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61. INSTAAR Ecosystems Group
hydrology, patterns of biotic distribution, and biogeography; and above method ofdetermining the Nstatus of ecosystems from a variety of biomes.Our results
Home Introduction Research Ecosystems

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Ecosystems Group
T he primary aim of the Ecosystems Group is to study the ecological components of arctic and alpine systems and their interactions with climatic and biophysical variables. The Ecosystems Group has recently expanded to include study of the tropics and human dimensions. Basic research topics include:
  • ecosystem dynamics biogeochemical processes biodiversity ecosystem disturbance and recovery modeling of biotic pattern distribution ecological assessments conservation planning
We address questions of how climatic influences, biophysical factors, and biotic components interact to control the distribution and maintenance of ecosystems; how the hierarchical organization of current ecosystems was produced in response to past and present environments; how predicted climatic changes and current and future changes in land-use patterns will affect ecosystems; and how conservation planning can contribute to sustainable ecosystems at multiple geographic scales. Ongoing projects investigate the following characteristics and scales of ecological systems: populations, species, communities, landscapes, and regions; plants and animals; biogeochemistry, ecophysiology, hydrology, patterns of biotic distribution, and biogeography; and above- and below-ground systems.

62. Science Outline
B. ecosystems and biomes. 1. Energy Flow in ecosystems. 2. Integrating ChemistryCycles of Matter. 3. biogeography. 4. Earth’s biomes. 5. Succession.
Mrs. Hauser's Science Webpages
I. ASTRONOMY A. Earth, Moon and Sun 1. Earth in Space 2. Phases, Eclipses, and Tides 3. Integrating Technology: Rockets and Satellites B. The Solar System 1. Observing the Solar System 2. The Sun 3. The Inner Planets 4. The Outer Planets Integrating Life Science: Is There Life Beyond Earth C. Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe 1. Integrating Physics: Tools of Modern Astronomy 2. Characteristics of Stars 3. Lives of Stars 4. Star Systems and Galaxies 5. History of the Universe D. Interdisciplinary Exploration: Journey to Mars 1. Language Arts- Naming a space station after an important person, highlighting Sojourner Truth. 2. Science- Conditions on Mars, growing food, etc. 3. Social Studies- Set up rules and guidelines for spending seven months in a spacecraft about the size of a bus. II. INSIDE EARTH

63. Grade 6 Science Curriculum
ecosystems AND biomes. 13,14,15,17,18. S1 ENERGY FLOW IN ecosystems. 13,14,15.S2 INTEGRATING CHEMISTRY CYCLES OF MATTER. 13,14,15. S3 biogeography. 13,14,17.
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Higgins Middle School has adopted the FISH philosophy. PEABODY PUBLIC SCHOOLS, PEABODY, MASSACHUSETTS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM GRADE 6, 2002 Prepared by: Kaylyn Govoni Administrator of Instruction: C. Milton Burnett, Ed.D. PEABODY PUBLIC SCHOOLS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM GRADE 6 COURSE OVERVIEW The sixth grade Science program at the Higgins Middle School concentrates primarily on living things. There are also four units that are covered in the sixth grade, that are not in the frameworks, but are essential skills and tools that students need in order to complete the Science curriculum. These four units are: The Scientific Method Metrics-Linear Measurements Observation and Inference , and The Microscope: Parts and Functions These topics are taught through constant use of process skills and critical thinking skills within a hands-on, guided inquiry lab approach to covering the curriculum. The text used is the Science Explorer modular series published by Prentice Hall. At the sixth grade level there are five student version textbooks available for each student.

64. ZOO. 451 - BIOGEOGRAPHY & BIODIVERSITY; projects/fitch/courses/evolution/html/biogeography.html. StateRanking in Endangered ecosystems (as listed
LECTURE 2 ZOO. 451 Vert. Natural History Geological History Biogeography Geographic Diversity Threats ... Prior Lecture - Natural History I. Geological History ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
  • UC Berkeley - plate tectonics Dinosauria's Geologic Maps of continent positions through time A. Plate Tectonics = movement of continents
    • evolution by vicariance results from the physical separation of land masses or the formation of other barriers to dispersal plate movements may aid dispersal as land bridges form or continents collide plates are still moving, so climates will continue to change over long periods of time
    B. Simplified Geological History
    • Paleozoic Era
      • 1st chordates appeared 1st vertebrates (agnathans) appeared land mass was centered over Southern hemisphere
      Mesozoic Era
      • Pangea - single land mass that existed at end of Paleozoic
        • split into 2 supercontinents - centered over the tropics
          • N. Hemisphere - Laurasia

65. DLESE Find A Resource > Resource Type: Syllabus
by the notes include biodiversity, ecosystems and biomes, climates and changes inclimates, distribution of species, island biogeography, evolution, changes in
Results 31-40 of 40 = DLESE Reviewed Collection Seminar in Geographical Information Systems (title provided or enhanced by cataloger) Submit a teaching tip This is the syllabus to a graduate-level course concerned with the study of current trends in geographically oriented information processing systems. The syllabus is organized around daily topics for which additional readings, notes, and web sites are available as supplemental learning materials... Full description This resource is in these collections: DLESE Community Collection (DCC) Grade level: Graduate / Professional Resource type: Presentation / Demo Syllabus Ref. material Subject: Physical geography Technology Geomorphology Submit a teaching tip This is the homepage for an upper level geomorphology class. It contains the class syllabus, as well as links to associated resources such as topographic maps and US landforms. A detailed introduction to the influence of geologic structure on landform development is provided. This structural lesson has many diagrams and topographic map links to aide in interpretation... Full description This resource is in these collections: DLESE Community Collection (DCC) Grade level: Graduate / Professional College (15-16) Resource type: Syllabus Tutorial Map Photograph Subject: Geology Physical geography Structural geology Landscapes and Water

66. Ecosystem Conservation In Region 3: Glossary
is often divided into distinct biomes that represent diversity, and environmentalhealth within ecosystems. in conservation biology and island biogeography.
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Planning Grants ... Karst
Glossary of Ecosystem-Related Terms
  • Adaptive Management Adaptive management is based upon the premise that managed natural systems are complex and unpredictable. While there are numerous definitions of adaptive management, most include adaptive management is the process of adjusting management actions and/or directions as new and better information emerges about the ecosystem. Biological Diversity The variety of life and life processes, and includes the levels of landscape, community, species, and genetics. Biological Integrity The biotic composition, structure, and functioning at genetic, organism, and community levels consistent with natural conditions, including the natural biological processes that shape genomes, organisms, and communities. Biomes Biome is a term that describes areas on the earth with similar climate, plants, and animals at a global scale. Biomes are classified according to the predominant vegetation and characterized by adaptations of organisms to that particular environment. In the Great Lakes-Big Rivers Region, there are three distinct biomes - aquatic, forest, and grassland biomes. Biomes are composed of many smaller ecosystems - communities of plants and animals and their habitats (the physical parts of their environment that affect them). Whereas the boundaries of a biome are determined by climate, the boundaries of ecosystems are physical features, such as ridges and or riverbanks that separate one community from another. The ecosystems of a particular biome tend to have plants with similar growth forms and animals with similar feeding habits.

67. GEOG2740 Ecology, Evolution, And Biogeography Human domination of theearth s ecosystems. Island biogeography ecology, evolution, and conservation
Geography: reading lists:
Ecology, Evolution, and Biogeography, Session 2003/04, Semester 2 Dr Oliver L. Phillips and Dr Chronis Tzedakis
Textbooks and website wk14. Ecological Principles: ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycles wk15. Evolutionary Principles: biodiversity processes and patterns wk16 Long-term history of life on earth: life/biogeochemistry interactions ... wk24. Human Impacts and the Ecology of Global Change, Third Millenium
Highly recommended text, including possible purchase Biogeography: an ecological and evolutionary approach . 6th Edition, Blackwell. * Bennett, K.D. (1997) Evolution and Ecology, The Pace of Life. Cambridge University Press. * Dickinson, G. and Murphy, K. (1998). Ecosystems . Routledge. * Archibold, O W (1995) Ecology of World Vegetation . Chapman and Hall. * Tivy, J (1993) Biogeography . 3rd Edition, Longman. Try these Web sites for materials related to the course: ... Week 14. Lecture 1. Ecological Principles: ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycles * Archibold, O W (1995)

68. Nearctica - Ecology - Biogeography - Biomes, Ecoregions, And Habitats
biogeography. biomes, Ecoregions, and Habitats. Special Segments. Buy Books about Ecology. biomes. A Short Introduction to biomes. General Biome Web Sites. Tundra. Northern Boreal Forest ( Taiga or
Biogeography Biomes, Ecoregions, and Habitats Special Segments Butterflies of North America Conifers of North America Eastern Birds List of N.A. Insects Home Eastern Wildflowers General Topics Natural History Ecology Family Environment Evolution Home Education Home Conservation Geophysics Paleontology Commercial Organizations Buy Books about Ecology BIOMES
A Short Introduction to Biomes
General Biome Web Sites
Northern Boreal Forest (Taiga or Northern Coniferous Forest).
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Grasslands (Prairies and Savannahs).
Mediterranean Scrub and Woodland

69. Biogeography And Ecology
3. Views of biogeography TaxonomicEvolutionary-Historical; Ecological-ecosystems-BiomesView. B. Distribution of Organism. 1. What is the Range of an Organism.
Lecture 25 and 26:
Biogeography and Ecology (Ch. 19 and 20)
A. Introduction
1. Ecology: Study of interrelationships among organisms and their abiotic environment
2. Biogeography: Study of the distribution or geography of organism and ecosystems.
3. Views of Biogeography
  • Taxonomic-Evolutionary-Historical Ecological-Ecosystems-Biomes View
B. Distribution of Organism
1. What is the Range of an Organism
a. What is the natural RANGE of Cactus?
Taxonomic-Evolutionary-Historical View
What is a Cactus?
Taxonomy: Species, Genus, Family, Order, Class, Phylum, Kingdom
Carl Linnaeus in 1750's and 60's
Phylogeny and Evolution
Charles Darwin
b. What is Range of a Species of Cactus?
Range of a Species: Giant Saguaro Cactus ( Carnegiea gigantea)
Limiting Factors for Range
Climate: Freezing Temperatures Other Examples: Coastal Redwood ( Sequoia sempervirens) Interaction with other organism: Competitive exclusion
c. Range of a Genus
Prickly pear and Choia Cactus ( Oputia spp. ) 75 species Mexico to Canada
d. What is the natural RANGE of Cactus Family?
CACTACEAE the Cactus Family Includes 50 or more genera and up to 1000 species Range: North and South America ("New World")
2. Factors Affecting the Range of a Taxon

70. 9(l) Primary Productivity Of Plants
Table 9l1 Average annual Net Primary Productivity of the Earth s major biomes.Ecosystem Type, 1973. Primary production terrestial ecosystems.
GLOSSARY ... ABOUT CHAPTER 9: Introduction to the Biosphere (l). Primary Productivity of Plants Introduction The bodies of living organisms within a unit area make up a standing crop of biomass More specifically, biomass can be defined as the mass of organisms per unit area and is usually expressed in units of energy (e.g., joules m ) or dry organic matter (e.g., tons ha or grams m ). Most of the biomass in a community is composed of plants, which are the primary producers of biomass because of their ability to fix carbon through photosynthesis . This chemical reaction can be described by the following simple formula:
O light energy C H O
The product of photosynthesis is a carbohydrate , such as the sugar glucose , and oxygen which is released into the atmosphere ( Figure 9l-1 ). All of the sugar produced in the photosynthetic cells of plants and other organisms is derived from the initial chemical combining of carbon dioxide and water with sunlight (

71. 9(k) Characteristics Of The Earth S Terrestrial Biomes
As a result of natural selection, comparable ecosystems have developed in theseseparated areas. Scientists call these major ecosystem types biomes.

72. Test 1 Review:  Biogeography
Geography 316 biogeography Fall 2002. Ecotones Factors that Influence EcosystemNutrient Cycling biomes Definitions Structural Components (life form, size
Geography 316: Biogeography Fall 2002
Exam 1 Review
Review the following terms and concepts for the exam. Concentrate on lecture notes, assignments, quizzes. Rely on the text for clarification or further detail, remember the reserved readings). Physical Geography Terms and Concepts:
Earth as a Sphere
earth size/ shape
earth's rotation
effects of rotation
axial tilt
solstice and equinoxes Rotation and Revolution and their effects on the planet's biosphere
Declination of the sun ( know how to calculate it given a location and date) Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn Biodiversity What does it mean? terms Species, population, community, ecosystem naming things (taxonomy) Gradients in Biodiversity Primary productivity , structure and composition what types of plants would you expect at the various stages of succession Characteristics of each seral stage Taxonomic Classes (Kingdom. Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species) Morphological and Biological species concepts Ecosystems/Processes Definitions Biotic Structure of the Ecosystem Laws of Thermodynamics Food Chains/Trophic Levels Ecosystems, Food chains

73. Glossary For Biogeography
biogeography the science that studies the distribution of life, past and Biome oneof the largest recognizably distinct ecosystems on earth; the
Physical Geography Working Group The Virtual Geography Department
Radford Geography Department
Radford University
Glossary for Biogeography
NOTE: Terms are arranged according to the following subject categories: biogeography, ecology, evolution, landscape ecology, and taxonomy. This should not be taken to mean that any term is limited in use or definition to a particular discipline; the arrangement is a pedagogical device to help the beginning student in biogeography to make associations among various words and processes. Each term also may be accessed through the index at the end of this document.
Biogeographic terminology
a non-native species, especially one introduced to some part of the world through human action.
Altitudinal zonation:
the sorting of plant and animal species according to elevation in response to differences in temperature and precipitation patterns.
the science that studies the distribution of life, past and present.
the establishment of a population in a place formerly unoccupied by that species. Colonization implies successful reproduction in the new area, not simply the presence of a species there.
the transport of propagules beyond the limits of a species' distribution area
Distribution area:
the geographic range of a taxon.

74. Biogeography Home Page
maps of Virginia s rare species, invasive species, natural communities and ecosystemsand natural biogeography ImageExchange Photos of biomes from around
GEOG 335. Biogeography Course Home Page This page provides entry to general information about the course as well as to the current class schedule, assignment descriptions, exam dates, on-line exercises, supplementary materials, and a glossary of terms.

75. Section 2 Lecture 4
A key focus for biogeography is to study spatial operate through space at biosphere,biome and community succession operates in different ecosystems to produce files/sect2
To consider some of the ways in which ecosystems change over space, and the ways in wehich biogeographers categorise those changes. To examine the ways in which studies assist us in understanding changes in the Earths's biosphere.
Models of succession
A key focus for biogeography is to study spatial patterns in the biosphere, to observe, classify and map these and to analyses the processes involved in creating these patterns. Many of the temporal changes discussed in the previous lecture also operate through space at biosphere, biome and community scales. Hence, vegetation succession operates in different ecosystems to produce primary seres such as xeroseres, hydroseres, lithoseres or psammoseres. At a larger scale, Whittaker suggested the use of gradient analysis to help analyse spatial variation of natural communities along environmental gradients. A specific example of the application of a time-space continuum approach is that of island biogeograhy. In the 1960s, to show the relationship between island area, isolation and species diversity.

76. Biome WebQuest
A biome is a group of ecosystems with similar climates and organisms. Classifyingecosystems into biomes helps scientists to describe the world.
THE BIOME QUEST A WebQuest for 6th Grade Science Designed by Marla J. Renius Introduction Task Process Evaluation ... Teacher Page
I ntroduction
CONGRATULATIONS! You and your classmates have been chosen to accompany groups of scientists on an expedition that will focus on biomes. A biome is a group of ecosystems with similar climates and organisms. Classifying ecosystems into biomes helps scientists to describe the world. This expedition will focus on five major land biomes and two major water biomes. Your mission is to study one of these biomes. Back to the top The Task Our school superintendent was very pleased to hear the exciting news of your upcoming trip. It is quite an honor to have been chosen. He was a bit dismayed to hear that you will be missing some school, so we have come to a compromise. Your team will gather photos and research from your biome and prepare a virtual tour using a computer multimedia program. Back to the top The Process 1. First you'll be assigned to a team of 3 or 4 students...

77. SAS Ecology
local population extinction due to habitat destruction, pollution, nonnativespecies, etc.,; affect of human activities upon local ecosystems and biomes. Ecology/Link_Ecol.htm
Primary Productivity
Population Dynamics
Biome Project
Ecology Facts
Nutrient Cycles
Ecology Sites
Ecology Virtual Library
Microbial Ecology. Digital Learning Center
Kids Do Ecology
Ecology. Need To Know Library Stream Biology Ecology. Encyclopedia Britannica Return SAS Home e-mail Kevin C. Hartzog
SAS' Ecology Page
Student Objectives
Students will be able to describe population dynamics, including the following:
  • models that describe the growth of populations (e.g. r- and k-selection). regulation of population size by abiotic factors (e.g. niche availability, pollution), regulation of population size by biotic factors (e.g. food availability, predation),
Students will be able to describe community dynamics, including the following:
  • Predator-prey interactions, parasitism commensalism symbiosis affects of abiotic factors that affect community size (e.g. habitat size)

78. PMIP 2 Vegetation Maps For The Mid-Holocene And Last Glacial Maximum
Climate change and arctic ecosystems II Modeling, paleodata Journal of Biogeography25, 9971005. Reconstructing biomes from palaeoecological data a general
PMIP 2 Home Data synthesis
PMIP 2 Vegetation Maps For The Mid-Holocene And Last Glacial Maximum
Data description
The published version of the BIOME 6000 database (Version 3: Prentice et al., 2000) discriminates 11270 biomes. The maps were produced on a region by region basis over a number of years. Here, we have fused the information from the various regions and standardised the biome names. We recognise 40 biomes, using names that are broadly consistent with the BIOME4 equilibrium biogeography-biochemistry model (Kaplan et al., 2003). Since Version 3 of the BIOME 6000 database was released, there have been two new palaeovegetation mapping initiatives. Harrison et al. (2001) added a number of sites from the continental shelf east of China which date to the last glacial maximum. The Pan-Arctic Initiative (PAIN) extended the site coverage from the high-northern latitudes at both 6000 yr B.P. and the last glacial maximum (Bigelow et al., 2003). Both these data sets are included in the current version of the BIOME 6000 data set (Version 4.1).
(Click on the figure to get a bigger version)
Data download
Full size image (170 Kb) pdf file (4.35 Mb)

79. Blackwell Synergy - Cookie Absent
Journal of biogeography Volume 31 Issue 6 Page 1033 of restoration efforts in variousbiomes ranging from marine and coastal to highelevation ecosystems.
 Home An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie A cookie is a small amount of information that a web site copies onto your hard drive. Synergy uses cookies to improve performance by remembering that you are logged in when you go from page to page. If the cookie cannot be set correctly, then Synergy cannot determine whether you are logged in and a new session will be created for each page you visit. This slows the system down. Therefore, you must accept the Synergy cookie to use the system. What Gets Stored in a Cookie? Synergy only stores a session ID in the cookie, no other information is captured. In general, only the information that you provide, or the choices you make while visiting a web site, can be stored in a cookie. For example, the site cannot determine your email name unless you choose to type it. Allowing a web site to create a cookie does not give that or any other site access to the rest of your computer, and only the site that created the cookie can read it. Please read our for more information about data collected on this site.

80. Modeling Ecosystem Processes
Generalization of a forest ecosystem process model for other biomes, BIOMEBGC,and Research, Ecological Applications, Ecology, Journal of biogeography.
BIOL 5340
Ecosystem Process Modeling
Dr. Joseph D. White
Office: SR B17E
Hours: M,W 10-12
Course Description
Key Course Concepts
  • Process models provide a method for understanding the interactions ecosystem components Model development proceeds with the following: conceptualization, specification, evaluation, and use Models can be utilized as for hypothesis building, predictions (forecasting), and management Ecosystem process simulation is based on carbon, water, and nutrient cycles Spatial data increase the utility of simulation work for management
Text: , 1997. Grant, Pederson, and Marin, John Wiley and Sons.
Date Topic and Assignments Lab Week 1 Modeling philosophy and approaches Chap 1 and 2, handout
Introduction to STELLA Modeling Software STELLA Week 2 Ecosystem properties and quantification of processes: connections to systems models Chap 3 and 4 STELLA Week 3 Model evaluation Chap 5 and 6, handout Submittal of model plan due definition of problems STELLA Week 4 Model form and development Chap 7 - 10 Formal presentation of model plan due STELLA Week 5 Model applications in ecology: populations Chap 11 - 12 STELLA Week 6 Model applications in ecology: communities Chap 13 - 15 STELLA Week 7 Model applications in natural resource management Chap 17 - 20 STELLA Week 8 Meteorology: modeling the environment handout MT-CLIM Week 9 Terrestrial plant production handout 3-PG, BIOME-BGC

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