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         Georgia Former Ussr Government:     more detail
  1. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia Country Studies (Area Handbook Series) by Glenn E. Curtis, 1995-11
  2. Understanding Post-Soviet Transitions: Corruption, Collusion and Clientelism (Euro-Asian Studies) by Christoph H. Stefes, 2006-12-12
  3. Pride of Small Nations: The Caucasus and Post-Soviet Disorder (Politics in Contemporary Asia) by Suzanne Goldenberg, 1994-09
  4. Wars of Eduard Shevardnadze. Second Edition, Revised & Updated by Melvin Goodman, Carolyn M. Ekedahl, 2001-10-15
  5. The New Cold War: Revolutions, Rigged Elections, and Pipeline Politics in the Former Soviet Union by Mark A. MacKinnon, 2007-10-04

41. Article
Azerbaijan, and the secessionist movement in Abkhazia, georgia. by Moscow even whenthe former ussr split up. public wealth left behind by the ussr government.

42. The New American - Dubious Reforms In Former USSR - January 25, 1993
Dubious Reforms in former ussr by Robert W districts considered strongholds of formerPresident Gamsakhurdia. quoted the editor of georgia s independent Iberia
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43. BBC NEWS | Europe | US Military Will Stay In Georgia
out 05 Dec 03 Europe. Russia in row over exussr states 02 RELATED INTERNET LINKSUS Department of Defense. Georgian Parliament. Russian government.


World Service
... Programmes
Last Updated: Sunday, 18 January, 2004, 02:28 GMT E-mail this to a friend Printable version US military will stay in Georgia
By Natalia Antelava
In Tbilisi, Georgia
US officials have said that their military presence in Georgia will now become permanent.
The American military has been training and equipping the Georgian army since the spring of 2002. Having trained three battalions of Georgian soldiers, US military instructors were due to leave in March. Georgia's new president-elect has set the removal of Russian troops still based in the country as a major priority for his government. On Saturday the US ambassador to Georgia said they had decided to continue training the Georgian army in a full-time programme. US 'security guarantee' During the Soviet era, Krtsanisi military base outside Tbilisi was home to the Red Army. The programme forms part of the US war on terror Now it is US soldiers who are in charge and, according to the US Ambassador in Tbilisi Richard Miles, they are in Georgia to stay.

44. Georgia
note 12 nm in 1973 ussrTurkish Protocol short form Sak art velo former georgianSoviet Socialist CIA Overview georgia s economy has traditionally revolved

Note: Georgia is currently besieged by interethnic strife in its Abkhazian and South Ossetian enclaves. Location Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia Regional Statistics: Area:
total area: 69,700 sq km
land area: 69,700 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than South Carolina Land boundaries: total 1,461 km, Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km, Turkey 252 km Coastline: 310 km Maritime claims:
note: 12 nm in 1973 USSR-Turkish Protocol concerning the sea boundary between the two states in the Black Sea; Georgia claims the coastline along the Black Sea as its international waters, although it cannot control this area and the Russian navy and commercial ships transit freely International disputes: none Climate: warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast Terrain: largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhida Lowland opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland Natural resources: forest lands, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ores, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth

45. Georgia - Atlapedia Online
1987 the ussr and USA signed the Treaty on Intermediate place and it was reportedthat former Pres Also during 1993 georgia was admitted to the Commonwealth of
OFFICIAL NAME: Republic of Georgia
CAPITAL: Tbilisi
SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT: Unitary Multiparty Republic
AREA: 69,700 Sq Km (26,900 Sq Mi)
ESTIMATED 2000 POPULATION LOCATION AND GEOGRAPHY: Georgia is a former republic of the USSR. It is bound by Russia to the north and east, Azerbaijan to the southeast, Armenia to the south, Turkey to the southwest and the Black Sea to the west. In the north the Greater Caucasus Ranges are connected to the Lesser Caucasus Ranges and Armenian Highlands in the south, by the north to south Surami Range. In between these ranges lie a series of fertile plains and valleys while towards the Black Sea coast, the marshy delta of the Rioni River forms the Colchis Swamps. The principal rivers are the Kura and Rioni. Major Cities (pop. est.); Tbilisi 1,270,000, Kutaisi 240,000, Rustavi 158,000, Batumi 137,000, Sukhumi 112,000 (1993). Land Use; forested 39%, pastures 29%, agricultural-cultivated 14%, other 18% (1993). CLIMATE: Georgia has a transitional climate from subtropical along the coastal regions to continental in eastern Georgia. Along the coast there are frostless winters and warm humid summers with humidity and precipitation decreasing in the mountains to the east. Along the coast average annual precipitation varies from 1,200 to 2,800 mm (47 to 110 inches) to 600 to 800 mm (24 to 31.5 inches) in the mountainous regions. Average temperature ranges are from 3 to 6 degrees Celsius (37 to 43 degrees Fahrenheit) in January to 23 to 26 degrees Celsius (73 to 79 degrees Fahrenheit) in August.

46. Islam In The USSR
Islam in the World. Islam in the ussr. by. A Uzbekistan, 2. Tajikistan, 3. Azerbaijan,4. georgia and Armenia The former Communist Party and KGB had such terrible
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Islam in the World Islam in China Islam in Malaysia Islam in the USSR Present situation of Soviet Muslims Islam in Albania Islam in Africa Islam in West Africa ...

Islam in the USSR Islam in China Islam in Malaysia Islam in the USSR Present situation of Soviet Muslims Islam in Albania Islam in Africa Islam in West Africa ... Islam in Japan Islam in the World Islam in the USSR by A. Kalaam The Republic of Uzbekistan The Republic of Tajikistan The Republic of Turkmenia The Republic of Kirghizia ... Muslims in European Russia
[There are about 80 million Muslims in what was Soviet Union. In spite of their number, the outside world seems to know little about them. Of the 16 states that comprised the Soviet Union, Muslims were in majority in eight of them when the Communists took over in 1917. The Muslim majority areas in what was the Soviet Union were: 1. Uzbekistan, 2. Tajikistan, 3. Azerbaijan, 4. Georgia and Armenia, 5. Kazakhstan, 6. Kirghizia, 7. Tatar and Bashkar, 8. Caucasia and 9. Cremia.
Islam was introduced in Uzbekistan in the 8th century during the time of the Umayyad Caliph Abdul Malik bin Marwan. For twelve hundred years, the entire area remained under Muslim rule. Uzbekistan has produced several renowned scholars of Hadith and Fiqh, besides leading Muslim philosophers, physicians and mathematicians. It was also in the early 8th century, the entire population of Tajikistan embraced Islam, even before the message of Islam reached Afghanistan. The message of Islam reached Azerbaijan in 14 AH (636 CE), and it became a part of the Islamic world in the year 113 AH during the period of Umayyad Caliph Hisham bin Abdul Malik.

47. Chronology: The Rise, Fall, And Aftermath Of The Soviet Bloc
are partly liberalized throughout much of the former ussr. out or intensifies informer Soviet republics of Moldova, georgia, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan
The Rise, Fall, and Aftermath of the Soviet Bloc
These materials were prepared by Professor Ben Slay for Economics 230, Spring 1998.
• 1928: Stalin imposes the "Stalinist development model" based upon comprehensive five year plans, rapid economic growth, forced industrialization, the liquidation of the private sector, and the forced collectivization of agriculture. • 1939: Nazi Germany and the USSR invade Poland, "starting" World War II.
Back to Contents
The 1940s
• 1949: People's Republic established in China. Tito breaks with Stalin; Yugoslavia leaves the Soviet bloc, and begins the "Yugoslav road to socialism" based on worker and regional self-management.
Back to Contents
The 1950s
Back to Contents
The 1960s
  • New Economic Mechanism introduced in Hungary, based on abolition of obligatory output plans for enterprises, and increased importance of financial planning.
  • Warsaw Pact armies intervene in Czechoslovakia to stop the Prague Spring.

former ussr. (See also AzerbaiJan, CIS, georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova Moreover, successiveSoviet governments since Stalin have been reticent about disclosing and

News Releases About HRW Contribute ... Contact Us

(See also AzerbaiJan, CIS, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, turkmenistan, Uzbekistan)
The Continuing Legacy of Stalin’s Deportations
Examining the present situation of ten Soviet peoples who suffered mass national deportation from their homelands under Stalin mainly to the Soviet republics of Central Asia this report shows that not one of these nationalities or its members has ever received just compensation for the harm done to it. Moreover, successive Soviet governments since Stalin have been reticent about disclosing and acknowledging the injustices or the peoples’ innocence of wrongdoing. Ostensibly, most of the deportations were carried out because these peoples had betrayed their country during the Nazi invasion. Yet the evidence suggests that, by and large, the accused nationalities had acted loyally in defending their country. Ultimately, assigning collective guilt and punishment by reason of ethnic affiliation was a great crime from which its victims still suffer.
Human Rights in the USSR
This report reviews human rights issues during a critical period in Soviet history when very real accomplishments under Mikhail Gorbachev’s policy of glasnost were made and then reversed or seriously threatened by his efforts to restore “law and order.” Covering the period of 1990 and early 1991, Glasnost in Jeopardy describes traditional human rights concerns (civil and political rights, freedom of association, freedom of movement, due process and detention issues, as well as political participation) and also highlights ethnic and nationality problems and instances of communal violence. There is also a survey of enforcement agencies, and new executive powers. An appendix features relevant Soviet laws passed during this period, including those on the press, religion, public organizations and states of emergency.

49. 8. Conflict Management In The Former USSR And World Experience
in France and Spain, Ossetians in Russia and georgia). a matter of survival for thegovernment involved, and 5 Ethnic conflicts in the former ussr history and
Contents Previous Next 8. Conflict management in the former USSR and world experience Victor A. Kremenyuk Victor A. Kremenyuk 1 Introduction
2 On the notion of "conflict management"

3 Two cultures of conflict management

4 Ethnic conflicts as objects of management
6. Conclusion: Learning lessons
1 Introduction
We shall begin by analysing the notion of "conflict management" as it is treated in this article and as it has long been understood in European and non-European tradition. The specifics of "conflict" in various political and social cultures, and attitudes toward conflict, are studied further as a part of the whole problem of managing multiethnic societies under conditions of devolution of power. These stages of analysis permit us to describe typical approaches to conflict management in the former USSR and in some major Western nations. Comparative analysis may help us to see how the process of conflict management is connected with the process of nation-building, depending upon historical development, types of political culture, the nature and type of conflict, and the effectiveness of conflict management. 2 On the notion of "conflict management"

50. Georgia, Country, Asia: History
economically as part of the ussr, struggled with social He escaped to W georgia andinstigated a Autonomous Republic also revolted, the former demanding union
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    Georgia, country, Asia
    Early History through Soviet Rule
    Georgia developed as a kingdom about the 4th cent. B.C. Mtskheta was its earliest capital; coastal Georgia was the Colchis of the ancient Greeks. The Persian Sassanidae, who ruled the country from the 3d cent. A.D. , were expelled c.400. In the 4th cent. Christianity was introduced in Georgia. In the 6th cent. the rule of a branch of the Bagratid family began. Alp Arslan held the region in the 11th cent., but King David II expelled the Seljuk Turks, united the Georgians, and reestablished their independence. The Man in the Panther's Skin, by Shota Rustaveli. Ravaged (13th cent.) by the Mongols, Georgia revived but was again sacked by Timur In the 16th cent. Georgia became an object of struggle between Turkey and Persia. In 1555, W Georgia passed under Turkish suzerainty and E Georgia (Kakhetia and Karthlia) under Persian rule. In the 18th cent. kings of Kakhetia tried to unite Georgia, but, pressed by the Turks and the Persians, accepted (1783) vassalage to Russia in exchange for assistance. The last king, George XIII, threatened by Persia, abdicated (1801) in favor of the czar and ceded Kakhetia and Karthlia to Russia. Between 1803 and 1829 Russia also acquired from Turkey the western parts of Georgia (Abkhazia, Mingrelia, Imeritia, and Guria).

51. Pravda.RU Russia Wants To Pay Off Soviet Debts Next Year
Russia is planning to pay off former ussr debts in 1240 Vladimir Putin former georgiangovernment made too many interest in what is happening now in georgia.
Last update:06/09/2004 12:40 MSK Russia World Science and Culture Editorial ... About Pravda.RU:Russia:More in detail
Russia wants to pay off Soviet debts next year
Russia is planning to pay off former USSR debts in 2004, Russian Deputy Finance Minister Alexey Ulyukayev declared at a round table meeting in the Audit Chamber today. He noted that the share of the unsettled part of Soviet debts was 5 percent in the structure of Russia's total debt as of the middle of 2003. The deputy minister specified that Russia was actively negotiating this problem with Kuwait, Turkey, Yugoslavia and Malta. The problem of Soviet debts has been settled with Thailand, Oman and South Korea, he added.
According to the Russian Central Bank, Soviet debts amounted to $55.3bn as of July 1, 2003, including $41bn to the Paris Club. Russia's total debt was $159.1bn as of July 1, 2003.

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Pravda.RU:Russia Russia holds on orbit 40 satellites of military purpose The Russian orbital group consists of more than 40 military purpose satellites, First Deputy Head of Russian Armed Forces Headquarters Yury Baluevsky disclosed to journalists on Wednesday. "It is not true that we were left blind and deaf with the recent fall of one of our satellites

52. Nations Of The Former Soviet Union
NATIONS OF THE former SOVIET UNION. Uzbekistan gained its independence with thecollapse of the ussr in 1991. COINS OF georgia REFLECT ANCIENT HERITAGE.
Interesting Stuff Catalog
A selection of coins from nations that emerged after the collapse of the Soviet Union
Nagorno-Karabakh is an ethnically Armenian
Item C-NK-1 NAGORNO-KARABAKH 25,000 DRAMS 1998 Avo, Silver PF (KM1) $55.00
Item C-NK-1A NAGORNO-KARABAKH 25,000 DRAMS 1998 Avo Gold Plated PF (KM1a) $75.00
Item C-NK-5 NAGORNO-KARABAKH 25,000 DRAMS 1994/1998 2 busts Silver PF (KM5) $55.00
Item C-NK-5A NAGORNO-KARABAKH 25,000 DRAMS 1994/1998 2 busts Gold Plated PF (KM5a) $75.00
Item C-NK-6 NAGORNO-KARABAKH 25,000 DRAMS 1998 Astghik Silver PF $57.00
Item C-NK-6A NAGORNO-KARABAKH 25,000 DRAMS 1998 Astghik Gold Plated PF $77.00
With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 Armenia again emerged as an independent nation after centuries of foreign domination. In 1994 it issued its first coins as an independent nation in over 500 years! We are pleased to offer the full set of seven set coins. Included are the 10, 20, 50 Luma, 1, 3, 5, and 10 Dram. The coins are struck in aluminum and are Uncirculated.
Item L-AM-SET94 ARMENIA 1994 7 COIN SET 10 LUMA - 10 DRAM (KM51-58) UNC. $2.50

53. Nations Online :: Georgia - Sak'art'velo
former Republic of georgia former georgian Soviet Socialist of the Republic ofgeorgia declared independence from the ussr Constitution 17
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keywords: Georgia information, Georgia facts, Georgia geography, Georgia news papers, travel Georgia, tourist information for Georgia, Georgia map Note: External links will open in a new browser window.
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Flag of Georgia Background:
Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR until the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991. Russian troops remain garrisoned at four military bases and as peacekeepers in the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia (but are scheduled to withdraw from two of the bases by July 2001).
Ethnic separation in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, poor governance, and Russian military bases deny the government effective control over the entirety of the state's internationally recognized territory.
Despite a badly degraded transportation network - brought on by ethnic conflict, criminal activities, and fuel shortages - the country continues to move toward a market economy and greater integration with Western institutions.

54. News From Former USSR
US Pentagon has the following plans for the former republics of the ussr. into placeby NATO that their forces will be stationed in georgia for many
News from Former USSR Statement by the Secretariat of the
Union of Communist Parties-CPSU
By Sowing the Wind, They Will Reap a Hurricane
The Russian bourgeois-comprador regime once again decided to do away with the ideals of Communism and Bolshevism, to bury the great historical facts of former USSR. This is on the eve of the 80 th Anniversary of the death of V.I. Lenin. In this muddy, filthy, obnoxious campaign the government pulled out all the stops in this murky attempt, of course of the eve of the Presidential election, with the help of their "masters of culture " to do away with the body of V.I. Lenin from the Mausoleum on the Red Square. Even with all of these " experts" in muddying the waters, they could not come up with anything new. Calling Lenin a national traitor, getting German gold to start the 1917 Revolution, his bloody cruelty and murder of people…they call upon all people to agree to rebury Lenin in a " Christian Burial " - of course, get him out of the Lenin Mausoleum. And of course, the 125th Anniversary of the birth of Stalin coming, these traitors could not let this pass by, they dragged out again and again the stories of "repressions

55. Reporters Sans Frontières - Progress In Europe But Former USSR Slips Backward
repressive regimes in the exussr countries In georgia, independent journalists werestill targets of In former Soviet Central Asia, press freedom continued to

56. Georgia
310 km note 12 nm in 1973 ussrTurkish Protocol of georgia conventional short formgeorgia local long short form Sak art velo former georgian Soviet Socialist
Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia Area:
total area 69,700 sq km
land area 69,700 sq km Land boundaries: total 1,461 km, Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km, Turkey 252 km Coastline: 310 km note 12 nm in 1973 USSR-Turkish Protocol concerning the sea boundary between the two states in the Black Sea; Georgia claims the coastline along the Black Sea as its international waters, although it cannot control this area and the Russian navy and commercial ships transit freely Climate: warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast Terrain: largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhida Lowland opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland Land use:
arable land NA%
permanent crops NA%
meadows and pastures NA%
forest and woodland NA%
other NA% Irrigated land: 4,660 sq km (1990) Environment:
current issues air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of safe drinking water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals

57. FORUM 21
Department of Defense or any other government agency. with certain advantages in theformer ussr and in were Leninists and pressed for separation from georgia.
Number 21, March 1995
The Conflict in Abkhazia: A Georgian Perspective
Professor Zaza Gachechiladze
About the Discussion
Note: Opinions, conclusions, and recommendations expressed or implied in this paper are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University, the Department of Defense or any other government agency. The Conflict in Abkhazia The conflict in Abkhazia ended tragically in the autumn of 1993. Some viewed the conflict as an ethnic clash between Abkhazians and Georgians, but it was much more complex than that. There were many nationality groups involved, including ethnic Abkhazians, Georgians, Russians, the Confederation of North Caucasian Mountain Peoples, Armenians, and Turks. Dr. Gachechiladze provided the following background on the positions of these groups: Abkhazians for a long time were integrated with Georgians. For social reasons, Abkhazians were cited as Abkhazians on their passports. Being identified as an Abkhazian provided individuals with certain advantages in the former U.S.S.R. and in Abkhazia itself. The highest ranking officials in institutions in Abkhazia were Abkhazians. From the some 70,000 Abkhazians, only a few hundred started aggravating the situation in Abkhazia. Abkhazian leaders were Leninists and pressed for separation from Georgia. They sought support from people who had been associated with the former Communist Party of the Soviet Union and from the Russian armed forces.

Union (Lenin s international socialism world government, being implemented secretpolice of the former Soviet Union in Tbilisi, the capitol of Soviet georgia.
Charlotte Iserbyt
April 23, 2003
Most of us are aware of the Reece Committee Hearings in 1953 during which Norman Dodd was told by the President of the Ford Foundation that the Foundation received its orders from the White House on how it should spend its tax-exempt monies. The orders were to spend the money to change America so it could be comfortably merged with the Soviet Union (Lenin's international government, being implemented right now) President Eisenhower was President at the time, and in 1958 signed the first agreements with the Soviet Union at the peak of the Cold War, in various areas, including space, education, medicine, arts, etc. In 1985 President Reagan signed the most extensive education agreements at the same time the Carnegie Corporation signed agreements with the Soviet Academy of Science.
The neoconservatives did everything possible to keep this information from the American people. About fifty patriotic Americans contributed $5000 to purchase a one-page ad in The Washington Times which explained what had happened. Four years later the President of America's Future, the late Robert Morris (who had been the counsel for the Congressional Committee investigating communism in the schools in the early fifties...was a good friend of the late Bella Dodd's) upon assuming his new job, found an article I had written in the inbox of the former President of America's Future, and called me, shocked, needless to say. He had no knowledge Ronald Reagan had signed these agreements. He immediately published my article "Soviets in the Classroom...America's Latest Education Fad" in 1989, four years after the fact.

59. FAO Fisheries Department Review Of The State Of World Aquaculture FORMER USSR AR
grouping, with sharp reductions evident for georgia and Turkmenistan. might be expectedto apply to former Eastern Bloc Inland capture fisheries of the ussr.
3.5 Former USSR Area Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan Barg, U. Production and production trends Figure 3.5.1.
Total aquaculture production in 1995 in the countries of the former USSR area amounted to 161,000 mt, valued at US$395 million. The contribution of this region to world total aquaculture production and value in 1995 was 0.6% and 0.9%, respectively. Total production in the region has decreased since 1984, when total aquaculture production in the former USSR was 271,000 mt, valued at US$313.7 million. The decrease in production (APR 1984-1995, -4.6), and the increase of its value (APR 1984-1995, 2.1), however, were not continuous throughout this period ( Figure 3.5.1 ). Production and value showed significant increases from 1984 to 1990 (APR 6.9 for production, and 18.1 for value), when total aquaculture production peaked at 404,000 mt, valued at US$856.1 million. In 1990, this region contributed 2.6% in terms of production and 3.2% in terms of value to world aquaculture production. There was a drastic decrease in total production and value from 1990 to 1991 of 36.6% and 34.2%, respectively, when production and value dropped to 256,000 mt and US$563.6 million, respectively. Since 1991, total production and value of aquaculture have continued to decrease, although at slower rates, with APRs (1991-1995) of about -11.0 for production and -8.5 for value. Total production in 1994 was 171,000 mt, valued at US$417.3 million The decrease in production for the 1994-1995 period (6.1% for production, and 5.3% for value) may indicate that the rate of decline in aquaculture production, and its value, is slowing.

60. Georgia
the first republic president in the ussr to be promises to the contrary, agreed toGeorgia becoming a The former president, who had returned from exile to lead
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Or search the encyclopaedia: Georgia These apartment buildings stand above the Kura River, which flows through the Georgian capital, Tbilisi. Once part of the Soviet Union, Georgia is a fiercely independent country with its own language and alphabet.
Turkish bath houses in the Old Town area of Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia. Public baths were used in ancient times because private houses did not have baths. Today Tbilisi is the main commercial centre of Georgia, with a population of more than 1,200,000.
Country in the Caucasus of southeastern Europe, bounded north by Russia, east by Azerbaijan, south by Armenia and Turkey, and west by the Black Sea. Government
There is a 235-seat legislature, the supreme soviet, to which 150 deputies are elected by proportional representation and 85 by the first-past-the-post system. All serve four-year terms. The executive state president is directly elected for a five-year term. The president governs with a cabinet of ministers, which includes a prime minister. In September 1993 the incumbent president Edvard Shevardnadze was conferred emergency powers to rule by decree, and in August 1995 a new constitution was adopted.

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