It undermined the very concept of political inclusiveness that defines the UN."

9. NGO Monitor - Human Rights NGOs - Arab Israeli Conflict
of independence and integrity in its analysis of these One example is a governmentfundedChurch NGO process of self-defined humanitarian ngos highjacking the

About NGO Monitor Our Mission Statement Who are We? Aims and Objectives About NGOs What is an NGO? Different Types of NGOs How do NGOs operate? Who funds NGOs? Archives Previous Editions Special Editions Correspondence Op-eds ... Links Issues of Importance EU Support for Politicized
Durban Conference 2001 UN-HRC ... Defensive Shield/Jenin
NGO Monitor Analysis (Vol. 2 No. 5) 15 January 2004
Habitat International Coalition's Anti-Israel Agenda
As reported in NGO Monitor, Ford Foundation President, Susan Berresford pledged in a letter to Congressman Jerrold Nadler that, "if we find evidence that grantees [who participated in Durban] behaved inappropriately, we will investigate fully." She claims that Ford has taken steps to ensure its funds no longer go to "groups that promote or condone bigotry or violence, or that challenge the very existence of legitimate, sovereign states like Israel." The highly politicized work of Habitat International Coalition (HIC), and the fact that the Ford Foundation, along with a number of other European funding agencies, continues to provide funding, confirms the urgency of Berresford making good on her pledge. HIC describes itself as "an independent, international, nonprofit movement of some 400 organizations and individuals working to support campaigns for housing rights." The movement is "coordinated geographically" by way of regional focal points, and maintains offices in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, Middle East/North Africa (MENA), and North America. HIC is financed by a "consortium of funders who shares HIC's objectives," including the ICCO, Ford Foundation and Carl Duisberg Gesellschaft.

10. Index Page - Global Policy Forum - NGOs
This page links to information and analysis about ngos at the UN and in global policy including membership dues, foundation and government grants, sales of services and business

11. NGOs And The Peace Process In Angola: Special Reports: Publications: U.S. Instit
Undertake policy analysis of constitutional, economic, and educational issues to ensure that future government policies ties to the government, and other ngos that might want to
Complete List of Institute Reports
Release Date:
CONTENTS Introduction Background The Peace Process and Reconciliation Obstacles to Popular Reconciliation ... About the Authors SPECIAL REPORT 16 NGOs and the Peace Process in Angola Executive Summary The report contains a detailed set of suggested activities that could be organized by either Angolan or international NGOs to promote peace and reconciliation. This list includes the following:
  • Organize joint training programs and development projects that bring together local groups from the two opposing sides. Use the media to promote peace, in part by training journalists. Undertake policy analysis of constitutional, economic, and educational issues to ensure that future government policies promote reconciliation. Develop a corps of trained mediators to mediate local and national disputes.
Introduction The United States Institute of Peace sent a two-person team consisting of staff member David Smock and consultant John Prendergast to Angola in February. The purpose of this mission was to recommend ways for Angolan and international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to promote reconciliation in Angola as part of the postwar peace process. Much has been written about the mediation of peace accords, the creation of peace agreements, the management of international intervention, and the deployment of peacekeeping forces. But little attention has been given to the process of reconciliation, the mending of broken relationships, and the rebuilding of societies so that peace can be sustained.

12. The Czech Government And NGOs In 2001
analysis of Financing ngos from the State Budget In September 2000, CNNO finalizedthe analysis of procedures ministries of the Czech government to associations
Volume 3
Issue 3
The Czech Government and NGOs in 2001
The Second Round of Privatization Assets Distribution to Foundations
In January 2001, following a year of preparatory work in CNNO working groups and many consultations with the Budget Committee of the Czech Parliament, the Czech Government approved Decision No. 12/2001 on the Procedure by which the Remaining Assets Set Aside for the Foundation Investment Fund shall be Distributed in the Second Stage (to Foundations). Actually, this represents an open tender, in which a special commission shall choose from registered and applying foundations those to which another portion (and probably the last one) of assets in the amount of about CZK 2,000,000,000 shall be distributed to become a part of their registered endowment and/or partially (not more the 15 percent of the contribution) directly redistributed according to current granting regulations of each foundation. The sum of allocated evaluation points shall be the main supportive evidence for the final recommendation of the plenary of the CNNO as regards the amount of assets to be allocated to a foundation or whether there shall be no allocation at all. It is assumed, that the minimal assignment should be CZK 10,000,000. In the case of too many applicants, this may limit the list of those who will be assigned a contribution. Accordingly, those foundations who did not receive enough evaluation points may not receive any funds. However, in general, this limit may support a reasonably uneven distribution among about 120 foundations. We must wait for the result of the tender to see if this is the case.

13. Pakistan Economy - Capitalism, Socialism, Free Markets, Regulation,Government Po
This site presents an analysis of the Pakistan government's economic policies compared to a list of Initially Several ngos and HR organizations including UNHCR, Red Cross, CARE, US
PAKISTAN: Economic Policy Analysis
This site presents an analysis of the Pakistan government's economic policies compared to a list of 33 economic policies as prepared by the McKeever Institute of Economic Policy Analysis (MIEPA) . To read the analysis scroll through this site. To learn more about the background policies, click here
  • Introduction and Policy Recommendations

  • To learn more about MIEPA , click here Return to MIEPA 's Home Page
    Several foreign born students living in California have completed a study of their home country governments' economic policies as compared to the MIEPA list of policies as outlined above. The study on Pakistan is shown below. The ratings herein are based on the following rating scale: RATING SCALE 5.0 Perfect Facilitation of Wealth Creation
    4.0 Midway between Perfect and Neutral
    3.0 Neutral Effect on Wealth Creation
    2.0 Midway between Neutral and Obstructionist
    1.0 Perfectly Obstructionist to Wealth Creation
    Return to
    MIEPA 's Home Page PAKISTAN: Comparison of Pakistan's economic policies to MIEPA criteria as prepared by native student of Pakistan, Mr. Amjad Ali, studying in the US in November of 1997.

    14. AEGiS-UPI Analysis NGOs Play Big Role In AIDS Plans
    Click here to return to United Press International main menu DonateNow AnalysisNGOs play big Friday night he is annoyed by the lack of government action on
    Important note: Information in this article was accurate in 2002. The state of the art may have changed since the publication date.
    Analysis: NGOs play big role in AIDS plans United Press International - August 30, 2002
    Roger Bate JOHANNESBURG, South Africa , Aug. 30 (UPI) The head of UNAIDS , Peter Piot, is angry the discussion of the AIDS pandemic is so low on the agenda of the World Summit for Sustainable Development and that African ministers are so lukewarm to the issue. He was expected to tell WSSD delegates Friday night he is annoyed by the lack of government action on controlling acquired immune deficiency syndrome on the African continent. Piot has been working, meanwhile, with non-governmental organizations and business groups to deliver AIDS relief and says he will consider spending a good portion of the UNAIDS $2 billion Global Fund on AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis on corporate programs, an idea unthinkable even three years ago. Piot Friday is to launch the latest UNAIDS report "HIV/AIDS: Human Resource and Sustainable Development" and he hopes it will generate interest among African ministers, who he says appear "lukewarm on the subject." The only significant mention of AIDS during the summit plenary session was made by Nitin Desai, WSSD secretary-general, in his opening speech. In the corridors, however, the question being asked is: "How can Africa develop sustainability without controlling the AIDS pandemic?"

    15. The Uribe Government And NGOs
    We know that when high government and military September 10 Links to press coverage,Essays and analysis. Colombia head endangers ngos BBC (UK) Human rights
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    The Uribe government and NGOs
    September 8, 2003
    • Eighty Colombian non-governmental organizations release a document, El Embrujo Autoritario ("The Authoritarian Curse") criticizing the performance of President Álvaro Uribe and his thirteen-month-old government.
      • Link the text of El Embrujo Autoritario
      Uribe calls human rights groups, among other things, "spokesmen for terrorism" and "politickers of terrorism." He challenges them to "take off their masks ... and drop this cowardice of hiding their ideas behind human rights." Uribe's speech distinguishes between serious human rights groups and "politickers," but fails to explain how he makes this distinction.
      • Text of Uribe's speech (
      While some of Uribe's advisors and supporters had faced criticism for making similar unsubstantiated and dangerous statements, Uribe himself had avoided using such language during his campaign and during his first year in office. In fact, his government's "Democratic Security" document, released in June 2003, emphasizes the need to "protect opposition political leaders and dissidents, thereby securing the democratic framework and possibilities for citizen participation." A July 2003 Defense Ministry directive instructs members of the security forces "to abstain from making unfounded declarations that could threaten the safety of union leaders or human rights defenders."

    16. KAIROS Analysis Of Government Amendments To Bill C-9
    KAIROS analysis of government Although the government has added to its list certain theBill be amended so that Nongovernmental Organizations (ngos), such as
    @import "/production/css/secondary.css"; Home Justice... Take Action Beads of Hope
    Beads of Hope
    [ KAIROS analysis of Government Amendments to Bill C-9 ]
    See Also United Church Continues to urge government to fix Bill C-9 April 20, 2004 Print Version At a joint United Church of Canada and KAIROS appearance before the House of Commons Industry Committee on March 9, 2004 we commended the government for making Canada the first developed country to introduce legislation to facilitate the export of generic medicines to developing countries with insufficient manufacturing capacity. This legislation could make a significant contribution to providing affordable medicines to many of the 14 million people who die each year from treatable, infectious diseases, including 6 million who die from AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Generic medicines sell for about one-fifth of the cost of their brand-name equivalents. During our testimony on March 9 we identified four serious flaws that needed to be rectified before Bill C-9 is passed. Amendments to the Bill tabled by the governing Liberal Party members to be discussed by the Industry Committee on Tuesday, April 20, go part way towards making the changes we and other Non-Governmental Organizations demanded. First of all the government is to be commended for removing the "right of refusal" clause that would have given brand-name pharmaceutical companies an opportunity to scoop up contracts that had been negotiated between generic drug manufacturers and developing country importers. This is a welcome and significant change. However, new proposals relating to the prices of generic products are a concern, not because they might keep down the prices of generic medicines, but because they might lead to prolonged litigation or even to the revocation of authorizations to produce generic medicines. Moreover, these measures are not required by World Trade Organization (WTO) rules.

    17. Confronting AIDS
    ngos either cannot or will not perform, then the government must undertake crosscountrydata speak only to financing, the analysis of the ngos’ role in
    National governments bear the responsibility for protecting their citizens from the spread of the HIV epidemic and of mitigating its worst effects once it has spread. But they are not alone in the effort. Bilateral and multilateral donors have provided both leadership and major funding for national AIDS prevention programs, especially in the poorer developing countries. And both local and international nongovernmental organizations have stepped forward to help against the epidemic, sometimes prodding reluctant governments into action. Most of the National Response Is Funded by Donors The total amount of donor funding for AIDS was estimated at approximately $300 million in 1996. The largest contributor of new funds in that year was the United States ($117 million); the European Union ($55 million) and Japan ($40 million) provided the next largest amounts of grant funding, and the World Bank provided approximately $45 million in new loan commitments that year, most of which was at concessional rates. This seemingly large amount of money is, however, only about 6 percent of total donor health assistance to developing countries. Nevertheless, since AIDS expenditures represent a substantial fraction of total public spending on health in some developing countries, observers have asked whether too large a proportion of health resources is devoted to AIDS in these countries relative to other health problems.

    18. Davos 2001 - Oxford Analytica Analysis - Business NGOs From
    Most of these initiatives involve unions, government officials and ngos from theadvanced industrial countries, but ngos and other entities based in developing

    19. Rise Of Philippine NGOs In Managing Development Assistance
    channels, many of them involving ngos, both in Little analysis has been conducted,however, of what from donor representatives and host government agencies to
    Knowledge Base > Rise of Philippine NGOs in Managing Development Assistance
    The Rise of Philippine NGOs in Managing Development Assistance
    By Consuelo Katrina A. Lopa
    This paper is part of the collection Financing Development in Southeast Asia: Opportunities for Collaboration and Sustainability produced with support from the Sasakawa Peace Foundation
    Download full text of paper (PDF)
    Consuelo Katrina A. Lopa Lopa is currently doing freelance research and writing. She was Project Coordinator of a Philippine non-governmental organization, the Gaston Z. Ortigas Peace Institute, working on the Project on the Legacies of the Marcos Dictatorship from 1999 to 2002. Prior to working on the Legacies Project, Ms. Lopa was Coordinator of Philippine Development NGOs for International Concerns (PHILINK), from August 1990 to June 2000. In recent years, official development assistance (ODA) agencies have been increasingly exploring avenues for supporting community development initiatives more directly. The result has been the creation of a diversity of new funding channels, many of them involving NGOs, both in the host and donor countries. Little analysis has been conducted, however, of what has been working, including the how and why, and few attempts have been made to share examples more widely. This paper seeks to address this gap by looking at the case of the Philippines in detail and follows on the general overview of ODA-NGO collaboration presented by David Winder in his paper Options for Financial Sustainability: Collaboration Between Civil Society and Development Agencies in Southeast Asia Various stakeholders in the Philippine development community have warmly received the practice of NGO management of ODA. NGO management of ODA funds transfers traditional decision-making powers over allocation and use of funds, from donor representatives and host government agencies to collegial bodies comprised of or influenced by NGO representatives. This paper explores this rise of Philippine NGOs in managing ODA, looking at the different forms of NGO-managed mechanisms and challenges and opportunities for NGOs and ODA agencies moving forward.

    20. US Dept Of State - U.S. Government To Fund NGOs Providing Assistance To Afghanis
    meet the financial and accounting requirements of the US government, before they NGOsare encouraged to propose programs that include a mix of Problem analysis.
    Advanced Search/Archive You Are In: USINFO Regions South Asia Rebuilding Afghanistan ... Partnership for Afghan Recovery
    U.S. Government To Fund NGOs Providing Assistance To Afghanistan
    NGO project guidelines listed in PRM fact sheet
    The State Department's Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM) will begin reviewing proposals from non-government organizations (NGOs) to provide humanitarian assistance to Afghanistan, according to a PRM fact sheet released February 11. PRM's funding for NGOs in Afghanistan will focus on reintegration assistance for Afghan returnees; emergency relief for Afghan refugees who arrived within the last 2 years; and assistance to old-caseload refugees, according to the fact sheet. The PRM guidelines, intended to help NGOs prepare proposals, are listed in "FY2003 PRM Guidelines for NGO Projects: Emergency Relief for Afghan Refugees and Returnees." Although PRM relies on the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and other international organizations to provide humanitarian assistance to refugees and returnees, it also provides direct funding to a number of NGO programs "to fill critical gaps," said the fact sheet. "The U.S. Government," said the fact sheet, "has consistently been the leading donor of humanitarian assistance to Afghans and provided over $530 million in fiscal year 2002 alone." PRM, which has the lead role within the State Department for responding to humanitarian emergencies, "contributed over $145 million for programs benefiting Afghan refugees, returnees, internally displace persons (IDPs), and conflict victims," the fact sheet added.

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