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  1. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia Country Studies (Area Handbook Series) by Glenn E. Curtis, 1995-11
  2. Understanding Post-Soviet Transitions: Corruption, Collusion and Clientelism (Euro-Asian Studies) by Christoph H. Stefes, 2006-12-12
  3. Pride of Small Nations: The Caucasus and Post-Soviet Disorder (Politics in Contemporary Asia) by Suzanne Goldenberg, 1994-09
  4. Wars of Eduard Shevardnadze. Second Edition, Revised & Updated by Melvin Goodman, Carolyn M. Ekedahl, 2001-10-15
  5. The New Cold War: Revolutions, Rigged Elections, and Pipeline Politics in the Former Soviet Union by Mark A. MacKinnon, 2007-10-04

81. Tamara Tsikhistavi, Velvet Revolution Positive Peace InGeorgia
after the collapse of the ussr, its center political, economic and social developmentof georgia. declaration of independence, several former Soviet republics
The "velvet revolution" might bring
Positive Peace in Georgia

By Tamara Tsikhistavi Candidate of MAS in Peace Studies and Conflict Transformation, Trainer and Researcher at ICCN TFF Peace Antenna December 12, 2003 The "velvet revolution" in Georgia has shown that violent political systems based on the violation of human rights always collapse. There were several reasons for the "velvet revolution" that started against the government of Georgia. One of the main reasons behind the revolution was structural violence. Indirect violence has been used against the population of Georgia for quite some time and it had become the foundation of the internal-domestic policy. The human rights of all citizens of the country were violated. On the one hand, we saw the violation of human rights of the citizens of Georgia; on the other hand a corrupt government. These together created the fundamental dynamics of conflict escalation between the population and the government of Shevardnadze. The state had neither capacity nor an appropriate agenda to develop successful economic, political and social programs that could or would have satisfied the basic human needs of the people.

82. Georgia Daily Digest
projects on the territory of the former ussr with the The ownership interest of governmentsfoundersof the CPC is as 11/28/01 NATO Exercises in georgia to be
GEORGIA DAILY DIGEST Home From: Justin Burke (
Date: Wed Nov 28 2001 - 09:25:32 EST CASPIAN NEWS AGENCY
CNA Brief Newsline
/14:46 27.11.2001/ ChevronTexaco and its Partners Celebrate the Opening of the
Caspian Pipeline
Moscow, November 27, 2001. (CNA). At a special ceremony held today at the Caspian
Pipeline Consortium (CPC) terminal near Novorossiysk, Russia, ChevronTexaco Corp.
and its partners celebrated the opening of a new oil export route from the Caspian
The press office of the ChevronTexaco Corp. informs that the 900-mile pipeline,
built from the Tengiz Field in western Kazakhstan to the Black Sea port of Novorossiysk, commenced tanker loading last month. ChevronTexaco has a 15 percent interest in the $2.65 billion pipeline, which will be able to carry up to a maximum

83. Military & Arms Transfer News - Issue 95/2, 27 January 1995
The report was denied by both governments. due to a defence budget less than a thirdthat of the former ussr. ORDER OF BATTLE georgia (former SOVIET REPUBLIC).
Military and Arms Transfer News
Issue 95/2, 27 January 1995 Editor: Spike Robinson. Written by Spike Robinson and Philip McNab. Credits Farndon House Information Trust Return to index page
Table of Contents

84. Pravda.RU Russian Space Centres Protected Well
Pravda.RUFormer ussr, along with Estonian, in clerical work at local selfgovernmentbodies in 1714 MOSCOW WANTS georgia TO STOP CONNIVING AT INTERNATIONAL
Sep, 18 2001 Accidents Companies Culture Diplomatic ... About [an error occurred while processing this directive] Pravda.RU:Former USSR
Expansion of cooperation between Lithuania and Russia is to be discussed with the Russian leadership by Lithuania's Prime Minister Algirdas Brazauskas during his working visit to Moscow, which begins on September 20.
More detail
Kyrgyzstan is willing to offer to the USA whatever information about terrorist organisations in its part of the world which will reach its secret services, Misir Ashirkulov, national Security Council Secretary, said after the US Embassy made a related request to the secret service top yesterday.
More detail
Russian Security Council Secretary Vladimir Rushailo arrived in Tashkent, the Uzbek capital, Tuesday. Rushailo is visiting the Central-Asian countries on the instructions of President Vladimir Putin.
More detail
Ukraine will not object its air space exploitation by American military aircraft in case of carrying out operations connected with September 11 terrorist attacks in the USA, Head of the Ukrainian parliamentary committee for national security and defence Boris Andresyuk told journalists Tuesday. The terrorists must be punished and Ukraine will assist it, the deputy noted.

Strip and West Bank. georgia. Germany. Ghana Nurse/Therapist. Policy/government Relations. Purchasing Engineering/Construction/Architecture. government/Military. Healthcare/Medical

86. Soviet Union - Reference Library
In practice, however, each level of government was controlled by its correspondingparty group (see (More about the political organization of the ussr can be
Reference Library: Encyclopedia
Main Page
See live article Alphabetical index
Soviet Union
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR or Soviet Union Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik SSSR written in the Cyrillic alphabet as ) was a union of socialist republics, which were run via the only recognized political party, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union . It existed from until . It stretched from the Baltic and Black Seas to the Pacific Ocean . In its final years it consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSRs). Russia was by far the largest Republic in the Soviet Union in terms of both land area and population, and also dominated it politically and economically.
Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik In Detail (Full size) National motto : Workers of the world, unite! Official language Russian Capital Moscow ... Area
- Total
- % water 1st before collapse
22,402,200 km²

xx% Population

3rd before collapse
293,047,571 (July 1991)
13,08/km2 (July 1991) Establishment - Declared - Recognised Russian Revolution Dissolution Currency Ruble Time zone UTC +3 to +11 National anthems The International Hymn of the Soviet Union Internet TLD .SU (still in use) Table of contents showTocToggle("show","hide")

87. Georgia: "Rose Revolution" Destabilises Southern Caucasus Part 1
These three former underlings of Shevardnadze will most likely make up the forthcominggovernment, with Saakashvili for the reintegration of georgia can only
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Part 1 By Simon Wheelan 29 December 2003 Use this version to print Send this link by email Email the author The following is the first of a two-part series on the US-backed coup in Georgia and its aftermath. The concluding part will be posted tomorrow, December 30. The geo-political significance of Georgia cannot be underestimated. It sits astride the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil and Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum gas pipelines, situated between the Black and Caspian seas, containing two, possibly three breakaway provinces, and borders Russia, Turkey, Azerbaijan and Armenia. Regional commentators have remarked upon the relative inexperience of the interim government trio of Mikhail Saakashvili, acting president Nino Burdzhanadze and Zhurab Zhvania. These three former underlings of Shevardnadze will most likely make up the forthcoming government, with Saakashvili crowned president. Their overt reliance upon the Bush administration in Washington and their plans for the reintegration of Georgia can only further destabilise the Caucasus. This threat equally applies regarding the longstanding breakaway provinces of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.

88. BBC NEWS | World | Europe | Country Profiles | Country Profile: Georgia
the poorest countries of the former ussr and is


... Programmes
Last Updated: Thursday, 6 May, 2004, 09:13 GMT 10:13 UK E-mail this to a friend Printable version Country profile: Georgia
Situated at the strategically important crossroads where Europe meets Asia, Georgia has a unique and ancient cultural heritage, famous traditions of hospitality and cuisine and an alphabet which is entirely its own.
It also has a history of winemaking said to date back thousands of years. OVERVIEW
LEADERS MEDIA Over the centuries, Georgia has been the object of rivalry between Persia, Turkey and Russia, and was eventually annexed by Russia in the 19th century. In recent years Moscow's key rival has been Washington. The US has a major interest in security and stability in the country, having invested heavily in an oil pipeline which will carry oil from Azerbaijan via Georgia to Turkey. The Georgian armed forces have been receiving US training and support. Increasing US economic and political influence in the country is being watched closely by the Kremlin. Georgia enjoyed an interlude of independence after the 1917 Bolshevik revolution in Russia but was invaded by the Soviet Red Army in 1921 and incorporated into the Soviet Union a year later.

89. World Telephone Numbering Guide
Telecom regulator is Georgian National Communications Commission. from country code7 (former ussr territory); ITU in the consolidation of former East German
Updated 24 December 2003 By Country Code By Country Name Other WTNG pages Acknowledgements Main Page


What's New

Countries: G... Gabonese Republic



Gabonese Republic
Number Format
Area Code: none Subscriber Number: 6 digits Trunk Prefix: n/a International Prefix: 00
Numbering range information
Number Format
Area Code: none Subscriber Number: 6 digits (7 digits as of February 2004) Trunk Prefix: n/a International Prefix: 00
Numbering range information
February 2004 - expansion to 7-digit national numbers
Existing 6-digit subscriber numbers in Gambia will be expanded to 7-digit numbers in February 2004, depending on the service or location. '4' will be prepended to numbers in the 2xxxxx, 3xxxxx, 4xxxxx ranges. '5' will be prepended to numbers in the 5xxxxx, 6xxxxx, 7xxxxx ranges. '9' will be prepended to Gamcel mobile numbers (e.g. 9xxxxx). It was unclear whether '4' or '7' will be prepended to Africell mobile subscriber numbers (e.g. 7xxxxx). It was unclear whether '4' or '5' will be prepended to Internet Service dial-up numbers.

90. Library Of Congress / Federal Research Division / Country Studies / Area Handboo
on information from World Bank, Food and Agricultural Policy Reforms in the FormerUSSR, Washington, 1992, 194. Table 17. georgia government Budget, 1991 and
Appendix A. Tables
Table 1. Metric Conversion Coofficients and Factors
When you kow Multiply by To find Millimeters inches Centimeters inches Meters feet Kilometers miles Hectares acres Square kilometers square miles Cubic meters cubic feet Liters gallons Kilograms pounds Metric tons long tons short tons pounds Degrees Celsius (Centigrade) 1.8 and add 32 degrees Fahrenheit
Table 2. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Selected Health and Health Care Statistics, 1989, 1990, and 1991
Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia Disease diagnosis Tuberculosis Viral hepatitis Cancer Hospital beds Doctors Pharmacists Infant mortality For tuberculosis and cancer, first diagnoses per 100,000 population in 1990; for viral hepatitis, registered cases per 100,000 population in 1989.
Per 10,000 population: in 1990 for Georgia, in 1991 for Armenia and Azerbaijan.
Per 10,000 population in 1989.
Per 1,000 live births: in 1990 for Georgia, in 1991 for Armenia and Azerbaijan. Source: Based on information from Christopher M. Davis, "Health Care Crisis: The Former Soviet Union," RFE/RL Research Report [Munich], 2, No. 40, October 8, 1993, 36.

91. Foreign Correspondent - 11/05/2004: Georgia - Children Of The Revolution
as for its wine, wealth and song, georgia now has A greater contrast to the formerUSSR’s old Stalinists the apparatchik he threw out, former Soviet Foreign
Tuesdays at 9:20pm on ABC TV.
Georgia - Children of the Revolution
Broadcast: 11/05/2004 Reporter: Eric Campbell LEAD STORY
EPISODE 34 Synopsis Famous for being the birthplace of Josef Stalin, who was responsible for the deaths of at least 20 million of his compatriots, as well as for its wine, wealth and song, Georgia now has another distinction to add to the list. It’s the first of the former Soviet Republics to throw out communism’s corrupt successors through a popular revolution.
Former Moscow correspondent Eric Campbell meets the savvy western-educated lawyer who led the dramatic storming of parliament, 36-year-old Mikhail Saakashvili. A greater contrast to the former USSR’s old Stalinists could not be imagined. “We cannot do miracles,” the newly elected President tells Campbell, “but we have to get very close to doing miracles.”
Meanwhile, the apparatchik he threw out, former Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze, sits at home nursing his memories. Showing Campbell through his extensive collection of framed photographs – Shevy with Reagan, Shevy with George Bush senior, Shevy with George Bush junior, and so on – he emphatically denies Saakashvili’s accusations of rampant corruption. “There were dishonest ministers,” he admits. “And had I remained the President I would have sacked them.”
Saakashvili begs to differ. “He not only openly encouraged corrupt ministers - most of them have been arrested now, and they are pointing at him and saying he was our boss, we received our orders from him.”

92. CBS News | Upheaval In Ex-USSR's Georgia | November 23, 2003 10:01:23
Upheaval In Exussr s georgia TBILISI, georgia here. Vakhtang Khmaladze, a formerparliament member one of the authors of georgia s constitution, questioned
Home U.S. Iraq World ... FREE CBS News Video November 23, 2003 10:01:23 The Early Show CBS Evening News 48 Hours 60 Minutes ...
Section Front

E-mail This Story Printable Version
Upheaval In Ex-USSR's Georgia
TBILISI, Georgia, Nov. 22, 2003
Attempted 'Coup' In Georgia

Opposition supporters break into Parliament in Tbilisi Saturday (Photo: AP)
"We give guarantees to Shevardnadze that he will not be harmed, but let him know that if there is at least one shot fired at people, he will face justice"
Protest leader Mikhail Saakashvili
Visibly shaken Shevardnadze inside Parliament after being whisked out of session hall in Tbilisi Saturday (Photo: AP)
Opposition protesters hold Georgian flags and poster with portrait of opposition leader Mikhail Saakashvili as they shout during rally in Tbilisi Saturday (Photo: AP) (CBS/AP) Opposition protesters seized control of Georgia's parliament on Saturday and declared their own interim government, but President Eduard Shevardnadze refused to step down, introduced a state of emergency and pledged to punish the organizers of what he called a coup. The opposition leaders appealed to the tens of thousands of demonstrators thronging the streets of the capital to defend their victory. Opposition leader Nino Burdzhanadze, the speaker of the outgoing parliament, proclaimed herself acting president until early elections in 45 days, and warned Shevardnadze's government to avoid bloodshed.

93. Integration Of The Ex-USSR Into World Capitalism
Because the Georgian President Ayaz Mutalibov was forced such fears, saying that thegovernment here did hold power throughout the former ussr have absolutely
Integration of the ex-USSR into world capitalism
An article in the March 12th London Financial Times, titled Ukraine sets out to woo foreign investors, tells of a new law passed by the Ukrainian parliament the day before, which was designed to attract foreign business interests into the country. "...Foreign investments, defined as ventures with a foreign stake of at least 20 per cent or with a foreign capital contribution of at least $100,000, are granted a five-year tax holiday and thereafter pay only 50 per cent of local taxes." "...Nationalization of foreign enterprises is forbidden and existing foreign ventures are protected for 10 years from any changes to the legislation." "Foreigners are permitted full ownership of enterprises except as yet undefined strategic sectors. They may also use locally earned currency to bid for property when it is privatized later this year. "Profits may be fully repatriated, but are subject to a 15 per cent tax. Goods imported for the use of foreign enterprises or their personnel are exempt from customs and tariffs and the products of foreign enterprises may be exported without export licenses or duties." This law overnight turns Ukraine into a giant free trade zone for any world capitalist. In their eagerness to serve foreign capitalists, the petty-bourgeois ex-Stalinists like Kravchuk together with the ex-dissidents like Chornovyl have embarked on the wholesale destruction of the gigantic industries built up over the past 74 years. Indeed, this law provides foreign enterprises with definite advantages over their Ukrainian competitors and guarantees a wholesale bankruptcy of both heavy and light industries.

94. Development Cooperation Ireland
Russian Federation, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, georgia, Moldova and The formerUSSR was a multiethnic country transition than some other former Warsaw Pact
Home As Gaeilge Site Search: Eastern Europe Jump to Country Ethiopia Lesotho Mozambique Tanzania Uganda Zambia Timor Leste Angola Liberia Malawi Sierra Leone South Africa Iraq Palestine Eastern Europe Western Balkans document.write(strNav); Eastern Europe - overview Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Georgia, Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation Print this Article Send to a Friend Background The dissolution of the former USSR in 1991 (itself the result of a decade of change, including the changes leading to the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989) has been a catalyst for far reaching change in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and in the Commonwealth of Independent States. Despite many dramatic and welcome improvements in the region over the past twenty years, not all change has been positive. Wealth is increasingly unequally distributed; many countries in the region have problematic human rights records; and, war and its destabilising effects still casts its shadow over many countries in the region, whether directly or indirectly. The former USSR itself has split into a mosaic of different countries including the Russian Federation, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and those new states to the east of the Caspian sea.

95. Access To THE WORLD FACTBOOK 1994 Provided Courtesy Of The
note 12 nm in 1973 ussrTurkish Protocol conventional long form Republic of Georgiaconventional short form Sak art velo former Georgian Soviet Socialist

96. 5. Georgia-Abkhazia
situation on the ground, the georgian government felt it on the territory of the formerUSSR, while President state border between Russia and georgia (ie, the
5. Georgia-Abkhazia
by Evgeny M. Kozhokin
The dissolution of the Russian empire in 1917 lead to the declaration of Georgia's independence in May 1918. Following the establishment of Soviet Rule in the trans-Caucasus, Abkhazia was declared an Independent Soviet Socialist Republic in March 1921. By December 1921, Abkhazia signed a treaty of federation with Georgia. In February 1931, it became an autonomous republic of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic. A major outburst of Abkhazian separatism occurred in 1989, touched off by the Georgian government's efforts to establish a branch of the Georgian State University in Sukhumi further exacerbated the situation (this branch was to replace the Georgian department of the Abkhazian university). As a result, Georgian and Abkhazian students clashed in the first round of what became ongoing hostilities between the different nationalist groups. A large-scale conflict was avoided at that time thanks only to the introduction of a "state of emergency" (a special regime for the `citizens' behavior) in Abkhazia. The ouster of Georgian President Gamsakhurdia in early 1992 directly fueled the Abkhazian separatist cause. Abkhazian Supreme Soviet Chairman Vladislav Ardzinba capitalized on the confusion in Tbilisi to promote the republic's

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