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         Finland History:     more books (100)
  1. Nordic Folk Churches: A Contemporary Church History by Aila Lauha, Gunnar Heiene, et all 2005-09-15
  2. A History of Finland by Eino Jutikkala, Kauko Pirinen, 1989-03
  3. Political parties in Finland: Essays in history and politics (Political history. C)
  4. A History of Finland: New and Revised Edition by Eino with Kauko Pirinen, Translated By Paul Sjoblom Jutikkala, 1974
  5. Innovations & Industrial Performance in Finland, 1945-1998 (Lund Studies in Economic History) by Jani Saarinen, 2005-12-30
  6. A HISTORY OF FINLAND by Eino Jutikkala, Kauko Pirinen, 1979
  7. Communism in Finland;: A history and interpretation by John H Hodgson, 1967
  8. History of Finland by John H. Wuorinen, 1965-08
  9. The Finland Name in History by, 2007-06-27
  10. Roger Connah. Finland: Modern Architectures in History.(Book review): An article from: Scandinavian Studies by William C. Miller, 2006-06-22
  11. A History of Finland. Transl. P Sjoblom. by Eino Jutikkala, 1962
  12. A HISTORY OF FINLAND by Eino Jutikkala, 1962
  13. The History Of Finland - by John Wuorinen -, 1965
  14. A History Of Finland by Wuorinen, 1966

2) Wereldexpat - Poollicht in Finland - Poollicht in Finland (2) - Poollicht inFinland (3) - WWW Virtual Library finland history - Populairste voornamen in

22. History Of Kyudo In Finland
History of Kyudo in Finland. by Leif Bagge. (The author apologisesfor the long time without updating. This will change.).
History of Kyudo in Finland
by Leif Bagge (The author apologises for the long time without updating. This will change.) The Beginning
The Early Days
The Beginning
In the 1970ies Pentti Nieminen from Uusikaupunki was practising Judo in Kodokan in Tokyo. While visiting the Budokan he saw Kyudo displaid and he got really interested of it. Back in Finland he found out that there was no kyudo in this country. About 10 years later a german friend of him brought him some german budomagazines. In one of them was german kyudokas. One of them was named: Feliks F. Hoff. Pentti tried to get in contact with mr Hoff but did not succeed until in 1984 when Pentti persuaded Peter Schild, a german man living in the town of Porvoo to try to find mr. Hoff. Mr. Hoff accepted the invitation to introduce Kyudo in Finland. The date and place were yet to be fixed. At that time Mr.Leif Bagge, also from Porvoo, got involved with it. He persuaded his judo club Porvoon Judo to act as arrangers for the first introduction. Leif contacted mr. Hoff and agreed on the date. It was set to 23-24.11.1984. The place was a new schools gym. Leif sent 168 letters to all judo, karate and aikido clubs in Finland with an invitation to that historical weekendseminar. 22 guys from all over the country showed up. Mr Hoff held a good seminar telling that this Ryu-ha that he was representing was Heki Ryu Insai Ha and it´s grand master was Inagaki Genshiro Yoshimichi. Some weeks later Leif found the first kyudoclub in Finland. Then he sent an invitation to those 22 who had participated in the seminar. They were invited to participate in the founding of the Finnish Kyudo Federation. Meanwhile some participants from Helsinki got together and found a club in Helsinki. The founding meeting for the federation took part in the Olympic Stadion in Helsinki on the of january 1985. Leif Bagge was elected to be the first president.

History of settlement and migration of Finland. It expires until the historical timewhich in domestic history is connected to crusades from Sweden to Finland.
History of settlement and migration of Finland
There are various myths and beliefs concerning the origins of the Finnish people. Some of them have been based on political purposes. Nationalist science was convinced that the home of the Finns was located in the east around the river Volga and the Ural mountains. The modern research, however, gives both the eastern and western identity to the Finnish people. Nowadays the archeology, genetics and Finno-Ugrism are separating the language and the genes. The latest research on mitochondrial genotype seems to strengthen the view that the Finns are genetically mostly Indoeuropean population. Genetics in general present the view that the original Finnish people have been the dominant population in Finland through the centuries although there has been a significant mixture from migration in various times. Therefore the Finns are related to the Balts, Germanic people and Balticfinns. Thus the genes of the Finnish people are mainly of western origin as well as those of the other nations which were proceeding northwards at the end of the recent glacial period. The language has come from the east and belongs to the Uralic family although it contains many loanwords from Indoeuropean languages such as Baltic, Germanic and Russian. In the present day Finland there are also the Samis, who are linguistically related to Finns but differ genetically from them thoroughly. The Sami language separated from Proto Finnish some 4000 years ago. The genes of the Samis are totally different from any other Scandinavian nation.

24. Finland Travel Guide - Finland Travel Destination Guide
Finland destination guide. Information for finland history, people, arts,music, festivals, attractions, activities, top cities, dining.
Finland destination guide. Information for Finland history, people, arts, music, festivals, attractions, activities, top cities
Destination Guide Destination Snapshot Search this Site Finland
A Fascinating Nation

Destination Guide

History, people, festivals,
arts, major cities,
attractions, activities.. Top Destinations

The Capital

Hotel Reservation

Other Destinations Egypt Morocco South Africa United Arab Emirates
Asia-Pacific Australia Melbourne Sydney New Zealand Auckland Christchurch Tahiti Brunei China Beijing Shanghai Shenzhen Guangzhou Dalian Guilin Hangzhou Harbin Kunming Nanjing Qingdao Suzhou Shenyang Tianjin Xiamen Xian Zhuhai Hong Kong Indonesia Bali Jakarta Japan Kyoto Osaka Tokyo South Korea Seoul Macau Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Penang Philippines Manila Singapore Taiwan Taipei Thailand Bangkok Vietnam Ho Chi Minh Caribbean Antigua Aruba Bahamas Barbados Bermuda Cayman Islands Guadeloupe Jamaica Puerto Rico St. Lucia

Welcome to Otaniemi, finland history of Finland; The Sami in finland history; TheSami in finland history/\Narrative tradition/\The Sami Region. Kotka. Finland.
  • Travel in Finland Home Page
  • Virtual Finland by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs
  • Finland Online
  • Short description of Finland
  • Finland map and facts
  • Finland , economy, culture, politics and connections (Mofile)
  • US Dept. of State Background Notes of Finland
  • Helsinki for the Virtual Traveller , What's On, Where To Go and Clickable Map
  • Where To Go in Helsinki
  • Real time weather in Europe seen from a satellite (METEO-FRANCE).
  • Finnish Festivals 1995 (music, opera, film, theatre, dance, etc.)
  • Fintrip , Finnish Travel Guide
  • The Gastronomy of Finland , written for the Ministry for Foreign Affairs by Anna-Maija Tanttu
  • Finnish Ethnographic Media Laboratory , "Hyper Kalevala"-project
  • Alvar Aalto Museum
  • Fintrip -Main page
  • Finnair World Wide Wings
  • Weather Forecast ...
  • History of Finland
    The Essential History of Finland.
  • Welcome to Otaniemi, Finland
    History of Finland
  • The Sami in Finland: History
  • The Sami in Finland
  • Remorse homepage
    Remorse is here! Remorse is a non-professional heavy metal band from Kalajoki, Finland. History. Members. "Discography" Contact Remorse. Pekka Verronen...
  • FINFO: Historia
    ARTIKKELIT. Main Outlines of Finnish History. Finland 500 years on the Map of Europe. The ancient religion of the Finns. Kalevala. LINKKEJÄ MUIHIN..
  • 26. History Of Finland
    History of Finland. A people, who don t know their own history, haveno future JV Snellman. Foreword. 2. A Finnish History of Finland.
    Main Case Sweden Guestbook ... EU Practice
    History of Finland
    "A people, who don't know their own history, have no future"
    J. V. Snellman
    As a member of the European Union, Finland's northern location on its map is nowadays a mystery to nobody, our high standard of technological know-how having brought us a measure of international recognition and even fame. Nevertheless, the Finnish language, belonging to the Finno-Ugric linguistic family and related to Estonian and Hungarian, remains in the dark for most, while its importance as the main language in the country is often belittled by the powers-that-be.
    For centuries, Finland has been in a tight squeeze between the Swedish and the Russian Empire. Since 1590s the Swedish rule was particularly bleak for Finland, used by the Swedish Empire, not only as a buffer against Russia, but also as a colony to be ruthlessly exploited economically and whose male population could be and was used as canon-fodder in meaningless and devastating wars. The Swedish Administration were intent on wiping out the Finnish language. Since the 17th century only poor elementary teaching in Finnish was allowed, while all higher education was given in Swedish. In order to advance in a career it was necessary to change one's Finnish family name for a Swedish one and to speak only Swedish in public. As a consequence of this, the Finnish language was on the verge of withering away, not unlike Irish in Ireland. From the Finnish point of view, the beginning of the Russian rule (1809 - 1917) was auspicious. Finland was granted autonomy and toward the end of the nineteenth century, the Finnish language became an official language together with the Swedish and then, finally, the first official language.

    27. Finland Vacation Guide: Romantic Finland Cruises, Finland Honeymoons, Getaways,
    Finland Overview finland history Finland Culture Finland Geography FinlandPractical Info Finland Vacation Planner Finland Luxury Cruise Planner.
    European Luxury Tours, Luxury Vacations, Luxury Cruises 
    Site Index

    European Vacation Guide: Romantic European Vacations 
    European Luxury Vacations, Travel, Tours and Cruise Consultants 
    European Vacations, call 1-415-662-2683 to book. Open every day!  Other Places in Europe

    ... Mediterranean Guide Finland: History
    Ruled by Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries and by Russia from 1809, Finland finally won its independence in 1917. During World War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and fend off invasions by the Soviet Union and Germany.
    In the subsequent half century, the Finns have made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now on par with Western Europe. As a member of the European Union, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999.
    Finland Overview

    Finland History
    Finland Culture Finland Geography ... Finland Pictures Submit Free, Full Service Vacation Planner Here
    Click here to save money, time and stress planning, making reservations, or booking your vacation with our full

    28. MSN Encarta - Further Reading - Finland
    finland history. Derry, TK A History of Scandinavia Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland,and Iceland. University of Minnesota Press, 1979. A History of Finland.
    MSN Home My MSN Hotmail Shopping ... Money Web Search: logoImg(''); Encarta Subscriber Sign In Help Home ... Upgrade to Encarta Premium Search Encarta Further Reading from Encarta Further Reading offers additional information about your topics. Finland Finland: History Finland: Politics, Society, and Culture For younger readers Also on Encarta Editor's picks: Good books about Iraq Compare top online degrees What's so funny? The history of humor Finland: History Derry, T. K. A History of Scandinavia: Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. University of Minnesota Press, 1979. Excellent survey includes Nordic unity, political development, and world contributions. Jutikkala, Eino, with Kauko Pirinen. A History of Finland. Lander, Patricia S. The Land and People of Finland. Lippincott, 1991. Examination of history, geography, government, economy, and culture for middle school and high school readers. McNair, Sylvia. Finland. Children's Press, 1997. The geography, history, and culture of Finland. For middle school readers. Singleton, Frederick Bernard.

    29. Finland Europe Finland History Books Online Shopping Store
    Finland Europe finland history Books Online Shopping Store An OnlineShopping Mall and directory arranged in a variety of categories.
    Home Electronics Electronics Brands Camera ... Toys 246 Shoppers Online Coupons, Today's Deal and Specials VTECH VT2568 Cordless 2.4GHz Phone with TeleZapper was $80 Now only $39.99
    Featured Categories
    3/4-Inch Expandable Sleeving
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    Condiment Servers
    ... Hydration Shop By Merchant AAAFruitbaskets AaronsBabyBaskets AbtElectronics AceHardware ACLens ACT ActivaSports Adagio Alexblake AllWineBaskets AllworthPress Altrec ARTinaClick AtlantaFalcons ATrendyhome AuditionsShoes AutoAnything AutoBarn B A Mason BabyAge BabyBazaar BabyUniverse BackcountryStore BallyStore BareNecessities BassProShops BathandBody BayberryGifts BBCAmericaShop BeckerSurf Bellacor BetterHomesandGardens BizChair Blades Blair Bloomingbulb Bluefly BlueNile BoatersWorld BodyTrends BonsaiBoy Boscovs Bose Brecks Broderbund BrooksBrothers BrookStone BuyCostumes Cabelas Cameraworld CandleBay CandleMart CandlesJustOnline CarToys CellPhoneShop ChampionCatalog CheaperThanDirt Chefs CitySports ClassicCloseouts ColdwaterCreek CollectiblesToday CollegiateMall CompactAppliance CompuExpert ComputerGeeks

    30. NCBuy: Finland History - Country Reference
    History background report for Finland. part of the Countries of the World ReferenceCenter profile for Finland. Country List ». Backgrounds finland history.

    History of Scouting and current status of national Scouting organizations.
    Ecommerce Solution Free Web Space Free Web Site Web Hosting ... Dial up $14.95 or NetZero Internet Service $9.95 SCOUTING IN FINLAND SUOMEN PARTIOLAISET/FINLANDS SCOUTER R.Y GUIDES AND SCOUTS OF FINLAND The Guides and Scouts of Finland has about 88,000 members. 11% of the 7-10 year olds and 13% of the 10-14 year old Finns are members of the organization. The Girl Scouts represent 56% of the total. There are about 900 Scout troops. The Guides and Scouts of Finland merged in 1972, forming the largest youth organization in the country. This present organization is one of the few in the world where all scouts, boys and girls, belong to the same merged organization. This includes both Finnish and Swedish speaking sections. About 40% of all Scout units are co-educational. Scouting first came to Finland in 1909 and the official founding is in 1910. Finland has been one of the founding members of the World Organization (WOSM) in 1922. Scouting is one of the most popular hobbies in Finland. To live with nature, act according to its conditions and protecting and honoring it, is one of the cornerstones of Finnish Scouting. Another important objective is to learn social abilities. Finnish Scouts and Guides learn how to become knowledgeable and active citizens, at ease with foreign countries and cultures. In this country of thousands of lakes and abundance of green forests, hikes and camps are a vital part of Scouting. Outdoor activities really put the knowledge and skills of the Scouts to the test. Winter camps and skiing tours in the midst of the snow is a thrilling experience.

    32. Virtual Finland — Information About Finland — Facts About Finland
    Virtual finland Facts about finland. Daily news, arts and entertainment features and other useful information. Virtual finland is produced by the Finnish Foreign Ministry. A selection of documents and events in the history of finland. National Board of Antiquities Genealogical Research in finland. history of Finnish Roads. A Brief history of Helsinki
    Mainpage NewsRoom Site Map Contact us About this site Search:
    General information National symbols History International relations Way of life Famous Finns Picturebook Events in Finland Travel information This page is devoted exclusively to the making of Finland

    33. WorldGenWeb "Family History Finland" -chRISTOpher Rumbaugh
    Help for those doing Finnish genealogy or family history and 4th generation FinnishAmericans with their serkuksia (cousins) in finland. If you have your Finnish ancestry on the Juntunen Family history Project- Juntunen family information
    Our aim is to help the Family Historian with their Finnish ancestry and to network the 2nd, 3rd and 4th generation Finnish-Americans with their serkuksia (cousins) in Finland. If you have your Finnish ancestry on the WWW, we would like to add your site to the list! Kiitos for stopping by!
    Place a Finnish genealogical query in our Guestbook!

    Place a Finnish Genealogical Query

    Read a Finnish Genealogical Query
    Finnish Genealogy Sites
    Sukutietotekniikka ry Hiski - HISKI: Sukutieto's parish record extract search.GREAT!!! The Genealogical Society of Finland Finnish Surname/Farmname Sites Esa Aro's Surnames - Lots of Finnish Ancestry Michael Clay's Surnames - Some Finnish Ancestry Berndt Holmström's genealogy - Mostly SwedeFinns Steve Johnson's Surnames - Focusing on Mytty and Halme Juntunen Family History Project - Juntunen family information Hans-Erik Krokfors - SwedeFinns in Karleby and elsewhere Christopher Rumbaugh's Surnames - Alavus, Kuortane and Kruunupyy families Saari Family Research Interests - From the Kaustinen and Veteli parishes
    Finnish Genealogy FAQs
    Beginner’s Guide to Finnish Family History Research Tutorial—Finnish Surnames and Farm Names Taxation, Court, and Military Records

    34. Finnish History On The Internet
    A Web history of finland. Up to Y2K All in all, too much remains unknown about the preSwedish history of finland
    A Web History of Finland
    Up to Y2K
    Edition 2.3 (2000) likely to include few omissions and mistakes.
    Foreword Other resources and literature History by Chronological Order
    Pre-history before 1100 A.D.
    Post-war Era since 1945

    Current Map of Finland
    CIA World Factbook Search the web history page.
    This page is a modest attempt to help foreign readers, and possibly Finnish too, to learn basic Finnish history. There exists few other attempts too, but I hope this will provide an integrated story with both actual history and relevant links. It has evolved around my non-professional historical perspective, history is one of my favorite hobbies. I have utilized other sources on the web, suitable links are provided, and literacy to produce a concise but comprehensive Finnish history, possibly letting my own interests show in the composition. I've been critical to source information but further caution may be needed especially behind the links; ordinary mistakes, personal views and opinions may blur the writings. Moreover, I've tried to stick to well known facts but the facts need sometimes a little uncertain glue in between. Also, some names may not have their correct English form. Thus, absolute correctness of all information is not guaranteed. All written is not true and all trues are not written. I thank all the persons and institutions who helped to make this page possible. The text can be linked to and quoted as long as the reference is given. The pictures on this page cannot be further used without the permission of the original source

    35. "Main Outlines Of Finnish History"
    Main Outlines of Finnish history. Written for Virtual finland byby Dr. Seppo Zetterberg,professor of history, University of Jyväskylä. The Swedish reign.
    Mainpage NewsRoom Site Map Contact us About this site Search:
    General information National symbols History International relations Way of life Famous Finns Picturebook Events in Finland Travel information
    Main Outlines of Finnish History
    The Swedish reign
    Until the middle of the 12th century, the geographical area that is now Finland was a political vacuum, and interesting to both its western neighbour Sweden and the Catholic Church there, and its eastern neighbour Novgorod ( Russia) and its Greek Orthodox Church. Sweden came out on top, as the peace treaty of 1323 between Sweden and Novgorod assigned only eastern Finland to Novgorod. The western and southern parts of Finland were tied to Sweden and the Western European cultural sphere, while eastern Finland, i.e. Karelia, became part of the Russo-Byzantine world. As a consequence of Swedish domination, the Swedish legal and social systems took root in Finland. Feudalism was not part of this system and the Finnish peasants were never serfs; they always retained their personal freedom. Finland's most important centre was the town of

    36. World Wide Web Virtual Library - Finnish History Index - WWWVL
    The Finnish history Index is made of different pages which are always under construction Resources if they are dealing with the history of finland. The URL of this page

    World Wide Web Virtual Library (WWW-VL) central catalogue

    WWW-VL Search Facility.

    WWW-VL Main History Index and
    Sites Maintainers ...
    European University Institute's Library
    and Web Sites.
    Finnish History Index Reference Libraries and Library Resources Electronic Journals and Resources Archives, Archival Resources
    and Museums
    ... History Departments and Scientific Associations
    Chronological Periods Ancient Medieval Modern ... Contemporary
    Topical Social Women Cultural Political ... Economic
    Other Finnish Search Engines Finland and the European Union Finland and the Nordic Countries Finnish News ... Search all the VL
    Search only the EUI European History Project
    Search only one word on the WWW VL EUI European History Project : The WWW VL EUI European History Project could be searched only for one word through the WhatUseek Network , Site Level Search (143 Cadycentre, Suite 220 - Northville, MI 48167 - USA).

    37. The Virtual Jewish History Tour - Finland
    Cyber encyclopedia of Jewish history and culture that covers everythingfrom antiSemitism to Zionism. It includes a glossary, bibliography of web sites and books, biographies, articles, original
    The Virtual Jewish History Tour
    Prehistory of the Community
    The territory which is now Finland was for more than half a millenniumuntil 1809part of the Swedish Kingdom. Under Swedish law, Jews of that period were allowed to settle only in three major towns in the Kingdom, none of them being situated in the territory of Finland. In 1809, as a consequence of the defeat of Sweden in the Russian-Swedish war of 1808-9, part of the Napoleonic Wars, Sweden lost control of Finland and an autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland was established within the Russian Empire. The Swedish constitution and legal system was, however, maintained in the Grand Duchy, and the prohibition on Jewish settlement in Finland thus continued.
    Arrival of Jews in the Czar's Army
    Finnish Jewish history effectively began in the first half of the 19th century when Jewish soldiers (so-called cantonists), who served in the Russian Army in Finland, were permitted to stay in Finland by the Russian military authorities following the soldiers' discharge. Subsequently, the

    38. Finland -- Primary Documents
    history of finland Primary Documents. The Prehistory of finland in a Nutshell ( Facsimile images and commentary) Nordmenn i italiensk 1500talls plansjeverk Latin, Finnish Swedish transcriptions and English translations)history of finland. A website, sponsored by the Usenet
    History of Finland:
    Primary Documents
    The Prehistory of Finland in a Nutshell
    (Facsimile images and commentary) Nordmenn i italiensk 1500-talls plansjeverk
    Norsemen (and -women, including Lapps) as portrayed in 16th-century Italian illustrations.
    Tre forskningsresor i bilder
    Photos of Gustaf Hallström (1880-1962) from early 20th century research trips.
    Cultural history vignettes from northern Sweden, Norway, and Finland.
    Posted by the university library of Umeå (Sweden).
    (1907-1926; Photo facsimiles and diary transcriptions). The Gracious Manifesto of the Imperial Majesty
    The power manifesto of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia,
    removing "local" legislation from the Grand Duchy of Finland.
    (15 February 1899; English translation)
    The Act Passed by the State Council and the State Duma

    Concerning the Procedure to be Complied With

    Issuing Laws and Decrees of All-Empire Significance for Finland
    Consolidating Russian control.
    Also available in French
    (30 June 1910; English translation)
    Manifesto Reinstating the Finnish Constitution
    Signed by Russian officials following the abdication of Nicholas II.
    Also available in Russian
    (20 March 1917; English translation)

    39. History Of Finland (the S.c.nordic FAQ)
    history of finland. Subject 4.3. history. 4.3.1 A chronology ofimportant dates. (A brief chronicle is to find in the section 4.3.3
    The home pages for the Usenet newsgroup soc.culture.nordic
    [ This page was initially edited in a version suitable to get printed
    [ Check if Lysator's faster www-server is up and running? ] Finland
    History of Finland
    Subject: 4.3
    4.3.1 A chronology of important dates
    (A brief chronicle is to find in the section 4.3.3
    (for the period 1155-1809, see also the Swedish history section
    The First Crusade to Finland, launched by Swedes and led by the English bishop Henry and the Swedish king Erik (later canonized and made Sweden's patron saint, St.Erik, and Finland's patron saint, St.Henry, respectively ).
    According to the legend, bishop Henry is murdered by the peasant Lalli on the frozen surface of lake Köyliö.
    The bishop's seat is moved from Nousiainen to Koroinen in the vicinity of modern Turku; the year is considered to be the founding year of Turku, which becomes the capital of the eastern half of the kingdom.
    After a pagan uprising, the Second Crusade to Tavastia (a province of western/central Finland) is launched by Birger Jarl and the pagans are defeated.
    The Third Crusade by Sweden's marsk Torgils Knutsson to Karelia, a province of eastern Finland, establishes the borderline between Catholic West and Orthodox East for the centuries to come. The castle and town of Viipuri/Viborg are founded to defend the border.

    40. Class And Language In Finland's History (s.c.nordic Texts)
    The home pages for the Usenet newsgroup soc.culture.nordic FAQrelatedtexts. Class and language in finland s history. Subject
    The home pages for the Usenet newsgroup soc.culture.nordic
    [ This page was initially edited in a version suitable to get printed
    [ Check if Lysator's faster www-server is up and running? ] FAQ-related texts
    Class and language in Finland's history
    Subject: Finnish "niggers" and Swedish "massas" From: Antti Lahelma Timo Paakkunainen wrote: > Swedes were the rulers, the higher class, and Finns were the > lower class, the poor, they were good as taxpayers (and what they > got back for that - a glory to fight for the Swedish king in the > wars). Swedes even state arguments that their status was based on > God's will and won't be changed (which actually wasn't surprising in > those days). It is obvious that language has no good chances to > survive in those circumstances as a minority language in Sweden. > But Swedish as a minority language in Finland had totally different > status. Swedish was the language of administration, justice, > schools, etc. If a Finn made or wanted to make any progress in his > "career" in the society, he had to change his language to Swedish > and "become a Swede". Swedes had no stress or need to change their > language in Finland, but Finns had it in both Finland and Sweden. This I would like to dub the "nigger theory" of Finnish history. The "nigger theory" states roughly that Finns were but "niggers" working on the cotton fields of Swedish "massas", singin' the blues till eventually one day in the 19th century they broke from the Swedish yoke and a new day dawned.

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