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21. Ukraine - General Information
Online (Cyrillic place-names) Dmitry Zinoviev s Supermap of the railways of the former ussr, for example Other general Information
Enthusiast's Guide to Travelling the Railways of Europe
General Information Last update for this page: 22 May 2004 National Railway System: Official Website: (in Ukrainian and Russian; pages in English are foreseen). Languages: Ukrainian and Russian are officially recognised. Both are written in Cyrillic characters, but the Ukrainian alphabet includes several characters not used in Russian. Railway tickets are normally issued from computer terminals and may be issued in either language, depending on how the passenger requests it. Currency: Hrivnia (UAH) = 100 kopeks UIC code: Timetable: No complete public timetable is currently published; summary printed timetables for the main passenger trains are available at main stations, and schedules of local stopping services are posted at the stations concerned. By far the best source of information (in Russian as well as Ukrainian; formerly also in English) is on the UZ Web site at . Note that if you know the train number you can enter it directly. Some timetable information in English (check revision date) can be obtained from the unofficial site at

22. ACES Library At The University Of Illinois
Guide to Agricultural Statistics Foreign general. ISSN 10474781 http// former ussr.




Guide to Agricultural Statistics
Foreign: General
AgExporter Agricultural Trade of the United States (FATUS) FAO Bulletin of Statistics Food Outlook ... World Agriculture: Current Trends and Perspectives AgExporter (FAS): monthly
Provides tips on exporting, descriptions of markets with the greatest sales potential, and information on export assistance available from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The audience is U.S. agricultural producers, exporters, trade organizations, state departments of agriculture and any other export-oriented organization.
ISSN: 1047-4781
(1996-date) 1989-date ACES Stacks DOC.A67.7+3: 1989 to date Main Stacks Govt Documents Continues Foreign Agriculture 338.105 FOA 1963-1988 ACES Stacks; 1963-1978 Main Stacks DOC. A67.1/2:

23. Russian Collections At The Library Of Congress
general Characteristics and Development. periodicals) in Russian, and approximatelythe same number of volumes in other languages of the former ussr and volumes
The Russian Collections
at the Library of Congress
Harold M. Leich,
Russian Area Specialist
General Characteristics and Development
The Library of Congress currently holds about 700,000 physical volumes (books, sets, continuations, and bound periodicals) in Russian, and approximately the same number of volumes in other languages of the former USSR and volumes in Western languages about Russia and the former Soviet Union. There are also significant collections of other non-book print materials (music scores, newspapers, microforms and cartographic materials) and non-print materials (sound recordings, motion pictures, manuscripts, photographs, and posters), although statistics on these categories of holdings are less readily available. LC's Russian collection is by far the largest and most comprehensive outside Russia itself, even though by policy current collecting over the past fifty years was and remains highly selective, designed to bring in only the most useful and scholarly publications from and about Russia. Moreover, because of decades of communist censorship, political manipulation, appallingly poor storage conditions, and neglect of libraries in Russia, and because of LC's automation and preservation programs and the number of staff members involved in building, servicing, and interpreting the Russian collections, it is highly likely that the Library of Congress is the best single repository on earth in which to conduct research on Russia using published sources.

24. List Of General Astronomy Resources - Women In Astronomy: A Comprehensive Biblio
In International Astronomical Union. general Assembly, 22d, The Hague, 1994. Highlightsof astronomy. v. 10. Rykhlova, LV Womenastronomers of former ussr.
The Library of Congress Especially for Researchers Research Centers Home ... Women in Astronomy Find in Women in Astronomy Science Reference Pages Researchers Web Pages All Library of Congress Pages
Women in Astronomy: A Comprehensive Bibliography
A B C D ... Z
List of General Astronomy Resources
Previous Page Home
QB1.A422, no. 181 Richardson, Robert S. Women in astronomy. In his Astronomy in action. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1962. p. 125-130.
Rizzo, P. V. Early daughters of Urania. Sky and telescope, v. 14, Nov. 1954: 7-9. illus., ports.
QB1.S536, v. 14 Rossiter, Margaret W. Women in astronomy. In her "Women's work" in science, 1880-1910. Isis, v. 71, Sept. 1980: 383-387. group port.
Q1.I7, v. 71
The group portrait is captioned "The Harvard stellar classification team, known as ‘Pickering's harem.'" See Barbara L. Welther's note, "‘Pickering's harem,'" in Isis, v. 73, Mar. 1982, p. 94. Rossiter, Margaret W. Women scientists in America: struggles and strategies to 1940. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982. xviii, 439 p. illus., ports.

25. General Reference Documents For Accelerators Page
general Reference Documents for Accelerators. but also to the beginning of CERN,about the accelerators at Novosibirsk (Russia and former ussr) and Frascati
General Reference Documents for Accelerators
Page still under development. But please find some relevant information here.
  • Glossary of Accelerator Terms : It is a compilation of accelerator related terms in alphabetical order. Extremely helpful for anyone new entering the field.
    Rookie Books :
    These rookie books provide basic knowledge of different accelerators at Fermilab.
  • Main Injector Technical Design Handbook : Learn everything about the Fermilab Main Injector.
  • Access to online logbooks for FNAL accelerators and the beam lines : For NuMI click on "Numi Beamline".
  • List of few good books on Accelerator Physics: An Introduction to the Physics of High Energy Accelerators
    by Don Edwards and Mike Syphers.
    Comment : Don Edwards is the grand old man of accelerators and is still very active at Fermilab. Mike Syphers is the head of the beam physics department at Fermilab. The Development of Colliders
    Edited by Claudio Pellegrini and Andrew M. Sessler
    American Institute of Physics
    Comment : The book is a collection of seminal papers on accelerator physics from 1952 onward. You not only learn about the history of the field in USA beginning with what used to be MURA, but also to the beginning of CERN, about the accelerators at Novosibirsk (Russia and former USSR) and Frascati (Italy), and at other laboratories in the world which pioneered this field, but you also learn about the people and machine on whose experience today's accelerator based physics is done.

26. Demographic Developments In E. Europe And The FSU
former ussr; 3) the former Soviet republics of the Caucasus (Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan);and 4) the former Soviet republics of Central Asia. In general, we
Demographic Developments in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union, Present and Future
W. Ward Kingkade and John E. Dunlop INTRODUCTION The collapse of the Soviet Union has ushered in an era of transition in its successor states and former satellite countries. Demographic characteristics and trends represent an important element of the setting in which the societal changes are taking place. These changes have taken a variety of forms, but certain similarities are evident. In many of these countries, life expectancies have fallen, especially among males. Significant acceleration in the pace of fertility decline is nearly universal as well. In addition, international migration has increased sharply in many countries in the region. The new demographic developments have occurred with different intensities in the various countries, altering their relative rankings in many instances. Anticipated future demographic developments differ widely among the countries under consideration. Increasingly top-heavy age structures and eventually declining populations are foreseeable in most of the countries, especially those to the North and West (see end of article for regional definitions by country). This paper will profile trends in fertility, mortality, and migration in the recent past, drawing on the Census Bureau's International Database. We will explore future developments in population size and age-sex composition through comparative analysis of our recently completed round of world population projections.

27. The Departments Of The MoD & General Staff
the former ussr was taking into account, and also changes in concept of Organizationand development of Armed Forces of Ukraine, which happen now. The general

28. ²ñòîð³ÿ ñòâîðåííÿ Çáðîéíèõ Ñèë Óêðà¿íè
which establishes not only maximum weapons holdings for each former ussr republic,but developed, including the new Ministry of Defence (MOD), general Staff (GS
The creation of the Ukrainian Armed Forces
After the breakup of the Soviet Union and proclamation of Ukraine’s independence in 1991, Ukraine inherited one of the most powerful military formations in Europe, equipped with nuclear weapons and comparatively modern conventional weapons and military equipment in general. The following formations were based in Ukraine: a Strategic Rocket Army, three Combined Arms Armies and two Tank Armies, one Army Corps, four Air Armies, a separate Air Defence Army and the Black Sea Fleet. In general, the forces totalled 780,000 personnel, 6,500 tanks, more than 7,000 armoured vehicles, up to 1,500 combat aircraft, more than 350 ships and support vessels, 1,272 strategic nuclear warheads for ICBMs and more than 2,500 tactical nuclear weapons. However, these Armed Forces did not represent the military of an independent state. Ukraine inherited only individual elements of the Soviet military machine. That is why, on 24 September 1991, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (the Parliament) approved the decision to take under its jurisdiction all military formations of the former Soviet Armed Forces, deployed in Ukraine, and to establish for the first time the key body of the Ministry of Defence of Ukraine. From that time Ukraine has led the field, amongst former Soviet Republics, in developing its own Army and other military formations as the guarantor of statehood.

29. Russian IT:  Stretching The Limits Of Possibility
WEB Russian Consulate general (San Francisco the leading systemsintegration company (based on revenues) in the former ussr, specializing on
(Russian Language Summary) BISNIS
Business Information Service for
the Newly Independent States
TITLE: "Russian IT:  Stretching the Limits of Possibility" Two Mini-Seminars with a precision focus on US IT firms' possibilities in the Russian IT market.  INTENT: A celebration of Russian IT potential for US firms trying to collaborate with or sell into the marketplace.  Coverage is intended to bring the "movers and shakers" from this industry to Silicon Valley and the Bay Area-within it to give specific insight into the various IT segments.  It is  intended to be an "overview" conference, with maximum amount of practical and 'problem-solving' information, with the least amount of formality.  URGENCY: Russia has rebounded from the Fall 1998 with an unanticipated vengeance.  From rumors of hyperinflation, negative growth and the disappearance of the Russian middle class, Russia now experiences 8% growth and is rapidly breaking the barriers many thought unthinkable.  At the epicenter and root of these changes is a blossoming in the Russian IT industry.  Opportunities of working more cohesively and profitably have bypassed most US IT firms now is the time to puncture perceptions and speak to the business realities of this particular sector.

30. Re: JSE Article On Gov't. Remote Viewing Program
0400 Subject Re JSE article on gov t. Remote released drawings of the Semipalatinsk,ussr facility comparing included a Nobel Laureate, a former Major general
UFO UpDates
A mailing list for the study of UFO-related phenomena
Location: UFO UpDates Mailing List Oct ... Oct 17
Re: JSE article on Gov't. Remote Viewing Program
From: Date: Thu, 16 Oct 1997 15:15:03 -0400 Fwd Date: Fri, 17 Oct 1997 00:40:57 -0400 Subject: Re: JSE article on Gov't. Remote Viewing Program I don't know if the following has been posted previously, but I thought it was interesting enough to forward: SOURCE: Search for other documents from or mentioning: steve Next Message Previous Message This Day's Messages ... UFO UpDates Main Index UFO UpDates - Toronto -
Operated by Errol Bruce-Knapp A Hand-Operated E-Mail Subscription Service for the Study of UFO Related Phenomena.
To subscribe please send your first and last name to
Message submissions should be sent to the same address. Archive programming by Glenn Campbell at

31. December
21 December, 1999 gov t on press reports 20 December, 1999 UN general Assembly ratifiesresolution for law regulating status of ethnic Greeks from former ussr;

32. ParaScope Article
Sergio Garcia Ramirez Mexico, Attorney general Miguel Montes El Salvador, MinDef Roger Perodin, Haiti, gov. Chr 9/92 former ussr/EAST EUROPE Vladimir
Subject: JFK Hit Part of 50-yr Covert War From: Date: Thu, 23 Feb 1995 19:49:16 UTC Message-ID: [continued in Part V - To find out more about the anon service, send mail to . Due to the double-blind, any mail replies to this message will be anonymized, and an anonymous id will be allocated automatically. You have been warned. Please report any problems, inappropriate use etc. to What do you think? Tell us in the message boards!

33. Table 395.--Estimated Population, School Enrollment, And Teachers In Major Areas
of elementary school, grades 16. \9\Second level enrollment includes general education,teacher 11\This figure is for Europe, not including the former ussr
site index Digest Contents Complete List of Tables View Tables by Chapter: Appendix Table 395. Estimated population, school enrollment, and teachers in major areas of the world: 1980 to 1997 -Not available.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. SOURCE: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris, 1999 Statistical Yearbook. (This table was prepared July 2000.)
Back to Top
JUST RELEASED! Condition of Education 2004 NEW! Search for Public Libraries College Opportunities On-Line (COOL) Adds Admissions Information NCES Home ... Site Index National Center for Education Statistics Institute of Education Sciences U.S. Dept. of Education map 1990 K Street, NW, Washington, DC 20006, USA, Phone: (202) 502-7300

34. Estimated Population, School Enrollment, Teachers, And Public Expenditures For E
9\Includes general, teacher training and vocational education. 11\This figureis for Europe, not including the former ussr For the former ussr, public
site index 1995 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures ... Current Issue of the Digest Table 386. Estimated population, school enrollment, teachers, and public expenditures for education in major areas of the world: 1980, 1991, and 1992
SOURCE: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris, Statistical Yearbook, various years. (This table was prepared April 1995.) back to top NCES
JUST RELEASED! Condition of Education 2004 NEW! Search for Public Libraries College Opportunities On-Line (COOL) Adds Admissions Information NCES Home ... Site Index National Center for Education Statistics Institute of Education Sciences U.S. Dept. of Education map 1990 K Street, NW, Washington, DC 20006, USA, Phone: (202) 502-7300

35. U.S. Manufacturers Trade Performance - Quarterly Report
general imports include entries for immediate consumption, into Customsbonded warehouses,and The data include the republics of the former ussr, excluding the

36. VN Embassy : Learn : President Tran Duc Luong
of the general Department of Geology. Three years later Mr. Luong went to the formerSoviet Union and studied economic management at the former ussr Academy of
President Tran Duc Luong
Tran Duc Luong
President Tran Duc Luong was born in Pho Khanh village in Duc Pho District of Quang Ngai Province on the central coast on May 5, 1937. He was an 18-year-old student when he regrouped to north Viet Nam after the country was divided into northern and southern parts under provisions of the Geneva Agreement on Viet Nam signed in 1954.
He worked as a geology technician for five years until he ecame leader of Geological Group 4 attached to the League of Geological Groups Number 20 for another five years until April 1964 when he was appointed deputy leader of the League. Two years later he was admitted to study geology at the Mining and Geology College.
Mr. Luong became the deputy director of the Geological Map Department in February 1970. Seven years and five months later he became deputy director and then director of the League of Geological Map Groups. In September 1979 he was appointed general director of the General Department of Geology. Three years later Mr. Luong went to the former Soviet Union and studied economic management at the former USSR Academy of Economics.
In the same year of 1981 Mr. Luong was elected to the National Assembly at its seventh legislature and became deputy chairman and then chairman of the National Assembly Science and Technology Commission. He was re-appointed as General Director of the Mining and Geology General Department in March 1982.

37. Embassy Of Ukraine In Japan
has come to decision to take under its juridiction all the former ussr’ militaryformations body of control over the military; Armed Forces general Staff as
About Ukraine
About Ukraine
Ukrainian-Japanese relations News About Embassy ...
About Ukraine
Armed Forces
Political system
Economy Science Sport ... Armed Forces
Armed Forces of Ukraine After collapse of the USSR and proclamation of independency in 1991, Ukraine inherited one of the biggest and powerful military potential in Europe, armed with nuclear and sophisticated conventional weapons. But at that time the armed forces actually was not of a kind as belong to independent state, as it had to be. It was because of Ukraine got only some fragments of the former USSR military machine. That is why on the 24-th of August, 1991 Verkhovna Rada (the Parliament) of Ukraine has come to decision to take under its juridiction all the former USSR’ military formations, located on the territory of Ukraine. Also there has been created one of the key military authorities – Ministry of Defense of Ukraine. Starting from that, Ukraine began to form its own armed forces, and the Government of Ukraine initiated the process of Ukrainian Armed Forces’ formation. Political decisions of Ukrainian leadership on the principals of non-nuclear and non-alliance status of state have been used as a base for Ukrainian Armed Forces foundation procedure. For the first time in the history of mankind

38. Geography, Climate ...
crop geography, crop calendar information, growing practices, and general adaptationof as reference and data sources include the former ussr Agriculture and
Back to Major World Crop Areas ... The following article appears as Appendix IV of Major World Crop Areas and Climatic Profiles (Handbook of Agriculture #664)
Published by the Joint Agricultural Weather Facility (USDA/NOAA)
The Geography, Climate, and Soils of the Former Soviet Union
Climate and weather are significant factors affecting agricultural production around the world. Both seasonal and regional variability in weather directly influence crop yield potential. In order to improve the global monitoring of agricultural weather, the Joint Agricultural Weather Facility (JAWF), was established within the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), in 1978. JAWF is a cooperative effort between the National Weather Service's Climate Analysis Center (NWS/CAC), USDA's World Agricultural Outlook Board (USDA/WAOB), and National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA/NASS). The facility's primary function is to coordinate a world agricultural weather watch and assess the impact of weather variability on crop and livestock production prospects (Motha, 1986). One of the primary responsibilities of JAWF is to monitor weather and crop conditions within the former Soviet Union.
With the breakup of the Soviet Union in late 1991, the agricultural system changed from one where most decisions on agricultural programs were centrally planned, originating from Moscow, to one where individual republics and even regional authorities began making these decisions. In the past, the former Soviet government dictated where certain crops were to be grown and set levels on agricultural production. These decisions were based on perceived economic needs and climate considerations. Agriculture was geared to satisfying planners' as opposed to consumers' desires. As a result, crop varieties and production levels between republics often differed considerably.

39. Email Template
general. the population has greatly increased in recent years due to the large numberof immigrants who arrived in Israel – primarily from the (former) ussr.
Interest in the future size, composition and age structure of the population has greatly increased in recent years due to the large number of immigrants who arrived in Israel – primarily from the (former) USSR. This interest stems from the need for economic and social policies adapted to the needs of a quickly growing and fast-changing population. The projections present potential developments in the size, composition and structure of Israel’s population, which are based on potential developments in fertility, mortality and migration patterns. While these projections do not constitute an attempt to predict the future, they do provide a framework for the planning of social and economic services over the next two decades. The projections are presented in three variants: high, medium and low –corresponding to the size of the population in each variant. One of the interesting findings of the present projections is that the three variants differ only slightly with regard to the future composition and structure of the population. The main differences between the three variants are the sizes of the population, although here too, there are no substantial differences (a difference of 10% at the end of the projection period between the high variant of 9 million and the low variant of 8.2 million residents). One of the main findings of the projections, is the continued rapid growth of the population, together with an increase in the proportion of its elderly. The labor force that will be available to Israel’s economy will be older than in the past, the “burden” of the elderly will increase and the “burden” of children will decrease. The population aged 65 and over will number a million persons – twice its size in 1995.

40. World Factbook Of Criminal Justice Systems Finland Matti Joutsen
but also by any aggravating and mitigating factors noted in the general part of hasalso had agreements on legal assistance with the former ussr (1978), Poland
World Factbook of Criminal Justice Systems Finland Matti Joutsen Helsinki Institute for Crime Prevention and Control This country report is one of many prepared for the World Factbook of Criminal Justice Systems under grant No. 90-BJ-CX-0002 to the State University of New York at Albany. The project director was Graeme R. Newman, but the responsibility for the accuracy of the imformation contained in each report is that of the individual authors. The contents of these reports do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Bureau of Justice Statistics or the U.S. Department of Justice. GENERAL OVERVIEW 1. Political system. Finland is a republic with a strongly centralized government. The country is divided into twelve provinces, which in turn are divided into 248 police districts, each generally comprising one or two municipalities. 2. Legal system. The Criminal Law is elaborated in the Criminal Code (1889) and separate statutes such as the Young Offenders Act (1939), the Narcotics Act (1972), the Traffic Act (1981) and the Conditional Sentences Act (1918). The Criminal Code is divided into a "general part" with provisions on jurisdiction, age of criminal responsibility, justification and excuse, sentencing and forfeiture, and a "special part" with provisions defining the different offenses and establishing the levels of punishment. The law on criminal procedure is contained in the Code of Judicial Procedure (1734). Since its initial adoption, the Code of Judicial Procedure has been amended several times. with extensive reforms most recently in 1991. In the administration of justice, the country is divided into six appellate districts and 95 judicial districts. 3. History of criminal justice system. The Finnish legal system developed during the seven centuries (ca. 1150-1809) when Finland was part of the Swedish kingdom. For this reason, the legal system shares many characteristics with the other Scandinavian legal systems. Strict legalism (an emphasis on the rule of law) and a developed set of democratic controls on the exercise of discretion are the two premier features of Finnish law. The approach to the investigation of offenses can be termed inquisitorial, with increasingly strong adversarial elements. The Criminal Code has been amended extensively since its original adoption in 1889. It is currently undergoing a total reform. One third of its provisions were amended by an Act of Parliament in 1990, and a third by an Act of Parliament in 1995. The purpose of the reform is to ensure that the Criminal Code defines and deals with all crimes consistently, while taking into account the fundamental changes in society that have occurred over the past several decades. CRIME 1. Classification of crimes. * Legal classification. In Finland, there are no general distinctions or categories of crime. Rather, offense distinctions are based on the expected punishment for the offense, or the "penal latitude" defined by law. For example, a person may be held in pre-trial custody if the maximum punishment for the offense is imprisonment for over 1 year. * Age of criminal responsibility. The age of criminal responsibility is 15 years. Children who commit offenses below this age are not brought before a court. These cases are dealt with by municipal social welfare boards. Youths between the ages of 15 and 18 benefit from a reduction of the sentencing scale. * Drug offenses. Finland has an extremely restrictive approach to drugs. With the obvious exception of controlled medical drugs, the preparation, transport, possession, use, import, export and sale of any drugs defined by the international convention to which Finland has acceded, is illegal. 2. Crime statistics * Murder. Each year, some 30 murders and 100 incidents of manslaughter are reported to the police. These figures do not include attempts. In 1990, 23 murders and 122 incidents of manslaughter were reported to the police. Homicides are divided into murder and manslaughter. Murder is defined as the killing of a person with deliberate intent, for gain, with particular cruelty or brutality, in a manner that causes general danger, or the killing of a civil servant. * Rape. In 1990, 381 rapes or attempted rapes were reported to the police. Rape is defined as "using violence or the threat of violence to force a woman into sexual intercourse against her will". Marital rape is not covered by the definition. * Theft. In 1990, 125,909 thefts and 4,800 aggravated thefts were reported to the police. The figures include attempts. Theft is defined as the "unauthorized taking of chattels from the possession of another person." If the property in question is of "special value, or the theft resulted in a relatively serious loss to the victim taking into consideration the circumstances of the victim, or the offender took advantage of the helpless condition of the victim, or the offender was armed with a gun, explosives, or other similar dangerous implements, or the offense involved breaking into a residence and the offense as a whole is deemed aggravated," the offense may be classified as aggravated theft. Theft of motor vehicles is criminalized separately. * Serious drug offense. In 1990, the police recorded a total of 2536 drug offenses, of which 267 were classified as "serious drug offenses." The figures include attempts. A drug offense is defined as serious if: "1) the offense involves a particularly dangerous drug or a large amount of drugs, 2) considerable financial gain is sought, 3) the offender acted as part of a group especially organized for the large-scale commission of such an offense, 4) the offense seriously endangers the life or health of several people, or 5) drugs are given to minors or are otherwise distributed in an unscrupulous manner, and the offense as a whole is deemed aggravated." * Crime regions. Among the Scandinavian countries, Finland has a reputation for having a greater violent crime problem. However, a recent victimization study showed that Finland was in the middle range among Western European countries in respect to violent offenses (van Dijk, Killias and Mayhew, pp. 35-38). VICTIMS 1. Groups most victimized by crime. Victimization surveys indicate that the typical victim of a violent offense is a young, urban male. For property offenses, the victimization surveys indicate that the growth in the number of these offenses is being borne by businesses. The risk of an individual being the victim of a property offense has remained stable for the past decade. 2. Victims' assistance agencies. National victim hot lines were established in Finland in 1994. Both volunteer groups and municipalities operate shelters for victims of domestic violence. In addition, the health care and social security systems aid victims of crime. 3. Role of victim in prosecution and sentencing. The victim of a crime plays an important role in Finnish law. The victim has the right to prosecute an offense, independent of the decision of the public prosecutor. The victim can take part in all stages of the prosecution. For example, the victim may submit evidence, suggest questions and comment on the evidence. The victim may request compensation in connection with the criminal proceedings. Compensation may also be claimed from the state for an injury or injury-related loss arising from any offense. In this regard, the Finnish scheme is among the most generous in the world. 4. Victims' rights legislation. No separate victims' rights legislation exists in Finland. Several provisions in the Code of Judicial Procedure and the Criminal Code ensure the right of the victim to access to justice, to redress and to be heard. In theory, victims have extremely broad rights and possibilities of being involved in the resolution of the case. In practice, as is the case in all other countries, the rights may remain unused due, for example, to lack of awareness of the rights or to practical problems. POLICE 1. Administration. The Finnish police are organized on an hierarchical national basis under the authority of the Ministry of the Interior and subject to the Police Act. The chain of command is totally independent of the military structure. 2. Resources. * Expenditures. During the 1990 calendar year, the budget of the national police force was 2,053,564,000 Finnmarks. * Number of Police. Finland has a total of 11,942 police personnel, of whom some 20% are women (1990 data). 3. Technology. * Availability of police automobiles. Police are well-equipped with a variety of motor vehicles both for patrolling and for special purposes. Currently, the most common patrol car being acquired is the Ford Mondeo. * Electronic equipment. The police have at their disposal modern computer and telecommunications equipment. * Weapons. Police patrol officers are armed with a .38 caliber pistol or revolver. A special unit based in Helsinki, known colloquially as the "Beagle Boys" is trained in a variety of weapons and special tactics. For example, this unit might be used for the arrest of an offender who is suspected of being armed and dangerous. The Beagle Boys are also trained in anti-terrorist tactics. As of this writing, Finland has not had the need to use the unit for this purpose. 4. Training of police. Training on the entry level is provided in the Police Institute. The basic course is divided into two modules of 11 and 6 months, with a one- year period of on-the-job training between the two. Further training is provided in the Police Academy, where intermediate courses last 6 months, and advanced courses last 12 months. 5. Discretion. * Use of force. The statutory basis for the rights and responsibilities of the police is provided by the Police Act, the Pre-Trial Investigation Act and the Coercive Means of Investigation Act. In brief, these statutes state that the use of force by police should be in proportion to the seriousness of the suspected offense in question, and force should be sued only if less intrusive means would be inappropriate. For example deadly force can only be used in self-defense or in defense of another person against whom an immediate and potentially fatal assault is occurring or is about to occur. * Stop/apprehend suspect: The police may stop and question anyone if it is regarded as necessary for their work. A person may be apprehended if a standing arrest or remand warrant has been issued, or if the conditions for an arrest are present and the matter will not tolerate a delay. Any person has the right to apprehend an offender caught in the act or escaping from the scene of a crime if the offense may be punishable by imprisonment or if the offense is petty assault, petty theft, petty embezzlement, petty unauthorized use, petty vandalism, or petty fraud. * Decision to arrest. A person may be arrested and held in pre-trial custody if the person is suspected of having committed an offense for which the maximum sentence is imprisonment for over one year, or if it is probable that he or she will attempt to evade or obstruct justice, or continue his or her criminal activity. The police are granted the discretion to caution the offender if the offense is minor and would not have led to a punishment more severe than a fine. * Search and seizure. Chapters 4 and 5 of the Coercive Means of Investigation Act contain detailed provisions on search and seizure. The main rule regarding search is that it may be carried out if the suspected offense is punishable by at least 6 months imprisonment and the search is necessary for the investigation of the offense. The decision is usually made by a senior police officer; however, if the matter brooks no delay, the search may be carried out by a policeman. The rule regarding seizure is that an object may be seized if there is cause to assume that it may be used as evidence in a criminal case, if it has been criminally obtained, or if the court will order it confiscated. * Confessions. There is no specific provision on the weight of a confession as evidence. Finnish courts apply the rule of "free assessment of evidence;" with the exception of statements obtained through the use of torture, no evidence is ipso facto inadmissible. In practice, courts seek collaborative evidence to confirm a confession. 6. Accountability. Complaints against the police may be dealt with internally, by the superiors of the police officer in question, or externally, by the Parliamentary Ombudsman. The Ombudsman is empowered to obtain any information necessary in his investigations. He also has the power to issue cautions and reprimands, and suggest that disciplinary action be undertaken. PROSECUTORIAL AND JUDICIAL PROCESS 1. Rights of the accused. * Rights of the accused. A person who is suspected of an offense has the standard rights, including the right to counsel, the right to be informed of the charges and the right to a speedy trial. * Assistance to the accused. If he or she cannot afford counsel, assistance can be provided by the municipal legal aide office. Persons held in custody have the right to representation by a member of the Bar Association at state expense. 2. Procedures. * Preparatory procedures for bringing a suspect to trial. It is the responsibility of the police to investigate offenses. The customs and taxation authorities maintain investigative powers in their field. The results of the investigation are turned over to the public prosecutor, who decides whether the facts are sufficient to warrant prosecution. Simplified procedures are used in the case of petty crime. Minor traffic offenses are dealt with by a "petty fine" imposed by the police according to a tariff. Petty fines cannot be converted into imprisonment. "Summary penal orders" can be used for all offenses subject to a maximum punishment of, at most, 6 months of imprisonment, provided that the prosecutor calls for the imposition of a fine. The penal order is issued by the police under the supervision of the prosecutor, and it is approved by the court. Most offenders pay the fine, but the offender has the right to challenge the penal order in court. Defaulters may be sentenced to prison. * Official who conducts prosecution. The public prosecutor or the victim conducts the prosecution. In urban areas, the public prosecutor holds a full- time position. In rural areas, the public prosecutor is usually the district police chief or the assistant police chief. Public prosecutors are under the supervision of the Chancellor of Justice. * Alternatives to trial. The Finnish system does not use plea bargaining, nor does it recognize medical or other treatment as an alternative to the criminal justice process except in the case of manifest insanity. However, those defendants who are found guilty but who are not sentenced on the grounds that they have been found criminally irresponsible are turned over to the National Board of Medicine. The Board considers the need for involuntary commitment in a mental hospital. There are two alternatives to court proceedings. The first is the transfer to the municipal social welfare board. This option, though not often used, is limited to cases that involve offenders between the ages of 15 and 20. The second option is mediation, the use of which has gradually increased in Finland since the mid- 1980s. The number of cases disposed of in mediation number approximately 5,000 per year. Mediation is primarily, but not solely. used in the case of juvenile offenders. The Finnish prosecutorial system has traditionally been very legalistic, with tight restraints on the use of discretion. These restraints were eased in 1990, when the public prosecutor was given the right to waive charges in three cases: (a) when the offense was petty and the expected punishment would be at most a fine or, in the case of offenders below the age of 18, six months' imprisonment, as long as the offense was not deemed to have been due to a blatant disregard of the law; (b) the suspect was already to be charged with other, similar offenses, and the combined punishment would not be essentially affected by the new charges in question; and (c) the waiving of charges is merited on other grounds of equity. * Proportion of prosecuted cases going to trial. Most cases are dealt with through summary penal fines. Of the 393,586 persons convicted during 1990, only 81,697 (21%) went to full trial. * Pre-trial incarceration conditions. Although no statistics are available on the proportion of persons held in pre-trial custody who are later sentenced to imprisonment, this proportion is undoubtedly quite high, and probably in excess of 80%. * Bail procedure. Bail is not available in Finland. However, it should be noted that the Coercive Means of Investigation Act places tight restrictions on the use and length of custody. * Proportion of pre-trial offenders incarcerated. At the end of 1991, 264 prisoners were awaiting trial. This low figure does not include person in police custody; estimates are unavailable. In general, only persons charged with serious offences are placed in pretrial custody; most suspects are released on their own recognizance, or are not even arrested. JUDICIAL SYSTEM 1. Administration. The general court system has three tiers: the Supreme Court, six Courts of Appeal, and 95 lower courts. Lower court cases can be appealed in part or in full by the prosecutor, the defendant or the victim in the Court of Appeal. Cases dealt with by the Court of Appeal can be brought to the Supreme Court only if the Supreme Court grants leave of appeal. Until the end of 1993, the lower courts were divided into city courts and rural courts. At the end of 1993, the lower courts were unified, with, in most cases, one professional judge and three lay judges participating in the consideration of each case. When required by the complexity of the case or other factors, the composition of the court can be augmented by an additional professional judge. Cases involving defendants charged with offenses punishable by at most eighteen months imprisonment can be decided by a single judge. 2. Special courts. * Military courts. The only special criminal court existing in the Finnish system is the military court. Certain lower courts are designated as potential military courts. When deciding a case involving a military offense, the composition of the court will be augmented by one professional judge trained in military criminal law. The charges are brought by a military prosecutor. In all other respects, the procedure followed is the same as in the general courts. 3. Judges. * Number of judges. At the end of 1990, Finland had 661 professional judges. * Appointment, training, and qualifications. Lower court judges are appointed by the Supreme Court. Court of Appeal and Supreme Court judges are appointed by the President of the Republic. The basic qualifications are a legal education followed by a minimum of one years' practice as a court clerk and some practice as an apprentice judge. PENALTIES AND SENTENCING 1. Sentencing process. The sentence is imposed by the court at the end of the trial. No separate sentencing hearings are held. If the defendant is a juvenile and the threatened punishment is imprisonment, a social history report is prepared by the local social welfare board or the Probation and Parole Association. 2. Types of penalties * Range of penalties. The sanctions that can be imposed by the court include day-fines, community service, suspended imprisonment, and imprisonment. Day-fines are imposed in between 1 and 120 units, at roughly one-third the gross daily income of the offender. Sentences of imprisonment for up to two years can be suspended; this suspension rarely involves supervision. The general minimum sentence of imprisonment is 14 days, and the general maximum is 12 years. Murder is punishable by life imprisonment. Of the some 400,000 persons brought to court each year, over 310,000 are sentenced to a fine through summary proceedings, and over 50,000 are sentenced to a fine following full criminal proceedings. Some 17,000 are sentenced to suspended imprisonment, and some 12,000 are sentenced to imprisonment. In 1991, the median sentence of imprisonment was 3.6 months. Those leaving prison have served a median term of 5.5 months; The discrepancy is due to the additive policy used to sentence recidivists. The sentences of imprisonment are typically imposed for aggravated drunken driving (over 40% of all sentences of imprisonment imposed during a year) and for aggravated theft, theft, and motor vehicle theft (some 30%). In 1990, only 356 persons were sentenced to imprisonment for 2 years or more; the offenses in question were typically homicide, attempted homicide, aggravated assault, robbery and aggravated theft. The sentence is affected not only be the definition of the offense but also by any aggravating and mitigating factors noted in the general part of the Criminal Code. Among the aggravating factors are the commission of the crime as a member of an organized group, commission of several separate offenses, and a criminal record if it can be shown that the record demonstrates blatant disregard for the law. Among the mitigating factors are sudden pressures on the offender to commit the offense, the youth of the offender, and the attempt of the offender to assist in clearing the offense or limiting the harm caused by the offense. * Death penalty. Finland has totally abolished the use of capital punishment which was last used in peace time in 1826. PRISON 1. Description. * Number of prisons and type. Finland has a network of 15 closed prisons, 21 open prisons or sections of prisons, a juvenile prison, a prison mental hospital, a prison hospital and two social rehabilitation institutes. All prisons are administered by the National Prison Administration, which is subordinate to the Ministry of Justice. * Number of prison beds. The prisons contain a total of 4,210 beds. * Number of annual admissions. During 1991, a total of 8,874 persons entered prison. * Average daily population/Number of prisoners. The daily average population in prison in Finland has been decreasing since the late 1950s. At the end of 1991, the prisons held 3,067 male prisoners and 108 female prisoners over the age of 20. The also held 21 persons who were 20 years of age or younger. * Actual or estimated proportions of inmates incarcerated for: Proportion of inmates incarcerated for: Drug offenses 3% Violent offenses 24% Property offenses 36% Drunken driving 18% Oother offenses 19% Total 100% 2. Administration. * Number of prison guards. The total prison staff is 2,608 persons (1990 data), of whom 308 are classified as managerial, 1,624 as custodial, 257 as treatment and 419 as "other". * Training and qualifications. The training is provided by the Prison Training Service. The basic course lasts 13 months, and includes three months of on-the-job training. * Expenditure on prison system. During the 1990 calendar year, the budget of the prison administration department was 533 million Finnmarks. 3. Prison conditions. * Remissions. Prisoners who have served a sentence of at least one month are normally granted automatic parole after having served two-thirds of their sentence. First-time prisoners are released on parole after having served one-half of their sentence. Persons on parole are subject to supervision. * Work/education. Prisoners are required to work, although they may be allowed to study instead. * Amenities/privileges. By law, the essence of imprisonment is solely the deprivation of liberty. In all other respects, life in prison should be arranged in such a way that it resembles life in free society as much as possible. Prison furloughs (leave) are granted relatively liberally. EXTRADITION AND TREATIES * Extradition. Finland has entered into a number of bilateral and multilateral agreements on extradition and other mutual assistance. The oldest agreements are among the Nordic countries; for example, the 1960 Nordic Agreement on the extradition of offenders and the 1963 Nordic Agreement on the enforcement of sentences were adopted through the enactment of parallel legislation in all the Nordic countries. Finland has also had agreements on legal assistance with the former USSR (1978), Poland (1980) and Hungary (1981) as well as a separate agreement on "skyjacking" with the former USSR (1975). In 1990, Finland became a member of the Council of Europe, and has signed, among others, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1990), the European Convention on Extradition (1971) and the European Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters (1981). Finland refuses to extradite a Finnish national or a person suspected of a military or a political offense, unless such an offense involves homicide or attempted homicide with intent. Finnish law will not allow extradition if there is the danger that the accused will be persecuted on the basis of racial, national, religious, or political grounds, or of allegiance, or political circumstance. SOURCES Aromaa, Kauko and Heiskanen, Markku: Piilorikollisuus 1988 (Hidden crime 1988), National Research Institute of Legal Policy Publication no. 117, Helsinki 1992 Criminality Known to the Police, Central Statistical Office of Finland XXIII A:123, Helsinki (annual publication) Joutsen, Matti: The Criminal Justice System of Finland. A General Introduction, Ministry of Justice of Finland, Helsinki 1990 National Research Institute of Legal Policy: Rikollisuustilanne 1991. Rikollisuus ja seuraamusj„rjestelm„ tilastojen valossa. (English summary: Criminality in Finland 1991). Helsinki 1992 (annual publication). Matti Joutsen HEUNI POB 34 SF-00931 Helsinki

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