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21. Biology 4505, Biogeography And Systematics
Week 4 Climate and biogeography (EE) C M ch. 4. 23 Sept. What is climate,and what controls it? 25 Sept. ecosystems and biomes. 27 Sept.
Biology 4505, Biogeography and Systematics Instructors: Evan Edinger, Richard Haedrich, Paul Snelgrove, Steve Carr MWF AM; SN 4040. LAB: F 2-5 PM, SN 4040 or field Date Lecture Topic Assigned readings. Week 1 Introduction 6 Sept. Course introduction, history of biogeography (all) Lab: (no lab) Week 2 biodiversity (PS) 9 Sept. Biodiversity: definitions 11 Sept. Biodiversity: measurements 13 Sept. Biodiversity gradients Lab: Computer lab: calculating biodiversity measures. Week 3 Distributions and their origins (RH 16 Sept. The nuts and bolts of biogeography: the big 19 th century expeditions choose organism groups for posters/term papers 18 Sept. Importance of taxonomy in biogeography 20 Sept. Relationship between systematics and biogeography Lab: Computer lab: calculating biogeographic measures. Week 4 Climate and biogeography (EE) 23 Sept. What is climate, and what controls it? 25 Sept. Ecosystems and biomes 27 Sept. Climate zones and vegetation Lab: Field trip: plant diversity at the MUN botanical gardens Week 5 A brief history of life (EE) 30 Sept.

22. Climate, Water Resources And Plant Communities
ecosystems AND biomes. biogeography the study of the spatial distribution of plantsand animals, the diverse spatial patterns ecosystems components and cycles.
ECOSYSTEMS AND BIOMES Diversity of organisms is a response to the interactions between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere, which produce a variety of conditions within which the biosphere exists Diversity is also linked to the interplay of living organisms themselves Ecosystem : self-regulating association of living plants and animals and their nonliving physical environment (biotic and abiotic components) Changes in one component of the ecosystem causes the ecosystem to adjust to the new conditions Ecology : the study of the relationships between organisms and their environment Biogeography : the study of the spatial distribution of plants and animals, the diverse spatial patterns they create, and the physical and biological processes that produce this distribution Ecosystems components and cycles Ecosystems are complex, with complicated flows of energy and matter Largely based on solar energy (few ecosystems are based on chemical reactions: chemosynthesis) Communities Community : subdivision within an ecosystem formed by interactions among populations of living animals and plants Plants: the essential biotic component Plants are the biotic link between life and solar energy Photosynthesis : the process by which plants convert radiant energy to stored chemical energy CO + water + sunlight = carbohydrates + oxygen Gross Primary Productivity (GPP): rate at which the solar energy is converted to chemical energy Of the energy that is stored, some will be used to maintain metabolic processes of the plant

23. LookSmart - Directory - Biogeography Organizations & Research Projects
Topics include ecosystems, biomes and island biogeography. We re always lookingfor ways to improve your search experience. Tell us how we re doing.
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- Find details of organizations and research into biogeography.
Directory Listings About
  • Biogeography and Ecology Research Group - Oxford Univ.
    Conducts research on such topics as island biogeography, paleoecology, human impacts on habitat, conservation and modeling of climate change.
    Biogeography Specialty Group

    Member group of the Association of American Geographers promotes research, education and collaboration in the field of biogeography.
    CTI Centre for Geography - Physical Geography

    Peruse links to biogeography, glaciology, volcanology and meteorology research projects. Located at the Univ. of Leicester, United Kingdom.
    NOAA Biogeography Program

    US government program focuses on marine and coastal habitat mapping, species tracking, and the publication of resulting maps and research data.
    UCSB Biogeography Lab
    Learn about research into conservation, ecology and species distribution conducted at this University of California, Santa Barbara laboratory. Valdosta State Univ. - Lecture Notes on Biogeography
  • 24. Biomes
    WORLD DISTRIBUTION OF biomes, ecosystems, SPECIES. biogeography the study of thedistribution of species; biomes are the largest discernible subdivision of the of Biomes.wbk
    • BIOGEOGRAPHY - the study of the distribution of species BIOMES are the largest discernible subdivision of the biosphere. Biome boundaries and life forms that are present are determined by climate. Similar biomes occur in different parts of the world: rainforests occur in Africa, Asia, and South America. Biomes can differentiated by the plants and animals present; they are adapted to their biome. Different species are present in the same biome in different parts of the world. All species have undergone similar evolutionary pressures. Rainforest plants have specific tolerance limits for temperature and precipitation. Climate influences the vegetation present. Vegetation influences the animal communities present
    • Tundra (North America, Europe, Asia) No. Coniferous forest (tiaga) (North America, Asia, Europe) Temperate forests (North America, South America, Europe, Asia) Grasslands (North America, South America, Asia) Chaparral (North America, South America, Africa, Europe, Australia)

    25. Objectives Of The Biogeography Study Group (IGU-BSG) 1996-2000
    The overall aim of the Study Group is to promote biogeography as a of plant andanimal communities (at scales ranging from ecosystems to biomes) and how
    Objectives of the Biogeography Study Group (IGU-BSG) 1996-2000 The overall aim of the Study Group is to promote biogeography as a relevant sub-discipline of geography. There is some evidence that biogeographical teaching within geography might have declined in recent years, consequently the promotion of the subject is of vital importance to geography as a discipline and to strengthen biogeographical influence in international fora (e.g. IGBP). In particular, we wish to stimulate biogeographical research and teaching amongst young researchers and within developing countries. This overall aim will be achieved through the following objectives:
  • Within the overall framework of the Study Group's activities, attention will be focused on the following issues:
  • a) The need to understand the functioning of plant and animal communities (at scales ranging from ecosystems to biomes) and how they influence physical processes at the earth-atmosphere interface. Within this context the roles of ecosystem studies, palaeoecology, geoecology, modelling, scaling, remote sensing and GIS will be addressed. b) To provide spatial and temporal structure and explanation to the increasing amounts of information on plant and animal species that are becoming available. Within this context the roles of palaeoecology, landscape ecology, remote sensing and GIS will be addressed.

    26. Section 2 Lecture 1
    which are the main focus for biogeography (Fig 1b). Investigations are undertakenat a variety of scales the biosphere, biomes, ecosystems, microhabitats. files/sect2
    To consider the biosphere as an assemblage of dynamic ecosystems and to examine the basic structure, functions and processes of terrestrial and aquatic systems.
    biosphere; biogeography; ecosystem; autotrophic; heterotrophic; energy flows; thermodynamics; entropy; photosynthesis; food chain; primary productivity biomass; biogeochemical cycles; nutrient pools. Biogeography
  • The biosphere is generally considered to be "that portion of the earth in which organisms and people can live" (Odum, 1993, p.26). It merges impercephibly into the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. (Fig 1a) Within the biosphere, organisms interact with each other and with their abiotic environment in complex ways. It is these relationships and the resultant spatial and temporal patterns of life-forms which are the main focus for biogeography (Fig 1b). Investigations are undertaken at a variety of scales : the biosphere, biomes, ecosystems, micro-habitats. The most common/useful scale used by many biogeographers is that of the ecosystem. This term was coined by Tansley in 1935 to denote biotic and abiotic components considered as a whole. "Ecosystem" is aterm which not only describes particular groups of organisms interacting with each other and with their non-living environment, but it is also a concept. Ecosystems are generally considered to be open, dynamic systems with identifiable structures and functions (Fig 2.) Any given ecosystem contains
  • 27. Ecology Online | Guided Independent Learning | | Physiological
    and aquatic biomes, which are summarized in his classic book, Communities and ecosystems (1975). Featured Books and journals. biogeography An ecological and
    The ecosystem is not defined by size or location. Rather is it the inclusion of energy flow and mineral cycles with all community-level characteristics that define an ecosystem. Ecologists who study ecosystems are known as synecologists and systems ecologists. The latter often use computer simulation modeling to study and understand the structure and function of ecosystems. Climate is also the major influence on the type and distribution of ecosystems.
    ... want to know more? Institute of Ecosystem Studies LTER - ecological studies World biomes - BluePlanet Five biomes of the world ... Ocean Planet The biome is the highest scale of integration in ecology. Biomes are not fundamentally different from ecosystems, except that biomes are defined more by their geographic scale (often continental in size) and physiognomy (characteristic appearance over the landscape, e.g., grassland, woodland, coniferous and deciduous forest). The prominent ecologist, Robert Whittaker, classified a total of 36 terrestrial and aquatic biomes, which are summarized in his classic book, "Communities and Ecosystems" (1975). Featured Books and journals Biogeography: An ecological and evolutionary approach.

    world biomes map of the world and ecosystems of Canada locations of the following biomes Tundra, Chaparral Moreinfo; Nearctica - Ecology - biogeography - biomes, Ecoregions, and

    29. Biomes Of North America Lecture Notes - Part 7: Tropics
    Loss and Degradation A technical report by Reed F. Noss, Edward T. LaRoe III J. Michael Scott biogeography from Nearctica ecosystems, biomes, and Habitats
    Images (c) by James L. Reveal, Norton-Brown Herbarium, University of Maryland, unless otherwise credited.
    Biomes of North America Lecture Notes
    Part 7: Tropics
    Low montane rain forest edge, Cerro Pierre, Panama (above)
    Montane rain forest, Panama (below, right)
    XV. Tropics
      A. Location: Central America, Caribbean islands, equatorial South America and western Africa, southeastern Asia from India to Malaysia, northern Australia, and many Pacific Islands. Forests cover about seven percent of the earth's surface, half of that is tropical. Restricted to southern Florida in the continental United States.
      B. Features:
        1. Vast number of densely spaced trees and enormous diversity of species, sites and sounds
        2. General lack of seasonality.
        about 80-160 in (200-400 cm) or more in North America
        4. Mean average temperature is 70-80° F (22-27° C) for most of the region.
        5. Frost and freezing temperates restricted to tropical mountains.
        6. High humidity, narrow temperature fluctuation, uniform day-length; growing season up to 365 days a year.
        7. Soils are geologically old and therefore generally poor in

    30. BSCI 124 Lecture Notes - Biomes, Introduction
    Definition biogeography the study of animal and plant it is composed of severalplant communities and ecosystems. The boundary between biomes is termed an
    Images (c) by James L. Reveal, Norton-Brown Herbarium, University of Maryland, unless otherwise credited.
    BSCI 124 Lecture Notes
    Department of Plant Biology, University of Maryland
    Montane coniferous forest near Kebler Pass, Colorado
    I. Introduction
    The North American continent is the home of a diverse array of plants and animals all occupying a multitude of ecological sites in a variety of climatic regimes. The biota of North America - the sum total of its living creatures - when considered in relation to climatic, soil and physiographic features allows biologists to recognize grand associations that are termed biomes The purpose of the two lectures on biomes is to provide the student with an awareness of life from the arctic to the tropics. Our goal is to make you, the young men and women who are the future, cognizant of the living creatures, the land, and the environment of the planet. To understand the present flora, it is useful to understand in broad terms the fate of the flora over the last 18,000 years. The flora of North America has changed significantly insofar as its distribution is concern during this short period of time in the earth's history. A large mass of ice dominated much of the northern third of the continent. Unglaciated regions in Alaska allowed not only numerous plants and animals to survive in refugia, but provided a broad avenue for people to enter onto a new land. Much of the native flora was compressed in front of the ice sheet, the vast taiga of today was little more than a narrow strip along the front and down the backbone of the Appalachian Mountains.

    31. Environment And Resources
    course notes from Valdosta State University, Georgia, USA, outlining the main conceptsand issues of biogeography, including ecosystems, biomes, succession and and resources.htm
    Environment and Resources
    Open links in new Window Agriculture, forestry and countryside Ancient Tree Forum KS3, GCSE, AS/A2, UNI
    Website produced in association with the Woodland Trust to promote the conservation of ancient trees and the wildlife they support in the UK and Europe through changes in land use and practice. Includes news, articles, a gazeteer and photo and art galleries inspired by the issues. National Farmers' Union KS3, GCSE, AS/A2, UNI
    The organisation representing farmers and growers in England and Wales provides a useful series of UK farm studies intended for secondary schools. Includes profiles of 9 different arable and animal husbandry farms drawn from the various NFU regions and overseas. Includes locational info, data on land use, machinery, inputs of pesticide, fertilizer etc, productivity and diversification for each case study. Rural Futures - What is the Countryside For GCSE, AS/A2, UNI

    32. PMIP 2 BIOME4 Equilibrium Biogeography-Biogeochemistry Model
    Journal of biogeography 25(6), 10071027. Climate change and arctic ecosystems IIModeling, paleodata-model The climate and biomes of Europe at 6000 yr BP
    PMIP 2 Home Data synthesis
    Model description
    BIOME4 (Kaplan et al., 2003) is a coupled biogeography and biogeochemistry model which simulates the equilibrium distribution of 28 major potential natural vegetation types (biomes) from latitude (for the calculation of incoming short-wave and photosynthetically active solar radiation), atmospheric CO
    (Click on the figure to get a bigger version)
    Full size image (170 Kb) pdf file (534 Kb) Model code - gzipped tar file (3.47 Mb) If you wish to use BIOME4 in asynchronously-coupled mode to simulate vegetation changes and feedback, please cite Kaplan et al. (2003) as the source of the model. Technical queries about the BIOME4 (and other models in the BIOME family) should be addressed to Colin Prentice . Development of BIOME4 was spearheaded by Jed Kaplan and funded by the Swedish Natural Science Research Council (NFR) and the Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry.
  • Braconnot, P., Joussaume, S., Marti, O., and de Noblet, N. (1999). Synergistic feedbacks from ocean and vegetation on the African monsoon response to mid-Holocene insolation. Geophysical Research Letters 26(16), 2481-2484.
  • Claussen, M. (1997). Modeling bio-geophysical feedback in the African and Indian monsoon region. Climate Dynamics 13(4), 247-257.
  • 33. The Environmental Literacy Council - Desert Ecosystems
    extensive amount of information about North American desert ecosystems on its hasposted this explanation of desert scrub biomes for her biogeography class
    Home About ELC Site Map Contact Us ... Food
    Desert Ecosystems
    The single factor that distinguishes desert ecosystems from other biomes is the minimal amount of rainfall received annually (no more than 10 inches). While most deserts are very hot during the day and cool at night, desert biomes are also found in arctic, icy regions. The severity and range of temperatures depend on the location- altitude and latitude- of the desert. Deserts currently cover over one third of the Earth's land surface. In some areas, such as the Sahel Desert , the desert has expanded due to overgrazing and deforestation in a process known as desertification Unlike most other biomes, one desert may look very different from the next, depending on its location. The differences are usually accounted for in moisture, temperature, soil drainage, topography, alkalinity, and dominant plant species. There are a few deserts around that world that are too dry to support plant life; deserts support a variety of plants that are well adapted for dry conditions. To conserve water, most desert plants have reduced leaves or no leaves at all. Many of these reduced leaves have further modified into spines or sharp needles which act as a deterrent to herbivores. Others plants shed their leaves for most of the year to prevent water loss, and grow them only during brief moist periods. Most plants have a very shallow root system, as well as deep tap roots (up to 100 feet) to access rainfall and groundwater. Plants found in the North American desert that exhibit these adaptations include cacti, yucca, Joshua trees, and sagebrush.

    34. Physical Features Of Ecosystems
    biomes We mentioned that the distribution of organisms in relation to the physicalproperties of ecosystems. In general, the subject of biogeography looks at
    Physical (Abiotic) Factors of the Ecosystem Describing the physical characteristics of our environment is one of the key elements of ecology. The overall distribution of living organisms is largely dependant on regional differences in the physical environment. Climate (temperature, water, light and wind), Atmosphere and Substrate make up the Abiotic Components of the Ecosystem
    The physical characteristics of ecosystems on earth are determined foremost by the sun . The sun is:
    • The primary energy source for earth (see later with energy flow)
    • Provides light on earth's surface
    • Responsible for the circulation of the earth's atmosphere (the main weather part here)
    • Heat waves from sun are important in temperature on earth
    • Photoperiodicity and circadian rhythms depend on sun.
    Circulation of Air
    As the earth revolves around the sun, heat from solar radiation heats the earth's surface. The amount of energy that hits the surface of the earth is dependent on the angle of the sun, which varies daily seasonally and latitudinally (because of changing day length during the year).

    35. Biomelinks
    UC Santa Barbara UC Santa Barbara biogeography lab Altitudinal Arid Lands NewsletterHome Page ecosystems in Space and links for different biomes) Studies of

    36. Biomenotes
    587598 Ecosystem, ecology, biogeography, and community; Habitat and niche; Biogeographicrealms and terrestrial ecosystems; biomes and ecotones; Major
    GEOG 110 - Physical Geography
    Notes on ecosystems and biomes
    Our discussion of chapters 19 and 20 in the textbook will focus on some basic principles of ecology, structure and function of ecosystems, and the spatial pattern of major terrestrial biomes in relation to the pattern of global climates. Because of limited time we will focus on a limited set of topics from these two chapters, as indicated below: Chapter 19 - focus on pp. 587-598
    • Ecosystem, ecology, biogeography, and community Habitat and niche Photosynthesis and respiration Net primary productivity and biomass (make sure you know the difference) Critical abiotic factors: light, temperature, water, nutrients Life zone concept: how altitude mimics latitude
    Chapter 20
    For detailed descriptions of biomes, refer to the "Useful bookmarks" page from the online syllabus
    • Biogeographic realms and terrestrial ecosystems Biomes and ecotones Major growth forms of vegetation Major terrestrial biomes (Table 20.1, Fig. 20.3) and their correspondence to climate types (Fig. 10.3, 10.5)
        Equatorial/tropical rainforest Tropical seasonal forest and scrub Savanna Midlatitude broadleaf (deciduous) and mixed forest Needleleaf or conifer forest (taiga) and its montane varieties Temperate rain forest Mediterranean shrubland and chaparral Midlatitude grassland and steppe Warm and cold deserts Arctic and alpine tundra

    and biotic features which characterise the biomes, ecosystems, Zoogeographical and awide range of biomes such as Brown, JH Lomolino, MV (1998) biogeography.
    Department of Life Sciences Module Description Life Sciences Module List > Biomes and Ecosystems
    Level: B Module Code: BGB1003 Year: 1 Module Credits: 10 Pre-Requisites: None Co-Requisites: None Pre-Requisite For: None Semester: 2 Module Leader: Franc Hughes
    Module Description:

    This module will investigate the climatic and biotic features which characterise the Biomes, Ecosystems, Zoogeographical and Phytogeographical Realms of the World. The students will be introduced to ecological energetics and consider the productivity of the different systems. Examples will be drawn from a wide range of biomes such as Arctic/Antarctic tundra, taiga, boreal and temperate forests, oceans, temperate grasslands, savannahs, deserts and tropical rainforest. Recommended Background Reading:
    Archibald, E.O. (1995) Ecology of World Vegetation.
    Colinvaux, P.A. (1993) 2nd Ed. Ecology . John Wiley.
    Biogeography . Sinauer
    Coursework: 66%
    Exam: 34%
    Module Resources: This area holds downloadable lecture notes and other documentation relevant to this module. To access these files you must have a valid username and password which you can obtain from the module leader.

    38. Undergrad
    science; different approaches in biogeography; vegetation types and ecological systems;terrestrial ecosystems, vegetation regions and biomes (focus on
    DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Undergraduate Courses COURSES DESCRIPTION PREREQUISITE Geography 1 Population Geography Political Geography Climatology Geomorphology Geography 2 Economic Geography Urban Geography Geography 3 Geo-Informatics: Integrated application and management of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Cartography 2A or 2B Statistical methods A or Analytical techniques A 2A, 2B and 3A Geography 1A Population Geography (GGF5011): Introduction to human geography and the concept of "geographical space"; population geography (population, resources, environmental impact), population distribution, population dynamics (and growth), results of population growth (socio-economic), population control (zero population growth, policy, planning; humans and their environment (impact, problems, overpopulation, environmental carrying capacity, resources, change, impact evaluation). Political Geography (GGF5991): Spatial political organisation. Political geography of the world order; sovereign states (development, structure, processes); geography of political participation, political instability; the new world order: a futuristic scenario. Back to table Geography 1B Climatology (GGF5031): A spatial study of the earth's atmosphere, weather and climate.

    39. EDUCATION PLANET - 47 Web Sites For Biomes
    3. An academic internet portal to the topics of Help Tectonics/ Continental Drift Agriculture / Farming ecosystems / biomes Latin America
    All Grades Pre-K K-2 Higher Ed Search 100,000+ top educational sites, lessons and more! Home Geography Biomes Biomes Subcategories: Deserts Forests Grasslands Savannas ... Tundra Found Biomes ' Web Sites. Also for ' Biomes 53 Lesson Plans Web Sites (1 - 10 of 47): Blue Planet Biomes - In our site you will discover facts about our planet, its complex patterns of biomes, plants, and animals, and how climates ultimately determine the biomes of our Earth. This site was created to teach students the power of the Internet as a tool for bo
    Grades: K-8 Cache Lesson Plans for Australian Animals - Grades 4-12 - When it comes to animals, Australia is unique. For example, it is the only continent on Earth that naturally has all three subclasses of mammals: placental, marsupial, and monotremes. Surrounded by seas and oceans, the animals on this continent are isolat
    Grades: Cache Taiga Plants - The taiga is large and seemingly homogeneous. Acres and acres of the exact same tree species are often the case. The lack of diversity is pretty amazing, especially when compared to other biomes such as the rainforest.
    Grades: K-8 Cache

    40. Biology 297 / PSU 005 ~ Biodiversity Of World Ecosystems
    of our world s terrestrial biomes and aquatic ecosystems. of the Pennsylvania s predominantbiome, the northeastern deciduous forest, the biogeography of this

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