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         Electronic Evidence Criminal Investigation:     more detail
  1. Searching and Seizing Computers and Obtaining Electronic Evidence in Criminal Investigations by Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section - Criminal Division, 2002
  2. Searching and seizing computers and obtaining electronic evidence in criminal investigations (SuDoc J 1.8/2:2001011797) by Orin S. Kerr, 2001
  3. Electronic crime scene investigation : a guide for first responders (SuDoc J 28.8/3:EL 1) by U.S. Dept of Justice, 2001
  4. Advances in Digital Forensics III (IFIP International Federation for Information Processing) (IFIP International Federation for Information Processing)
  5. Advances in Digital Forensics: IFIP International Conference on Digital Forensics, National Center for Forensic Science, Orlando, Florida, February 13-16, ... Federation for Information Processing)
  6. Wiretaps by Anthony Alberti, 2002-01-30
  7. Voiceprint identification: Its forensic application by Fausto Poza, 1974
  8. The family lawyer by Will Bernard, 1966
  9. Seventh Circuit holds that Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act permits use of wiretap evidence obtained in international investigation for domestic criminal ... An article from: International Law Update by Gale Reference Team, 2006-12-01
  10. Cyber Crime Investigations: Bridging the Gaps Between Security Professionals, Law Enforcement, and Prosecutors by Anthony Reyes, Richard Brittson, et all 2007-02-26
  11. Digital forensics in the twenty-first century.: An article from: The Forensic Examiner by Gavin W. Manes, 2007-12-22
  12. Search and Surveillance by Sybil Sharpe, De Montfort University, UK Sybil Sharpe, 2000-09

Searching and Seizing Computers. and Obtaining electronic evidence. in criminal investigations. Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section. criminal Division. United States Department of Justice. July 2002. PREFACE. INTRODUCTION. I. overlap in actual cases. An investigation into computer hacking may begin
Computer Crime and
Intellectual Property Section (CCIPS)
Searching and Seizing Computers and Obtaining Electronic Evidence in Criminal Investigations
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Searching and Seizing Computers and Obtaining electronic evidence in criminal investigations and employees in connection with investigation or prosecution of criminal offenses
Computer Crime and
Intellectual Property Section (CCIPS)
Searching and Seizing Computers and Related Electronic Evidence Issues
  • Searching and Seizing Computers and Obtaining Electronic Evidence in Criminal Investigations Federal Criminal Code Related to Searching and Seizing Computers The USA PATRIOT Act Other Federal Statutes ... Computer Records and the Federal Rules of Evidence, Orin S. Kerr, USA Bulletin (March 2001)
  • A. Searching and Seizing Computers and Obtaining Electronic Evidence in Criminal Investigations
    NEW, REVISED VERSION PUBLISHED JULY 2002 This publication provides a comprehensive guide to the legal issues that arise when federal law enforcement agents search and seize computers and obtain electronic evidence in criminal investigations. The topics covered include the application of the Fourth Amendment to computers and the Internet, the Electronic Communications Privacy Act, workplace privacy, the law of electronic surveillance, and evidentiary issues. This updated version includes discussion of significant changes to relevant Federal law arising from the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001, and supersedes the previous version of "Searching and Seizing Computers and Obtaining Electronic Evidence in Criminal Investigations," published January 2001, as well as "Federal Guidelines for Searching and Seizing Computers" (1994), and the Guidelines' 1997 and 1999 Supplements.

    3. United States Secret Service: Best Practices For Siezing Electronic Evidence
    evidence of the offense. investigation of any criminal activity may produce electronic evidence. Computers and related evidence diskette, CD or the smallest electronic chip device
    A Joint Project of the International Association of Chiefs of Police
    and the United States Secret Service
    • Purpose Introduction Recognizing Potential Evidence Preparing for the Search and/or Seizure ... Conducting the Search and/or Seizure Secure the Scene
    • Secure the Computer as Evidence Other Electronic Storage Devices Wireless Telephones Electronic Paging Devices Facsimile Machines Caller ID Devices Smart Cards Tracing an Internet E-mail
    • About this Publication
      • Credits Feedback Contact
      To develop a basic understanding of key technical and legal factors regarding searching and seizing electronic storage devices and media.
      Scope of the Problem
      As computers and related storage and communication devices proliferate in our society, so does the use of those devices in conducting criminal activities. Technology is employed by criminals as a means of communication, a tool for theft and extortion, and a repository to hide incriminating evidence or contraband materials. Law enforcement officers must possess up-to-date knowledge and equipment to effectively investigate today's criminal activity. The law enforcement community is challenged by the task of identifying, investigating and prosecuting individuals and organizations that use these and other emerging technologies to support their illicit operations.
      Recognizing Potential Evidence
      Computers and digital media are increasingly involved in unlawful activities. The computer may be contraband, fruits of the crime, a tool of the offense, or a storage container holding evidence of the offense. Investigation of any criminal activity may produce electronic evidence. Computers and related evidence range from the mainframe computer to the pocket-sized personal data assistant to the floppy diskette, CD or the smallest electronic chip device. Images, audio, text and other data on these media are easily altered or destroyed. It is imperative that law enforcement officers recognize, protect, seize and search such devices in accordance with applicable statutes, policies and best practices and guidelines.

    4. ASIL Electronic Resource Guide International Criminal Law
    This electronic network, originally established in 1986 criminal Court discuss proposed Rules of Procedure and evidence, rules governing appeals, procedures governing investigation
    Criminal Law
    Gail Partin
    Research Guides and Information Networks

    Treaties, Conventions, and Agreements
    Statistical Sources

    I. Introduction
    Most legal scholars agree that a recognizable body of international criminal law does exist. However, the precise parameters of this body of law are often unclear, perhaps due to the rapid and complex developments of our global society. In its widest context, the source of international criminal law might be derived from the general principles of international law recognized by civilized nations; and therefore, found in the customary law accepted by states, the general criminal law recognized by nations, and the treaties which govern particular conduct. International criminal law can also be categorized according to whether the conduct in question is international, constituting an offense against the world community, or whether the act is transnational, affecting the interests of more than one state. For example, international crime would encompass acts that threaten world order and security, crimes against humanity and fundamental human rights, war crimes, and genocide; whereas the transnational crime category would include drug trafficking, transborder organized criminal activity, counterfeiting, money laundering, financial crimes, terrorism, and willful damage to the environment.

    5. International Criminal Court: Resources In Print And Electronic Format By Lyonet
    evidence for International criminal Courts", 22 Human Rights Quarterly 404427 (No. 2, 2000). Need to be a Project Muse subscriber for electronic Behrens, "investigation, Trial and
    International Criminal Court:
    Resources in Print and Electronic Format
    Table of Contents
    Internet Resources

    6. FY 2004 Criminal Investigation Annual Business Plan
    new products and techniques, processing advanced electronic evidence and will CriminalInvestigation will upgrade their computer operating systems to Microsoft,,id=118127,00.html
    @import url("/irs/cda/common/commonStyleSheet/0,,,00.css"); Home Tax Stats About IRS Careers ... Help
    Search IRS Site for:
    Search Forms and
    Publications for:

    Tips for successful searching

    About IRS
    Taxpayer Advocate

    About IRS
    FY 2004 Criminal Investigation Annual Business Plan
    The Annual Business Plan (ABP) sets forth priorities and guidance for Criminal Investigation (CI) business operations for FY 2004. This guidance is intended to assist the area and field offices’ efforts in developing local plans and strategies consistent with the Strategy and Program Plan. The FY 2004 ABP is comprised of four major strategies encompassing both compliance and business improvement components. The overall CI Compliance Strategy sets forth general priorities to reinforce our core mission with emphasis on tax enforcement. Investigative priorities remain in the following order.
    • Legal Source Tax Crimes Illegal Source Tax and Financial Crimes Terrorist Financing Crimes Narcotics Related Financial Crimes (consistent with the Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force (OCDETF) reimbursement)
    Compliance Component Strategies and Operational Priorities Strategy: Increase support of compliance efforts in Operating Divisions through increased application of resources in tax administration investigations.

    7. Why Is IRS Involved In Electronic Crimes
    the world to follow a target through the wire on the back of the box into cyberspacewhere the evidence of an electronic crime may criminal investigation (CI,,id=118095,00.html
    @import url("/irs/cda/common/commonStyleSheet/0,,,00.css"); Home Tax Stats About IRS Careers ... Help
    Search IRS Site for:
    Search Forms and
    Publications for:

    Tips for successful searching

    About IRS
    Taxpayer Advocate

    About IRS
    Why is IRS Involved in Electronic Crimes
    Criminal Investigation: Electronic Crimes Program
    Program Strategy Overview Data Input and Research Facilities Enforcement Strategy Criminal Investigation (CI)
    Contact Us

    8. APPENDIX To Searching And Seizing Computers And Obtaining Electronic
    APPENDIX A Sample Network Banner Language. Network banners are electronic messages that provide notice of legal rights to users of computer networks. From a legal standpoint, banners have four primary functions. of a wire or electronic communication sought are relevant and material to an ongoing criminal investigation. whether such records or other evidence are in electronic or other form

    9. Electronic Evidence
    Searching and Seizing Computers and Obtaining electronic evidence in criminal investigations High Technology Crime investigation Association (HTCIA) International also have many
    Electronic Evidence and Records Retention
    Will Yancey, PhD, CPA

    Dallas, Texas phone 972.387.8558 Contents of this page: Related Web pages at this Web site: : Inclusion on this list does NOT imply the cited work is or was a good authority. This list is NOT an exhaustive list of the relevant literature and Web sites. Maintained by Will Yancey . Please e-mail any comments or suggestions to
    Electronic Evidence in Litigation
    • California Civil Discovery Law ...Judge Richard E. Best Computer Forensics articles ...Computer Forensics, Inc. founded by Joan E. Feldman Computer Forensics: Incident Response Essentials Warren Kruse, published by Addison-Wesley
      Computer Technology and the Law , by John T. Soma, published by

    10. Why Is IRS-CI Involved In Electronicl Crimes
    As financial investigators, IRScriminal investigation (IRS-CI) fills a unique backof the box into cyberspace where the evidence of an electronic crime may
    HOME Enforcement Strategy Criminal Investigation: Electronic Crimes Program As financial investigators, IRS-Criminal Investigation (IRS-CI) fills a unique niche in the federal law enforcement community. Today’s sophisticated schemes to defraud the government and the American economy demand the analytical ability of financial investigators to wade through complex arrays of financial records. Records of transactions are moving from paper ledgers to computers to off-site, online storage. As a result, IRS-CI is developing tools and techniques to follow and find those records, wherever they may be. IRS-CI designed the Electronic Crimes Program (ECP) to organize our growing expertise in computer and network forensics. Computer Investigative Specialists (CIS) use specialized equipment and techniques to preserve digital evidence and to recover financial data, including data that may have been encrypted, password protected or hidden by other electronic means. Program Strategy Overview The Electronic Crimes Program’s mission is to support IRS special agents in the collection and analysis of digital evidence. As the incidence of computers found during enforcement actions has risen from 5% to 95%, the reliance on ECP personnel to secure and analyze digital data has grown as well.

    11. Defense Cyber Crime Center
    with timely, unbiased electronic media examination can help recover the evidence necessaryto Special investigation, Army criminal investigations Division, Army
    Department of Defense
    Cyber Crime Center About DC3
    DC3 Mission

    Employment Vacancies
    Privacy Notice
    The Department of Defense Cyber Crime Center (DC3) was officially activated October 1, 2001. DC3 was created to better address the proliferation of computer crimes within or directed at DoD. The DoD Computer Forensics Laboratory (DCFL) and DoD Computer Investigations Training Program (DCITP) already provide critical training and forensic support to DoD personnel who must face computer crime and electronic evidence issues, and the formation of DC3 allows them to integrate their activities and operations to provide better support to their customers. The secretary of the Air Force serves as the DoD executive agent for both DCFL and DCITP, and the Air Force Office of Special Investigation provides overall program management. Combining these two entities into a single organization allows them to easily share expertise and provides customers with a single point-of-contact for cyber investigative and forensic support. In addition, the implementing guidelines for DCFL and DCITP state that they should integrate their activities to support infrastructure protection and information operations; the formation of DC3 supports this process. The formation of DC3 is just another improvement the DoD computer world has seen in the last few years.

    12. - Investigative Support And Forensics
    requirements for criminal investigation, law enforcement on forensic investigationsand intelligence electronic evidence electronic evidence projects produce
    MISSION [TECHNOLOGIES AND PRODUCTS] Identify, prioritize, and execute research and development projects that satisfy interagency requirements for criminal investigation, law enforcement, and forensic science technology applications in terrorism-related cases. FOCUS AREAS Electronic Evidence
    Questioned Document Examination
    Questioned document examination projects seek to standardize criteria and establish scientific basis for document and handwriting examinations. Questioned document examination, which encompasses forgeries, tracings, and disguised handwritings, includes writing or typing in different languages and sets of characters. Computer software programs for matching documents via handwriting analysis and pattern recognition algorithms may be able to provide an objective basis for this type of examination. Surveillance Technology
    Surveillance technology involves the advanced design, development, and engineering of surveillance devices that are used in law enforcement or in intelligence operations for eventual prosecutorial purposes. These technologies may be categorized according to the physical nature of the technology (infrared, x-ray, visual, audio/speech), the type of data derived (visual, aural, digital), or according to the nature of the surveillance with respect to the awareness of the target being surveyed. This focus area includes detection of human deception projects to improve the physiological components of polygraphy or develop new modalities for detection of deception, e.g. facial thermal imaging, laser doppler vibrometry.

    13. Computer Investigation
    and presentation of digital computer and other electronic evidence. Beaverton investigationfirm, offering services for civil, criminal, and business
    Computer Investigation
    • Evidence Matters Ltd - UK based Computer Forensics and Computer Expert Witness - UK based Computer Forensics and IT Investigation services, including Computer Expert Witness service for crown court and magistrates court. Experience in Crime, piracy, Employment Tribunals, child pornography (Operation Ore), fraud, theft etc. Computer Crime Research Center - Research Center based in Ukraine founded to aid in the prevention and investigation of computer crimes. Also in Russian. Evidence Incorporated - Provides computer forensics, data recovery, media imaging, drive wiping and other computer investigation services. Computer Investigation Conflict and the Computer: - Information Warfare and Related Ethical Issues . "ABSTRACT: Information warfare, the engaging of computers in conflict, provides new avenues for investigation regarding their use in industrial espionage, accomplishing political ends, and warfare. " by Sam Nitzberg. Geotechnical Computer Applications - USA. Software for subsurface investigation, facilitating generation of reports and analysis of subsurface data. Sample reports. Downloadable demo. Pricing information.

    14. Data Investigation
    for Law Enforcement (Megan s Law, evidence Tracking, investigation and informationdecisionmakers regarding electronic and other criminal and prison records.
    Data Investigation
    • Apitherapy Reference Data Base - Documented reference material for advancing the investigation of apitherapy. Technical Data Analysis - Technical expertise in the areas of aircraft design, analysis, testing, accident investigation and maintainability. Computer Forensics Services Evidence Incorporated - Provides computer forensics, data recovery, media imaging, drive wiping and other computer investigation services. Tech Assist, Inc. - Applications for data recovery, network security, and computer investigation. Stanford SOLAR Center - A collection of educational activities and resources based on Solar Oscillations Investigation (SOI) and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) data. National Data Research - Background investigation services and records checks - Provides domestic and international accounts receivable management, debt collection, debt purchasing, investigation, skiptracing, litigation, credit and trade data and credit insurance. Based in Japan. Geological Survey of Namibia - The promotion and development of Namibia's geological resources through geoscientific investigation and dissemination of geotechnical data.

    15. ASIS International: Fundamentals Of Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition
    home invasion robbery, drugfacilitated rape, electronic evidence collection, clandestine beenupdated; a glossary of useful criminal investigation terms has

    16. State Of Wisconsin - DOJ DCI High Tech/Support Services Unit
    The HTSSU provides electronic technical assistance to the Division of criminal investigation(DCI) and is to conduct forensic analysis of computer evidence.
    State of Wisconsin
    Department of Justice Attorney General Peg Lautenschlager Home About DOJ Search Site Map ...
    Traveling Sales Crews
    Division of Criminal Investigation
    High-Technology and Support Services Unit
    The High Technology and Support Services Unit (HTSSU) conducts investigations of computer and Internet crimes. The HTSSU provides electronic technical assistance to the Division of Criminal Investigation (DCI) and local law enforcement agencies when requested. The DCI records section is a component of the High Technology and Support Services Unit and provides intelligence analysis and recordkeeping for DCI. Computer Forensic Analysis
    One of the functions of the High Technology and Support Services Unit is to conduct forensic analysis of computer evidence. When an investigation involves a computer or electronic media, a duplicate image of the media is created and analysis of the image is conducted. Information extracted from the computer evidence can be a valuable component of the investigation. For more information on computer forensic analysis, please see the following links:

    17. Computer Crime Investigation And Forensics Bibliography
    Hoey, A., Analysis of The Police and criminal evidence Act, s.69 Computer Generated 40KB) Review of UK legal issues of evidence in electronic form under
    Computer Crime Investigation Bibliography
    Last updated:Thursday, August 03, 2000 Online documents concerning the investigation of computer crime. These documents are listed in bibliographic format. The approximate document size is in bold for text files. html identifies hypertext documents. A short abstract follows each entry. Recommended reading is preceded by a
    New Section:
    Electronic Evidence is dedicated to the legal and practical issues involved in evidence in the computer environment,
    Anderson, K.E., "Intelligence-Based Threat Assessments for Information Networks and Infrastructures: A White Paper" , Global Technology Research, Inc., March 11, 1998. (32 KB+graphics) Betts, M., "FBI Seeks Right to Tap All Net Services" ComputerWorld , Vol. XXVI, No. 23, June 8, 1992. (5 KB)
    Article on the FBI's proposal to require the capability for intercepting communications on both public and private networks.
    Clarke, R., "Technological Aspects of Internet Crime Prevention" , presented at the Australian Institute for Criminology's Conference on 'Internet Crime', Melbourne University, 16-17 February 1998. (75 KB)
    "A preliminary analysis is undertaken of the extent to which it is feasible to prevent crime on the Internet, in particular through the credibility of law enforcement agencies being able to investigate criminal activities. The primary focal points are the detection of traffic involving a party-of-interest, the acquisition of traffic content, access to message content, and the attribution of message content to a legal person. Supporting sections deal with Internet crime, and with current and future Internet technology."

    18. Criminal Defence Lawyer In Toronto And Vancouver BC
    Facilitation, Nigel South, IASOC criminal Organizations, Vol. Computers and Obtainingelectronic evidence US DOJ. electronic Crime Scene investigation A Guide
    A criminal defence lawyer in Toronto and Vancouver BC for fraud, theft, tax evasion and other serious criminal cases ... Front Page The Firm's History Practice Areas Philosophy ... PGP Public Key
    Vancouver Toronto 120 Adelaide Street West, Suite 2110, Toronto, Ontario M5H 1T1
    355 Burrard Street, Suite 1300, Vancouver, British Columbia V6C 2G8
    Toll Free in North America: Selected Internet Resources Fraud Computer Crime Organized Crime Money Laundering ... Law Enforcement Fraud The Diligizer Board KYC News National Fraud Information Center NW3C National White Collar Crime Center ... Financial Scandals by R. Davies Fraud Resources by Jon Harrison RCMP Frauds Scams Alerts CNN Fraud Inc. Computer Crime U.S. Department of Justice Computer Crime Australian Institute of Criminology Computer Crime Reporter Cybercrime Resources by Jon Harrison IFCC 2002 Internet Fraud Report EFFweb - The Electronic Frontier Foundation including::
    The Constitution in Cyberspace
    , Lawrence H. Tribe, 1991.

    19. Criminal Investigation | Glossary
    trends); may be in printed or electronic form. physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics,to criminal investigation and the study of physical evidence.
    Student Center Instructor Center Information Center Home ... Spotlight on Terrorism Choose a Chapter Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Chapter 19 Chapter 20 Chapter 21 Feedback
    Help Center

    Criminal Investigation, 8/e Charles R. Swanson, University of Georgia
    Neil C. Chamelin, Assistant State Attorney, Second Judicial Circuit
    Leonard Territo, University of South Florida- Tampa
    AAMVANET Maintained by the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators, a computerized network linking state and Canadian province agencies on matters of highway usage and safety.
    accelerant In fire starting, any flammable fluid or compound that speeds the progress of a fire. Also called booster
    action stereotyping Based on typical actions, stereotyping in which an officer expects that a certain type of event will unfold in a particular way; can result in the officer's failure to see the event the way it actually occurs.
    active system (theft deterrent) A type of vehicle antitheft device which requires that the driver do something to activate and deactivate the system every time the vehicle is parked or driven.

    20. Data Forensics Home Page
    crime and electronic evidence analysis. Federal Bureau of investigation (FBI) http// and the IRScriminal investigation acknowledges the

    Versions Training Register ... Contacts
    Agencies which have contributed to the development of ILook ILook is a product of thousands of Investigators around the world who use it everyday in every type of criminal investigation. Without the continuing support of ILook by these forensics professionals and the following agencies, Ilook would not be the tool that it is today. ILook could not be produced without the direct support of the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, Criminal Investigation Division, Electronic Crimes Program. (keyword CI) Support for this effort is also made by IRS-C ID Asset Forfeiture personnel who can provide assistance to State and Local law enforcement agencies with the identification, seizure, and forfeiture of assets traceable to monies obtained from specified illegal activities, including those specifically linked to terrorism or drug trafficking. The Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration's Strategic Enforcement Division ( TIGTA
    TIGTA's mission is to provide audit and investigative services that promote economy, efficiency and integrity in the administration of the Internal Revenue Service, the primary tax collection agency of the United States.
    National White Collar Crime Center (

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