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1. Virtual-Egypt - The Egyptian People's Papyrus
Gods. • pharaohs. FLASH MOVIES. Here is a listing of some other notable egyptianwebsites ancient Nile. egyptian Dreams. King TutOne. Gateway to ancient egypt.
GALLERIES General Hieroglyphics PHOTO TOURS Abu Simbel Karnak Kings Valley 5 Philae Select a Pyramid Abu Roash Abu Sir Dashur Giza Meidum Saqquara GENERAL Make Your
Own Cartouche
Buy Posters Favorite Books ... Extended Search INTRO TO Egypt Hieroglyphics Mummies DATES
Select a Period Pre-Dynastic Archaic Old Kingdom 1st Intermediate Middle Kingdom 2nd Intermediate New Kingdom 3rd Intermediate Late Period Greek Roman Events Timeline Visual Timeline Gods Pharaohs FLASH MOVIES Journey Through Valley of the Kings Pyramids Galore Mummy Maker Who Killed King Tutankhamun? ... Reincarnator SPECIAL INTEREST 3D Models Multimedia Video Amarna Period King Tut ... QuickTime Panoramas TEXTS Book of the Dead Egyptian Myths Love Poems HIEROGLYPHICS Alphabet Common Words Determinative Gods ... Lessons VIRTUAL TOURS Dendera Giza Pyramids Karnak Saqqara ... Egyptian Encycoledia EGYPT SKIES Live Satellite Space Shuttle Hale-Bopp LINKS Egyptologists Rings Old Site Other Links ...
Click Here to Create a Custom Cartouche of Your Name or Phrase with the Fun and Popular Hieroglyph Translator

Here is a listing of some other notable Egyptian websites
Ancient Nile
Egyptian Dreams FreemanInstitute Ancient Egyptian Photo Gallery Light of Egypt ... Gateway to Ancient Egypt
Hieroglyphic Tutorial and Word Processor Jim Loy's Egyptian Hieroglyphics and Egyptology Page edHelper Breaking the Code LightSpan Online Expeditions ... K.C. Hanson´s WWW Sites on the Ancient Mediterranean

2. - United States - New - Personal - Kids - School & Homework - History -
of the Dead, mummies, and other people and things CR0215618/ Kids present perspectiveson ancient egypt s notable customs, art Mummies, pharaohs, hieroglyphics.

3. Ancient Egyptian Civilization Culture History
pharaohs other notable people. Akhenaten of Amarna, 18th Dynasty Pharaoh of AncientEgypt Complete website about Akhenaten photos and other illustrations
Ancient Egypt Home Egyptian Archaeology Egyptian Pottery Egyptian Medicine ... Egyptian Homes Other Ancient Civilizations Ancient Africa Aztec ByzantineEmpire Cambodia ... Viet Nam Ancient Egypt is too large a subject to try and encompass it all on one page of listings. While there may be some overlap, the other pages listed above will be of help filling in details to material found here. Daily Life General Resources Egyptian Religion View the Gallery of Reconstructions of Temples and Pyramids Tomb of Tutankhamun Daily Life Ancient Egyptian Clothing About ancient Egyptian clothing and fashion. - illustrated - From Dragon Strike Systems - Ancient Egyptian Furniture and Woodworking Examples of ancient Egyptian furnishings, woodworking and construction techniques - illustrated - Ancient Egyptian Lives Three-part series about life in ancient Egypt - illustrated - By Mark T. Rigby - Ancient Egyptian Sports About ancient Egyptian sports. - illustrated - From the Egyptian State Information Service -

4. Past Reference Books Of The Month
Home Access to POWER Library Project. Inlibrary users click here. Past Reference Books of the Month The items featured on this page each month are reference materials. one for people and institutions, the other for films) make looking for information on ancient egypt. The first students detailing all the dynasties and pharaohs. There are many
This image montage requires a Java capable browser. Text Menu/Site Map Home Access to POWER Library Project Information for business, health care and consumers. Find thousands of magazine articles and research school projects. In-library users click here
Past Reference Books of the Month: The items featured on this page each month are reference materials. Due to their special nature and importance, they are available for in-library use only. They may not be checked-out or borrowed through interlibrary loan. DCLS has compiled a list of web resources to answer your reference questions. New and current features can be found here December 2002 Cinema Year by Year 1894-2002
Dorling Kindersley, 2002 Few reference works are as attractive and appealing as this updated version of cinematic history. The work is full of images, including several full-page color reproductions of movie posters and various photographs of stars on set and off. From Edison’s patented film of a man sneezing to the sweeping vistas of The Fellowship of the Ring Cinema Year by Year captures it all.

5. PBS - Egypt's Golden Empire
her on the timeline of notable pharaohs of ancient the attitude and protocol of ancientEgypt would have teacher will shift to other notable Egyptian leaders.
Lesson 2: Egyptian Pharaohs Download Microsoft Word document (.doc) Grades
: Social Studies/ Language Arts/Technology/Math
Estimated Time of Completion : five to ten fifty-minute periods
The Pharaohs and their Stories
I. Summary

The rise and fall of the ancient Egyptian empire is a story of great men and great women that ruled according to their situation with aggression, personality, confidence, propaganda, and/or compromise. The study of the pharaohs, the wars fought, the peace obtained, and the people involved creates a timeline of ancient Egyptian history that tells us much about the past.
Students will create timelines of pharaohs, research pharaohs, identify monuments, and write their own original plays about the different times and Pharaohs.
II. Objectives
  • Students will know when, where, and why Hatshepsut's Temple was built. Students will be able to describe Hatshepsut's reign as Pharaoh. Students can infer what Hatshepsut's reign did for other women in this period of history.

6. Portland State's Greek Civ For Kids
documents in egypt after the pharaohs that ÒA of the ability to communicate in otherlanguages. Greek people and traditions in ancient egypt greatly effected
Greek Presence and Influences in Egyptian Civilization In 343 B.C. Egyptian ethnicity was also influenced by the second invasion of the Persians . Persian rule over Egypt was not welcomed by the Egyptians, and in 332 B.C. the Egyptians seemed to welcome Alexander the Great when he entered Egypt and overthrew the Persians . After AlexanderÕs death in 323 B.C., Egypt was claimed by one of AlexanderÕs Greek generals, Ptolemy. Ptolemy was officially proclaimed king of Egypt in 305 B.C. and was given the title of ÒPtolemy I SoterÓ, Soter meaning ÒSaviorÓ.
The Ptolemies were considered by the Egyptians to be the successors to the pharaohs, and did great things for Egypt both politically and economically. Ptolemy and his descendants built up an empire that is said to be the strongest and wealthiest in Egyptian history. The Egyptian empire of the Ptolemies consisted of Egypt, Cyprus, southern Syria, and Cyrene.
Under the reign of the Ptolemies, in addition to the establishment of wealth and power, Alexandria was founded as EgyptÕs new capital. In addition to being the capital and center for political activities, Alexandria was also a center of Greek immigration . Through the immigration of Greeks into Egypt, Egypt was influenced in a variety of ways. The Greeks brought with them to Egypt new and better

7. Ancient Egyptian Annotated Bibliography: Ancient Egypt Book List
ALA notable Book. Pyramid shows, detail by detail, how the great pharaohs burialplaces MacDonald, Fiona Women in ancient egypt (other Half of History) 1999.
Ancient Egyptian
Annotated Bibliography
including reviews from multiple sources
by Jodie M. Apeseche

Elementary teachers and parents can locate great books for kids on Ancient Egypt. Annotated bibliographies, links to, and easy access to local libraries make it a cinch to find children's literature on Ancient Egypt. Thanks to your support our bibliographies continue to grow. Check out our: Middle Ages Bibliography
Ancient Greece Bibliography
Native American Bibliography

Ancient Egypt Webquest
Stay on Task Ancient Egypt Hotlists Great Egypt Books ... Mission 6
You can help fund this site at no cost to you!
If you shop at bookstore use This Page
each time you enter and they will contribute 5% of your purchase price to this site. All funds will go directly into expanding this site. Table of Contents " Top 10: Must Have " Books Complete Annotated Bibliography ... Bibliography " Top 10: Must Have " Egyptian Books Defrates, Joanna. What Do We Know about the Egyptians?

8. Egypt: Ancient Egyptian People
father, military leader and deity, among other topics a better understanding of allthe rulers of ancient egypt. always easy, even though the pharaohs often had
Ancient Egyptian People For comprehensive information see Rulers of Ancient Egypt of Egypt and Who's Who of Egypt Aha! Or is it King Menes? by Marie Parsons Manetho and Herodotus are the "best" historical sources for the tradition that Menes was the unifier and first King of a unified Egypt. Manetho lived in Sebennytos in the Delta during the Ptolemaic period. He was a priest, perhaps chief priest, of Ra, and served as a consultant to the early Ptolemaic rulers on the cult of Serapis. Ahmose I, Founder of the 18th Dynasty and the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt by Richard Warner
Egypt's 18th Dynasty that established the New Kingdom is, to most people interested in Egypt, a dynasty of stars. It is the dynasty of Tutankhamun who was a fairly minor king, but perhaps the best known of any of the pharaohs. It was also the dynasty of the well known Akhenaten, and of Queen Hatshepsut. The founder of this Dynasty is less well known to the general public, but unquestionably of major importance to Egyptian history. He was Ahmose I, during who's reign Egypt was finally and completely liberated from the Hyksos. Alexander in Egypt Alexander III of Macedon (356-323 bc), better known to history as '

9. Brett Neely
and had never ruled a hierarchy or other organized government lifeblood of the landof the pharaohs, also developed race”, A Test in the ancient egypt and the
Sample Investigative Process Paper The history of Egypt has been known for many years with many people marveling at the accomplishments that they were able to achieve. Many refer to the country as the first true civilization, which influenced numerous other cultures in the West. Architects marvel over the structure of the Great Pyramids, while thousands of visitors travel to the country every year to learn more about its history. Despite the great accomplishments of the Egyptians, it at times has been overshadowed by debate of what race they actually were. [To what degree is this a claim?] Problems in African History is a compilation of various views of historians specializing in the history of Egypt and the debate over what race or ethnic group that the Egyptians belonged to. Although the book was written with the ideas of Egyptologists from the mid 1900’s, it strongly demonstrates the early stages of a heated dispute that is still present today. One of these historians, Cheikh Anta Diop, devoted years to study the origins of the Egyptian people. He dedicated most of his coursework to voicing his opinion on the true race of the inhabitants.

10. Babylonia, A History Of Ancient Babylon
An essential condition for adequate knowledge of an ancient people and not only do their royal annals and other similar to the border of egypt and the upper sea of
Babylon, ancient babylon, babylonia, babylonians, babylonian, history of ancient babylonia Babylonia A history of ancient Babylon (Babylonia) including its cities, laws, kings and legacy to civilization. The International History Project 2004 A history of ancient Babylon (Babylonia) including its cities, laws, kings and legacy to civilization Part Two Part Three Part Four Part Five ... The Last Kings of Babylonia Care to express an opinion on a current or past historical event? Need to ask a question from our many visitors? Just visit our Forum and leave your message. Forum Weekly Poll Please Help Keep Us On the Web. We are a Non-Profit Organization and the cost of continuing is becoming more than we can handle. Therefore, we are asking you to please donate anything you can to help keep us on the web. Please Help Click Here Map Stele of Hammurabi The Babylonian civilization, which endured from the 18th until the 6th century BC, was, like the Sumerian that preceded it, urban in character, although based on agriculture rather than industry. The country consisted of a dozen or so cities, surrounded by villages and hamlets. At the head of the political structure was the king, a more or less absolute monarch who exercised legislative and judicial as well as executive powers. Under him was a group of appointed governors and administrators. Mayors and councils of city elders were in charge of local administration.

11. L
ancient religion had its priestesses in the temples. In egypt they were called the Sâ and served the altar of Isis and in the temples of other pharaohs daughters and other
PHX-ULT Main index THE THEOSOPHICAL GLOSSARY BY H. P. BLAVATSKY AUTHOR OF "ISIS UNVEILED", “THE SECRET DOCTRINE", " THE KEY TO THEOSOPHY" P Q R S P P. —The 16th letter in both the Greek and the English alphabets, and the 17th in the Hebrew, where it is called pé or pay , and is symbolized by the mouth, corresponding also, as in the Greek alphabet, to number 80. The Pythagoreans also made it equivalent to 100, and with a dash thus ( P ) it stood for 400,000. The Kabbalists associated with it the sacred name of Phodeh (Redeemer), though no valid reason is given for it. P and Cross , called generally the Labarum of Constantine. It was, however, one of the oldest emblems in Etruria before the Roman Empire. It was also the sign of Osiris. Both the long Latin and the Greek pectoral crosses are Egyptian, the former being very often seen in the hand of Horus. “The cross and Calvary so common in Europe, occurs on the breasts of mummies” (Bonwick). Pachacamac Peruv .). The name given by the Peruvians to the Creator of the Universe, represented as a host of creators.

12. LookSmart - Directory - Ancient Egyptian History
Guardian s egypt Celebrates ancient egyptian life, culture, history, and religion.Includes information on pharaohs, pyramids, and other sites.
@import url(/css/us/style.css); @import url(/css/us/searchResult1.css); Home
IN the directory this category
YOU ARE HERE Home Library Humanities History ... Ancient to 500 AD
Ancient Egyptian History - Compiles histories of ancient Egyptian civilization, people, mummies, treasures, events, and culture.
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  • Ability's Egyptian Mythology Page
    Provides a basic view of egyptian mythology, summaries of notable gods, and a handy index of all the deities.
    Ancient Egyptian History

    Read about various historical topics from the first unification to Greek-Roman period, including cultural chronology and dynasties.
    Caroline's Homepage - Ancient Egypt

    Explores the relations of the pyramids to the constellations. Details the hieroglyphics, the kings, and the religious customs of the Old Kingdom. - Mysteries of Egypt

    Filled with facts and images of ancient Egypt, its legends, history, and culture. Plus numerous links, quizzes, and colourful QuickTime movies. Egypt Interactive Learn about software that offers a virtual tour of Egyptian archaeological sites and provides details on this ancient culture and its artifacts.
  • 13. Grey Lodge Occult Review :: Mummeries Of Resurrection ::
    the theology of ancient egypt in the creation of use of egypt, other than in a passing reference to ancient books in the daily life of ordinary people. Finnegan, arising
    Antiquities of the Illuminati
    Grey Lodge Occult Review

    2003 e.v. - Issue #5 Mummeries of Resurrection
    The Cycle of Osiris in Finnegans Wake
    Mark L. Troy
    Uppsala 1976
    Doctoral dissertation at the University of Uppsala 1976

    HTML version prepared by Eric Rosenbloom
    Note: Page numbers from the printed text have been retained in the table of contents to use as approximate guides for the references in the bibliographies, line index, and elsewhere.
    Also note: Section heads are linked back to the table of contents, illustrations are linked back to the illustrations list, and each footnote is linked back to its link in the text.
    And please note: The electronic text was obtained by scanning the printed pages, and the subsequent character recognition process introduced several "typos". The text has undergone some correction in the preparation of this HTML version, but many errors remain. Contents Illustrations Abbreviations and Conventions Adopted Acknowledgements Preface ... 1. Osiris The Coffin of Osiris: treachery and death by water (27); The Erica or Heather (31); Death by Rending (32); Osiris, Mummified and Roused (32); The Pillar of Osiris (34); Trial of Osiris (35); Osiris, First of the Westerners (37); Transcriptions and Etymologies of the Name Osiris (38). 2. Isis

    14. History News Network
    Dump Western civ? Psychologists Plunge into Politics Coleridge's Rime of the ancient Mariner most people ever suspected at the time. Two new books, one a biography and the other a
    ArchivesHistory Being Talked About History People Are Talking About Archives 7-18-03 to 8-29-03
  • Michael Beschloss: Kissinger's Secret Papers and Tapes
  • We Have a Holocaust Museum, How About a Communism Museum?
  • Historian: New Movie Mangles the True Story of Zapata
  • Germans Confront the Truth About the Nazi Murderers in Their Own Families ...
    Click here to return to top of page.
    Michael Beschloss: Kissinger's Secret Papers and Tapes (posted 8-29-03) Michael Beschloss, in the course of a review of Henry Kissinger's latest book, Crisis ; in Newsweek (August 11, 2003):
    Click here to return to top of page.
    We Have a Holocaust Museum, How About a Communism Museum? (posted 8-29-03) Radley Balko, writing for FoxNews (August 28, 2003): And those are merely the costs we can estimate. Far more speculative and difficult to measure are the ways in which communism killed human potential. The last century was the most productive in human history: We cured diseases, went to the moon, improved the human condition in almost every way imaginable. Think of what the human race might have accomplished had billions of us not been imprisoned by communism but been free to explore, stretch and reach our potential through competition, innovation and creativity. Yet communism is rarely regarded with the same enmity we hold for Nazism. In fact, communism today is downright trendy.
  • 15. John, Bishop Of Nikiu: Chronicle. London (1916).  English Translation
    of egypt, to John civ). How it was forbidden to appoint a Patriarch or any other Church dignitary without the consent of Phocas and concerning the action of the people
    John, Bishop of Nikiu: Chronicle. London (1916). English Translation
    (Pp. 1-14 CONTENTS OF THE CXXII CHAPTERS) which is by interpretation, administrator, who was bishop of the town of Nakijus in Egypt, which is called Absai, And these he has put together from more extended histories, and these are (in) chapters to the number of one hundred and twenty-two, which is (thus) a chronography beginning with the generation of primitive men. CHAPTER I. Concerning the names of Adam and Eve and their children and all creatures. CHAPTER II. Concerning the names of the stars and of the sun and of the moon and the things that are found in the books of the Hebrews. CHAPTER III. Concerning those who first began to make ships and went upon the sea. CHAPTER IV. Concerning those who engraved astrolabes from first to last. CHAPTER V. Concerning the beginning of the building of Babylon, and those who worship the image of the horse as a god, and the beginning of the chase and the eating of animal food. CHAPTER VI. Concerning those who first eat human flesh, and him who first slew his sons, and likewise him who slew his father.

    16. Mark Roeder's Diary
    full of the "beautiful people" with Normie getting Medivac'd home On the other had we did visit every single Bridal capital ( one of them ) of ancient egypt. Memphis is/was
    Mark Roeder's Diary
    Notes: The top is the most recent day and no attempt is made to make sense or use proper English Saturday 8.1.2000 Friday 7.1.2000 Work, Picked Russell Gibson up from the airport, he starts work on Monday. Thursday 6.1.2000 Wednesday 5.1.2000 Tuesday 4.1.2000 Monday 3.1.2000 Sunday 2.1.2000 Saturday 1.1.2000 Friday 31.12.1999 Thursday 30.12.1999 Wednesday 29.12.1999 Tuesday 28.12.1999 Monday 27.12.1999 Sunday 26.12.1999 Saturday 25.12.1999 Work, Rang around the place, wishing every one Merry Christmas. diAx supplied a couple of bottle of wine, Nada bought me a Terry Pratchett Book, and a knife. ( think sword) Friday 24.12.1999 Work, Did some patch distribution. Also some Nortel IN startups for the first time Thursday 23.12.1999 Work Busy day with the final solution at Fribourg found and isolated. Wednesday 22.12.1999 Work, busy day but nothing eventful. Hit the town for some Christmas drinks, and the Irish bar we were in produced a bottle of Tequila. oh the pain. Tuesday 21.12.1999 Work, Started reading S.Kings' Hearts in Atlantis - novel collection. Monday 20.12.1999

    17. Art Links - Galleries And Exhibits
    Andre Spierings. ancient Treasure Egyptian art collectibles quality replicas of pharaohs gods goddesses perfectly people collecting and selling art directly in touch with each other
    A rt L inks
    G alleries and E xhibits
    Member of the Internet Link Exchange

    B C ... Z A
    • $ ARTWISE INTERNATIONAL AND FINE ART HOTLINE Fine Art Gallery with the Best Possible Prices on all Major Artists. Original Paintings, Limited Edition Serigraphs, Lithographs, Bronze and Acrylic Sculpture. Artists include Behrens, Erte, McKnight, Nieman, Max, Simbari, Chagall, Picasso, Ect..Ect...Free Quotes and Information on all Artists and Titles!! With Over a Decade of Experience and Customer Service...
    • 1st Art Gallery in Europe The First Art Virtual Gallery selling enormous amount of all range artworks. Artist's ads. Antiques, Jewelry, Icons, Crafts. More Services: Marriages, patents, Web Design, Advertising.
    • 3rd Eye Gallery Unique and alternative images in 3D and 2D.
    • A. A. Art Painting: Portraits, Still lifes in Flemish technique by Russian-born artist. Order Paintings on line. Free oil painting lessons, instruction for artists and art students. Free images!
    • AAdecor - Art, Antiques and Decoration - Brazil The Brazilian site of Art,Antiques and Decoration. Brazilian painters, brazilian art, antiquarians, architects, decorators, MarketPlace, Art Gallery, Cultural Place, Professional Sevices, AADecor Members Catalogue...
    • Abney Gallery International View hundreds of artworks by gallery artists. Soho gallery located adjacent the New Museum, Museum of African Art and The Guggenheim.

    18. 150 Ancient Egypt Links
    Explore the Pyramids, temples, and other monumental architecture org/elmira/coburn/egypt.htmAncient egypt Papyrus pharaohs Hieroglyphics Gods
    Ancient Egypt Links
    Go to Frames! Break Out of Frames
    Read Some Testimonials From the Herbal Healer Academy! The Herbal Healer Academy is endorsed by as a leader in Health Care products, Herbs and natural remedies. Also they have an extremely comprehensive selection of herbs in their catalog. We have TESTED some of these products and find them to be first rate, gentle and very effective. Check out their newsletter, and products catalog. Seva Chakra Award - 20 Years Experience Credentials
    American Naturopathic Medical Board Certified and Accredited Hit CTRL+D to Bookmark this page!
    Search Mystery Links
    Home Page-Site Guide Complete A-Z Subject Guide 1000 Freeware Links ... Discovery of Atlantis Ring Atlantis Ring -The original one was discovered in Egypt in the Valley of the Kings in 1860 by the Marquis d' Agrain a French archaeologist. Old of about 5 thousand years or more, this Atlantis Ring was made of Assouan Sandstone. This archaeology find was later entrusted to Howard Carter, a British archaeologist, who made an exact replica in sterling silver wearing it since as his secret talisman. Mysteries of radiasthesia and the magical power of the esoteric Atlantis Ring as well as the famous Howard Carter surviving the mummy's curse and other interesting remarks involving the Tutankhamon's tomb....

    19. Egypt Ancient, Religions
    ancient egypt. pharaohs Of ancient egypt. the common sacrifices, which consisted,as in other temples, of the flesh of. 371 ff.; Religion in ancient egypt, pp.
    Ancient egypt, a history of ancient egypt Ancient Egypt. Egypt. Ancient Egypt. Pharaohs Of Ancient Egypt. Pyramids in Ancient Egypt the story of ancient egypt An historical site for learning about the ancient Egyptians including their kings, gods, mythologies, art, architecture, and influences upon human history. Care to express an opinion on a current or past historical event? Need to ask a question from our many visitors? Just visit our Forum and leave your message. Forum Weekly Poll Topics Main Egyptian Page Page Two Abydos Ahmose ... Thutmose III Recommended Sites Ancient Egypt Egypt's Rulers Please Help Keep Us On the Web. We are a Non-Profit Organization and the cost of continuing is becoming more than we can handle. Therefore, we are asking you to please donate anything you can to help keep us on the web. Please Help Click Here Ancient Egypt, Religions Of Egypt Author: Foot Moore, George Chapter II The Middle Kingdom And The Empire The Rise of Thebes - The Sun as Supreme God - Local Gods - Identifications - Enneads and Triads - The Dead - Judgment before Osiris - Moral Ideas - The Empire - Amon-Re the National God - Power of the Priesthood - Attempt to Establish Solar Monotheism - Reaction - The Nineteenth Dynasty - Mythology - Theban Tombs and Texts - The Book of the Dead - Amulets - The Saite Restoration - Foreign Rule.

    20. Ancient Egypt
    of their knowledge comes from studying the architecture and other arts of ancientEgypt. Excavations of pharaohs tombs, such as those in a burial ground
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    Ancient Egypt
    A little history
    The Egyptian World
    The Land

    The People
    Life of the People ... Learning about ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt, was the birthplace of one of the world's first civilizations. This advanced culture arose about 5,000 years ago in the Nile River Valley in northeastern Africa. It thrived for over 2,000 years and so became one of the longest lasting civilizations in history.
    The mighty Nile River was the lifeblood of ancient Egypt. Every year, it overflowed and deposited a strip of rich, black soil along each bank. The fertile soil enabled farmers to raise a huge supply of food. The ancient Egyptians called their country Kemet, meaning Black Land, after the dark soil. The Nile also provided water for irrigation and was Egypt's main transportation route. For all these reasons, the ancient Greek historian Herodotus called Egypt "the gift of the Nile."
    The ancient Egyptians made outstanding contributions to the development of civilization. They created the world's first national government, basic forms of arithmetic, and a 365-day calendar. They invented a form of picture writing called hieroglyphics.

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