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         Fossil Fuels General:     more books (100)
  1. Fossil fuels the Department of Energy's magnetohydrodynamics development program : report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy, Committee on Science, ... Representatives (SuDoc GA 1.13:RCED-93-174) by U.S. General Accounting Office, 1993
  2. Fossil fuels ways to strengthen controls over Clean Coal Technology project costs : report to the Chairman, Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources ... Representatives (SuDoc GA 1.13:RCED-93-104) by U.S. General Accounting Office, 1993
  3. Fossil fuels : status of DOE-funded clean coal technology projects as of March 15, 1989 : fact sheet for the chairman, Subcommittee on Energy and Power, ... (SuDoc GA 1.13:RCED-89-166 FS) by U.S. General Accounting Office, 1989
  4. Fossil fuels DOE's effort to provide clean coal technology to Poland : report to the Honorable Barbara A. Mikulski, U.S. Senate (SuDoc GA 1.13:RCED-91-155) by U.S. General Accounting Office,
  5. Fossil fuels improvements needed in DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program : report to the Chairman, Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources Subcommittee, ... Representatives (SuDoc GA 1.13:RCED-92-17) by U.S. General Accounting Office, 1991
  6. Fossil Fuel Levy Act, 1998 (Public General Acts - Elizabeth II) by Great Britain, 1998-03
  7. Eating Fossil Fuels: Oil, Food And the Coming Crisis in Agriculture by Dale Allen Pfeiffer, 2006-10
  8. Fossil Fuels, Oil Companies, and Indigenous Peoples: Strategies of Multinational Oil Companies, States and Ethnic Minorities. Impact on Environment, (Action Antrhopology Aktionsethnologie)
  9. Geology of Fossil Fuels, Coal: Proceedings of the 30th International Geological Congress
  10. Fossil Fuel Power by Josepha Sherman, 2004-01
  11. The Leasing of Federal Lands for Fossil Fuels Production (RFF Press) by Stephen L. McDonald, 1979-03-01
  12. Fossil Fuels: A Resource Our World Depends on (Heinemann Infosearch, Managing Our Resources) by Ian Graham, 2004-09
  13. What If We Run Out of Fossil Fuels? (What If) by Kimberly M. Miller, 2002-03
  14. Geology of Fossil Fuels, Oil & Gas: Proceedings of the 30th International Geological Congress (Verhandelingen Van Het Koninklijk Instituut Voor Taal-, ... Het Koninklijk Instituut Voor Taal-, Land)

1. Non-renewable Energy Fossil Fuels
General information sites, comprehensive links State of Wisconsin Energy; WisconsinEnergy The hidden costs of fossil fuels; MidEast oil forever? ; Energy quiz.
GEO 350

2. Fossil Fuel In General
One thousand links for anyone who wants to learn how North America uses its fossil fuel resources. Environmental Aspects of fossil Fuel Use fossil Fuel in general. Links About fossil Fuel in general What are the fossil fuels tutorial by RH Logan, North Lake College, USA
Benefits from Fossil Fuel Use
Environmental Aspects of Fossil Fuel Use
Links About Fossil Fuel in General Trade Associations.
There are many associations that represent parts of the fossil energy world. The broadest representation is by these groups: Coal National Mining Association
Oil American Petroleum Institute
Gas American Gas Association
Energy use: Association of Energy Services Professionals
- association focusing on energy efficiency in the European municipalities, urban energy planning, urban transport, and European programmes.
International Association of Energy Economics
- provides a forum for the exchange of ideas, experience and issues among professionals interested in energy economics.
National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO)
- represents state officials who hold primary responsibility over energy policy within their respective governments. Yahoo Sites: Arts: Humanities: History: U.S. History: Organizations
Business and Economy: Companies: Construction: Industry Information: Organizations

Science: Energy: Organizations

Science: Engineering: Organizations
... Social Science: Economics: Organizations Regulation: burning of fossil fuels is regulated by both the states and the federal government.

3. Replacing Fossil Fuels: The Scale Of The Problem
a short briefing document that investigates replacing fossil fuels the scale of the problem. 2. In general, required installed electric generation capacity tends to be quoted in the region of 1kw per household
Replacing fossil fuels:
the scale of the problem
a briefing document
site map This the first in a series of briefing documents on the problems of power consumption, posed by the steady depletion of fossil fuels and most particularly of pumpable oil.
Is nuclear power really really dangerous?

Global warming


Transportable fuels
... Table: Fuel usage efficiency
There are constant, ill-informed debates and reports that suggest that we can easily replace our fossil fuel usage by wind, or solar cell power, or some such method. Within current technology, this is a pipe-dream, it is impossible, it simply cannot be done. This does not mean that we are all dooooooooomed; but we are faced with a tremendous problem as reserves of fossil fuel, especially cheap pumpable oil, diminish. See World oil resources table for details.
There is a similar table for coal resources . As you will see, even with known coal resources, the current situation is not nearly as critical as it is for oil. This is probably an under-estimate of coal reserves, as the pressure to find new reserves has, so far, been considerably less than the pressures posed by oil depletion.
  • Fossil fuels are filthy.
  • 4. Fossil Fuels
    Petroleum, natural gas, and coal are the main sources of energy for modern use. All of these fuels are classified as fossil fuels. within the same deposit. In general, there are four hasic varieties of
    Petroleum, natural gas, and coal are the main sources of energy for modern use. All of these fuels are classified as fossil fuels . The reason they are called fossil fuels is because they are all made from decayed plants and animals that have been preserved in the earth's crust by pressure, bacterial processes and heat. It takes millions of years for these organisms to chemically change into fossil fuels. Liquid fossil fuels, like petroleum , is formed in areas that geologists believe were once covered by oceans or seas. These fuels were formed when dead plants and animals sank to the bottom of the ocean and were covered by sediments. Over long periods of time (millions of years), pressure, bacterial processes, and heat changed the sediments into sedimentary rocks and the plant and animal remains into oil. Eventually underground pools of oil formed when oil migrated through the pores and cracks of rocks and eventually filled these empty spaces. Geolgists search in areas which may contain oil traps. Oil traps include fault lines where porous rock is aligned next to non-porous rock. These traps are also found among folded rock layers. This is an example of a folded-rock-layer oil trap being drilled for petroleum. Oil drills are known as a oil derricks in the petroleum industry.

    5. Fossil Fuels (general)
    general information about fossil fuels. We are going to give extensiveinformation on fossil fuels. In this way you will have some
    General information
    about fossil fuels
    We are going to give extensive information on fossil fuels. In this way you will have some background information and hopefully you can then understand the rest better if you read this first.
    What are fossil fuels?
    Fossil fuels are remains of ancient plants and animals. These fossil fuels contain energy that is liberated when they are burned. People then use this energy in different ways.
    What are fossil fuels made of?
    There are three kinds of fossil fuels. The first one is coal. Coal is gathered under the ground in solid form. It is mined and brought to a place where it is stored or burned. Oil is also found under the ground, either on land or under the sea, in a liquid form. The oil is drilled and pumped out of the ground. Natural gas is found under the ground and gathered in the same way as oil.
    What are fossil fuels used for?
    All fossil fuels can be burned to make energy that is used in energy power stations.
    With coal you can produce heat. Years ago, coal was used in homes, but now it is generally only used in big machines in the factories or in coal power stations to generate electricity.
    Oil is mostly used to make gasoline (for cars). Materials like plastic are also made out of oil. People use natural gas in homes (for example) to warm up water and to cook with.

    6. The Energy Story - Chapter 8: Fossil Fuels - Coal, Oil And Natural Gas
    The Energy Story is a general introduction to energy. Chapters explore renewable energy, fossil fuels, electricity, circuits and many other things. There are three major forms of fossil fuels coal, oil and natural gas U.S. Dept of Energy general Info on Oil (
    Chapter 8: Fossil Fuels - Coal, Oil and Natural Gas
    Where Fossil Fuels Come From
    There are three major forms of fossil fuels: coal, oil and natural gas. All three were formed many hundreds of millions of years ago before the time of the dinosaurs - hence the name fossil fuels. The age they were formed is called the Carboniferous Period. It was part of the Paleozoic Era. "Carboniferous" gets its name from carbon, the basic element in coal and other fossil fuels.
    The Carboniferous Period occurred from about 360 to 286 million years ago. At the time, the land was covered with swamps filled with huge trees, ferns and other large leafy plants, similar to the picture above. The water and seas were filled with algae - the green stuff that forms on a stagnant pool of water. Algae is actually millions of very small plants. Some deposits of coal can be found during the time of the dinosaurs. For example, thin carbon layers can be found during the late Cretaceous Period (65 million years ago) - the time of Tyrannosaurus Rex . But the main deposits of fossil fuels are from the Carboniferous Period. For more about the various geologic eras, go to

    7. The EnviroLink Network - Fossil Fuels
    Suggest a Resource. fossil fuels general Information. Actions YouCan Take (3) Articles (8) Educational Resources (4) E-Mail Lists Fuels&topicsku=2002116191454&

    8. The EnviroLink Network - Fossil Fuels
    fossil fuels. Actions You Can Take (3) Articles (8) Educational Resources(4) EMail Lists (0) Events (0), general Info (4) Government Resources (1 Fuels&topicsku=2002116191454&

    9. Energy Resources - Fossil Fuels
    5. Energy from the combustion of fossil fuels Chap 14 A. general CombustionReaction, Text p. 223, 328. ProfONotes Carbon Cycle. ProfONotes

    Lecture/Outline Issues Respond in Blackboard Discussion
    Charles E. Ophardt, Professor of Chemistry, Elmhurst College
    TOPIC 6: ENERGY RESOURCES - FOSSIL FUELS ON-LINE Lecture Discussion Requirement of 3 questions (6 pts):
    Do one question from the QUES 1-9 . Use the assigned student ID numbers. Questions Ques. 1 Ques. 2 Ques. 3 Ques. 4 Ques. 5 Student ID Questions Ques. 6 Ques. 7 Ques. 8 Ques. 9 Student ID Second Question of your choice from QUES 1-9. A third question may be to respond or comment to someone else, or use General Questions to ask a general question the Prof or others might answer. Check Answers already posted for the Blackboard On-line Discussion - Topic 6 Requirements for the Lecture On-Line Discussion
    Method to list references and citations
    Special Assignment for this Topic Only
    How much energy do you use? How much carbon dioxide do you produce as a result of burning fossil fuels for energy?
    This assessment is worth 6 points. PERSONAL ENERGY RESOURCE USE ASSESSMENT
    Chap 12 and p. 39-43, 214-229

    10. Fossil Fuels
    A presentation by Osman Chughtai and David Shannon. Introduction. fossil fuels, coal, oil and natural gas, are a nonrenewable source of energy. on fossil fuels. The first internal combustion engine was invented by Nicolaus August Otto. There are 4 general types of
    A presentation by Osman Chughtai and David Shannon Introduction
      Fossil fuels, coal, oil and natural gas, are a non-renewable source of energy. Formed from plants and animals that lived up to 300 million years ago, fossil fuels are found in deposits beneath the earth. The fuels are burned to release the chemical energy that is stored within this resource. Energy is essential to moden society as we know it. Over 85% of our energy demands are met by the combustion of fossil fuels. These two pie charts show exactly how vital fossil fuels are to our society by showing how much of each energy resource is consumed.
      Going back to the earlier days of Earth, the plants and animals that lived then eventually died and decomposed. The majority of these life forms were phytoplankton and zooplankton. When these ancient ocean dwellers died, they accumulated on the bottom of a seabed; this is how a good portion of our fossil fuel reserves began. The actual transformation process of these prehistoric creatures is not known, but scientists do know that the pressure, heat, and a great deal of time go into the making of fossil fuels. Geologists are fairly certain that the beds of organic remains mixed with silt and mud to form layers. Over time, mineral sedimentation formed on top of the organisms, effectively entombing them in rock. As this occurred, pressure and temperature increased. These conditions, and possibly other unknown factors, caused organic material to break down into the simpler form of hydrocarbons: chains of carbon and hydrogen ranging from simple configuration to complex compounds. Another affect of extreme pressure is that the oil and gas which are various mixtures of hydrocarbons, migrate upwards to the surface. Exactly when in the conversion process and the nature of this migration is not known and is subject to conjecture.

    11. Best Replacement Energy To Fossil Fuels
    Ask A Scientist©. general Science Archive. Best Replacement Energyto fossil fuels. name Laurel status student age 17
    Ask A Scientist
    General Science Archive
    Best Replacement Energy to Fossil Fuels
    Back to General Science Topics Ask A Scientist Index NEWTON Homepage Ask A Question ...
    is an electronic community for Science, Math, and Computer Science K-12 Educators.
    Argonne National Laboratory, Division of Educational Programs, Harold Myron, Ph.D., Division Director.

    12. Apolyton CS Forums
    Apolyton CS has compiled the most comprehensive collection of Civilizationrelated material on the Internet. We are your one stop resource for the community's late-breaking news to the hottest Lotm I have to disagree. Synthetic fossil fuels will at best keep global warming and

    13. BBC Education - AS Guru - General Studies - Science - Energy - Burning Fossil Fu
    Burning fossil fuels is not very efficient It has been estimated that apower station burning coal as its fuel may be less than 35% efficient!


    A-Z Index

    9th June 2004
    Text Only

    Burning fossil fuels is not very efficient... It has been estimated that a power station burning coal as its fuel may be less than 35% efficient! Add to this energy losses that occur as the electricity is transmitted from the power station to its eventual destination - let's suppose it is your home as you use a games console:
    1. 5% of the energy in coal is 'lost' as it is burnt, 2. 65% is then wasted out of the top of the cooling towers, 3. 1% is transferred as heat energy in the 'step up' transformer, 4. 3% is transferred as heat in the transmission lines, 5. 1% is 'lost' in the 'step down' transformer, 6. Some will be transferred as heat as the electrical energy eventually reaches your console!
    Offline Activity Use these figures to construct a flow chart to show energy wasted at each stage. Now go on and try the quiz. page 5 of 13

    14. Ask Professor Quester - Energy Q&A
    Questions. fossil fuels Questions, general Renewable Energy Questions.Hydroelectric (Water Power) Questions, Wind Energy Questions.
    Dear Students, On this page you will find answers to most of your questions about energy. Choose a topic. Then look over the questions. Click on the question, and you'll find the answer! If you need more information, check out Energy Story or How Stuff Works at . You can also do an internet search using your favorite search engine. Thanks for visiting Energy Quest!
    General Energy Questions
    Electricity and Efficiency Questions Fossil Fuels Questions General Renewable Energy Questions ... Transportation Energy Questions
    General Energy Questions
    Electricity and Efficiency Questions

    15. Professor Quester Answers - General Energy
    Professor Quester Answers general Energy Questions. Today we use engines,powered by fossil fuels or renewable energy, to do work.
    Professor Quester Answers
    General Energy Questions
    Dear Professor Quester:

    What is the scientific name for the energy in your body like where you get your strength? My teacher said that when you are sleeping the energy is potential. But if you are sleeping your body doesn't stop. It moves because you can have rapid eye movement and your brain keeps working and your digestive system and all, you know, so what's up with that? Wouldn't your body always be kinetic? THANK YOU SOOOO MUCH!!! (Christen, Grade 9, Creek View High School, Dallas, Texas)
    The Professor Answers:
    Your body uses chemical energy to get your strength, and both you and your teacher are correct. Chemical energy in plants and other food is potential energy. This chemical energy is released as it is "burned" or oxidized inside our bodies during digestion - fueling our bodies. Your body actually doesn't shut down totally when you sleep of course, because the your digestive system is always working, breaking down the food into chemical and heat energy fueling your lungs, brain, heart, etc. What your teacher probably means is that your body is at rest and is considered more potential energy (at rest) than when you are awake, walking around (kinetic). Good luck and thanks for asking.

    16. Animal Concerns Community - Fossil Fuels
    advanced search. Site Map; Animal Concerns Forum; About Animal Concerns;EnviroLink Network. Suggest a Resource. fossil fuels general Information. Fuels&topicsku=2002116191

    17. Energy Economics - Extraction Efficiency And Costs, Depletion Of Fossil Fuels
    Remember that the EROEI for coal is, in general, lower than that for oil result inlarge increases in the atmospheric filth produced by fossil fuels, this being

    how long do we have?
    a briefing document
    site map This the fifth of a series of briefing documents on the problems of power consumption, posed by the steady depletion of fossil fuels and most particularly of pumpable oil.
    Is nuclear power really really dangerous?

    Global warming

    Transportable fuels
    economic efficiency extraction costs ... end notes
    This briefing document is designed to remedy much confused thinking that is abroad on the matter of energy arithmetic.
    Jevons, in The Coal Question , drew attention to the Watt steam engine. It was invented because the older Newcomen engine was so inefficient. But making steam power more efficient made the use of steam power spread more widely, and therefore coal consumption increased. Jevons Paradox is that conservation can encourage and increase consumption. Conservation does not necessarily, and of itself, reduce consumption. See here economic efficiency is not energy efficiency
    economic efficiency
    Consider a machine that is sold for $100, which lasts only a year, and then a solidly made version of the machine, that costs $300 and which lasts for 10 years.

    18. Subject Area Details
    You can find research on nuclear power reactors and associated plants, includingresearch on nuclear fuels and general studies of reactor physics fossil fuels.
    About ETDE's
    Energy Database
    Subject Areas
    Reference Publications
    ... Home
    Subject Area Details
    ETDE's Energy Database covers energy-related information in the following 13 major subject areas:
    Accelerators and Instrumentation
    This section includes research in the design, development, and operation of particle accelerators, including storage rings. You can also find records relating to the effects of radiation on instrumentation, instrumentation to measure radiation, and other instrumentation associated with energy research.
    Biomedical Sciences
    This section focuses on basic and applied biomedical sciences, including the thermal effects of energy-related activities on living organisms and the metabolism and toxicology of chemicals associated with an energy cycle. Studies on monitoring radiation exposure and procedures and standards for protection against radiation can be found here in addition to studies of radiation effects on biochemicals, microorganisms, plants, and animals.
    Chemistry and Geology
    In this category, you can find research on energy-related aspects of such areas as analytical chemistry, chemical properties, and chemical processes in addition to radioisotope production involving chemical separations and non-fuel-specific information on combustion theory. Aspects of geology, seismology, and geochemistry where the context of the work reported is energy technology (such as studies of physical processes involved in global climate change) are also covered here.

    19. GeoResources - Geography Website (Energy Links)
    general Links. Energy Resources A good introduction that deals with allthe different types of energy, both fossil fuels and renewable energy.
    The UK's Number One
    Geography Portal!! Years 7 - 9 Topic: Energy

    This is another big topic with a large number of links to follow. A favourite for research and topic work.
    You can scroll down the page or jump to a particular section that you are interested in using the headings below:
    General Links
    Energy Resources A good introduction that deals with all the different types of energy, both fossil fuels and renewable energy.
    Energy reports on individual countries

    Union of Concerned Scientists
    Scientists concerned about our careless use of scarce energy resources and renewable energy.
    BP World Energy Statistics (2003)

    Back to top of page
    Fossil Fuels
    Fossil Fuels in North America
    Fossil Fuels

    Fossil Fuels
    Back to top of page
    Renewable Energy
    Centre for Alternative Technology (C.A.T.) Wind Energy Back to top of page
    Nuclear Energy
    Nuclear Energy - a students guide Nuclear Energy - questions and answers Back to top of page
    Energy Conservation
    Energy Conservation - how to save energy Back to top of page RETURN TO Topics Index PAGE Home Search GCSE 'AS'/'A' Level ... Contact Me

    20. Fossil Fuels
    Information about fossil fuels and their effects on their earth and their long termuse. Coming Feb 2004. Salinity. UniXL provides students, general public and
    @import "";
    Find out about? Search the Web
    Search Unixl
    Regional Development
    Environment Fossil Fuels
    Fossil Fuels
    Providing Information about fossil fuels and their effects on their earth and their long term use. Coming Feb 2004 Salinity
    UniXL provides students, general public and businesses with high quality and relevant education and careers related resources. Careers About Us Contact Us

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