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1. Before The Big Bang
What happened just before our universe was created? Hypography SciTech delves deep into the big bang theory. The big bang theory is not old, but it is widely accepted Introduction to the big
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Before the Big Bang
What happened just before our universe was created? Hypography Sci-Tech delves deep into the Big Bang theory. Created by Tormod Guldvog
Last updated September 14 2001 The Big Bang theory is not old, but it is widely accepted amongst physicists all over the world. Not everything is easy to explain, though. The uneven distribution of matter and the existence of life are two examples of issues which scientists will have to explain in order to finally prove the theory. A central question in the Big Bang theory is whether the universe is expanding or not. Another problem is the conservation of energy. We have selected some websites which offer insight into these matters.
Related Links
  • The Big Bang Theory
    A presentation of the big bang theory by NASA, in connection with the Microwave Anisotropy Probe.

2. Astronomy And Astrophysics Q&A
Stars could not have come from the big bang; The Role of Stellar
UPHOLDING THE AUTHORITY OF THE BIBLE FROM THE VERY FIRST VERSE SEARCH Contact Us Home Store Events ... Support Recommended Resources Journeys to the Edge of Creation (Two-video set) Astronomy and Creation Astronomy and the Bible Design and Origins in Astronomy ... Printer-friendly version
Astronomy and Astrophysics Questions and Answers
Alien/UFOs Apologetics Archaeology Arguments NOT to use Bible Biographies - Creationists Cloning Countering the Critics Creation Compromises Creation: Why It Matters Darwin, Charles Design Features Dinosaurs Education Embryonic Recapitulation Environmentalism Flood Fossils Geocentrism Genesis Genetics Geology God History Human Life: Abortion Ice Age Information Theory Jesus Christ Linguistics Mammoths Morality and Ethics Mutations Natural Selection Origin of Life Philosophy Plate Tectonics Probabilities Racism Radiometric Dating Religion (humanism, etc.) Science Speciation Thermodynamics and Order Young Age Evidence

3. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis -- Java Calculator V1.1
big bang Java Calculator v1.1. Standard big bang Nucleosynthesis refers to an exceptionally simple and beautiful model of the early universe. physics such as nuclear reaction rates. The error matrix for SBBN has been computed by Fiorentini et al. ( Phys. Rev. D58 1998; astro
Big Bang Java Calculator v1.1
Standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis refers to an exceptionally simple and beautiful model of the early universe. Matter and radiation are spatially uniform and the expansion is controlled by known fields with negligible chemical potentials, so the dynamics of the expansion and density as a function of time and temperature is determined by ''just physics'' with no external parameters. The production of light elements depends on one parameter, the small baryon excess characterised by the baryon-to-photon ratio Eta . Numerical integration of the reaction network yields predictions for light element abundances with theoretical errors dominated by the experimental errors in the input physics such as nuclear reaction rates. The error matrix for SBBN has been computed by Fiorentini et al. (Phys. Rev. D58,1998; astro-ph/9803177 ) by Monte Carlo techniques. For many years SBBN theory and observation were mainly compared by the theorists. Integrations using updated rates and techniques were used to make state-of-the-art predictions and these were then compared with a collection of disparate observational data. Many reviews of this kind successively refined the predictions and the arguments concerning the post-big-bang processing of the elements (see reviews by S. Sarkar, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 1493, 1996, and D. Schramm and M. S. Turner, Rev. Mod. Phys. (Colloquia) 70, 303, 1998). The ''theoretical errors'' (really the nuclear-physics uncertainties) are no longer negligible compared with the observational errors so correct statistical comparison requires handling all of the errors at the same time, forcing the theorists to interpret observers' error budgets or vice versa. With theoretical predictions and errors now stable, it makes sense to empower the observers to do the comparison.

4. Big Bang -- From Eric Weisstein's World Of Physics
Cosmology. big bang. Allday, J. Quarks, Leptons, and the big bang. IOP Press, 1998. Overbye, D. Lonely Hearts of the Cosmos The Scientific Quest for the Secret of the Universe. New York HarperCollins, 1991. Wald, R. M. Cosmology. big bang. The moment of creation for the universe. The study of the big bang and the subsequent evolution The phrase "big bang" was coined by Fred Hoyle in
Astrophysics Cosmology
Big Bang

The moment of creation for the universe The study of the Big Bang and the subsequent evolution of the universe is a known as cosmology . The best method for determining the age of the universe is by using the Hubble law . Current estimates give 12-20 billion years. The phrase "Big Bang" was coined by Fred Hoyle in an interview on BBC radio. He used the term in a derogatory sense (since the steady-stead model, of which he was a proponent, was the accepted one at the time), but it stuck at has entered the standard vernacular.
References Allday, J. Quarks, Leptons, and the Big Bang. IOP Press, 1998. Overbye, D. Lonely Hearts of the Cosmos: The Scientific Quest for the Secret of the Universe. New York: HarperCollins, 1991. Wald, R. M. Space, Time, and Gravity: The Theory of the Big Bang and Black Holes, 2nd ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1992. Weinberg, S. The First Three Minutes: A Modern View of the Origin of the Universe, upd. ed. New York: Basic Books, 1988.

5. Big Bang Chronology
It is in fact the measurement of the characteristics of this cosmic backgroundradiation which provided one of the key parts of the big bang model.
Density 4 x 10 Universe is mostly light ( photons ) " was light that then formed the dominant constituent of the universe, and ordinary matter played only the role of a negligible contaminant." Reminiscent of "Let there be light...". Electrons and positrons created from light ( pair -production ) and destroyed by annihilation at about equal rates. The pair-production threshold is 1 MeV, so the thermal energy kT=8.6 MeV was well above that. Protons and neutrons being changed back and forth, so about equal numbers. The energy difference between neutron and proton is 1.29 MeV, so protons can be freely changed to neutrons at this temperature. Only about one baryon for 10 photons, as inferred from the 3K background and density estimates. Since the conservation of baryon number is a strong conservation principle , it is inferred that the ratio of photons to baryons is constant throughout the process of expansion. Division of energy between photons and massive particles Expansion time. Particle population table Example of energy and time calculation ...
Big Bang scenario

Weinberg, First Three Minutes

6. Physics Precis: The Big Bang Theory
A Physics Precis on a magazine article on the big bang Theory to answer the second biggest question plaguing our astroscientific world today "Are we alone in the
Free Web site hosting - Web Hosting - Choose an ISP NetZero High Speed Internet ... Dial up $14.95 or NetZero Internet Service $9.95 A Physics Precis on a magazine article on the Big Bang Theory "How it All Started" Back to the essays page.

7. Big Bang Models Back To Planck Time
To model the big bang cosmology at earlier times than those covered in Weinberg sFirst Three Minutes, certain time regimes have been proposed with the types
Models of Earlier Events
To model the Big Bang cosmology at earlier times than those covered in Weinberg's First Three Minutes , certain time regimes have been proposed with the types of events which would be happening at those times.

8. Is The Scientific Community Aware Of The Extraordinary Confusion Over Big Bang's
The second of ten papers scientist Dr. Robert V. Gentry issued in 2001, exposing the big bang's fatal flaws. These papers were subsequently censored, lest the world become aware of yet more to be

1. Ten

Flaws in the Big Bang Point to GENESIS, a New Millennium Model of the Cosmos: Part 2
Is the Scientific Community Aware of the Extraordinary Confusion over Big Bang's Expansion Redshifts?
(arXiv:physics/0102093 28 Feb 2001)
by Robert V. Gentry
The scientific community widely understands that expansion redshifts are the centerpiece of big-bang cosmology. What is generally unknown is the widespread confusion in the ranks of cosmologists as to exactly what they are. A minority equate them with Doppler shifts due to actual recession. A majority, however, claim: (i) the [expansion] redshift does not really have anything to do with velocities at all in cosmology," (ii) it is common but misleading to convert a large redshift to a recession velocity using the special-relativistic formula z v c - v c and (iii) "The truth is that expansion redshifts are totally different from Doppler redshifts, and the velocities catalogued by astronomers are not the recession velocities used in the velocity-distance law." Has the scientific community been victimized by astronomers as the foregoing implies? Or is it instead that the expansion redshift concept is flawed? This paper shows it's the latter, that it was accepted without ever being tested. In fact modern physics knows nothing of expansion's redshifts and their presumed origin due to expanding space rather than Doppler recession.

9. Imagine The Universe! Dictionary A-D
AXAF The Advanced Xray Astrophysics Facility. big bang A theory of cosmology in whichthe expansion of the universe is presumed to have begun with a primeval
Imagine the Universe! Dictionary
Please allow the whole page to load before you start searching for an entry. Otherwise, errors will occur. A B C D ... Z (Note - Greek letters are written out by name - alpha, beta etc.)
Accumulation of dust and gas onto larger bodies such as stars, planets and moons. accretion disk
A relatively flat sheet of gas and dust surrounding a newborn star, a black hole, or any massive object growing in size by attracting material. active galactic nuclei (AGN)
A class of galaxies which spew massive amounts of energy from their centers, far more than ordinary galaxies. Many astronomers believe supermassive black holes may lie at the center of these galaxies and power their explosive energy output.
A unit of length equal to 0.00000001 centimeters. This may also be written as 1 x 10 cm (see scientific notation angular momentum
A quantity obtained by multiplying the mass of an orbiting body by its velocity and the radius of its orbit. According to the conservation laws of physics, the angular momentum of any orbiting body must remain constant at all points in the orbit, i.e., it cannot be created or destroyed. If the orbit is elliptical the radius will vary. Since the mass is constant, the velocity changes. Thus planets in elliptical orbits travel faster at perihelion and more slowly at aphelion . A spinning body also possesses spin angular momentum. apastron
The point of greatest separation between two stars which are in orbit around each other. See

10. Usenet Physics FAQ
Version Date 20th April 2004. Usenet Physics FAQ The black hole information loss problem. Is the big bang a black hole? sci.astro FAQ. sci.chem FAQ. Space FAQ. rec.puzzles FAQ (physics) Alternative Physics FAQ
Version Date: 20 th April 2004
Usenet Physics FAQ
This is the web version of the Usenet Physics FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions). Its purpose is to provide good answers to questions that have been discussed often in sci.physics and related usenet newsgroups. The articles in this FAQ are based on those discussions and on information from good reference sources. That does not mean that they are always perfect and complete. If you have corrections, updates or additional points to make please send an email to the editor, Don Koks (his cv is here ). If you want to write up an article following a news group discussion about a subject not yet covered here then feel free to send it to the editor, but please do not use this address to ask new questions. Ask them in the appropriate newsgroup instead. If you are new to the Physics newsgroups, welcome! Please read the article An Introduction to the Physics Newsgroups . It will help you find the right newsgroup for your questions and will give you other crucial advice about appropriate netiquette for these groups. Above all you should check carefully to see if your questions are answered in this FAQ before posting. This FAQ was created by Scott Chase in 1992. The web version was created, maintained and enlarged by Michael Weiss and Philip Gibbs. Others who have written for the FAQ are credited at the top of the items they submitted while many more who have made smaller contributions have been thanked privately.

11. Big Bang Theory
And when a theory has been tested as much as the big bang theory, with each Imaginethe Universe is a service of the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive

Imagine Home
Ask A High Energy Astronomer Current page
The Question
(Submitted November 08, 1997) What is the big bang theory? What do you believe?
The Answer
The big bang theory is the theory that the universe started from a single point, and has been expanding ever since. This has been well-established by observations, such as the apparent movement of galaxies away from us, and the cosmic microwave background radiation believed to be the leftover light from the big bang. The evidence for a big bang having taken place about 15 to 20 billion years ago is overwhelming, so I naturally believe that it is the case. However, if your real question is "why did the big bang happen in the first place?" then that ceases to be an astronomical question, but a religious one. Some astronomers, who are religious, argue that the big bang theory confirms the existence of God and the basic elements of the creation story as told in the Bible. First came light, then the heavens, then the Earth ... However, many other scientists do not. Scientists, like people in most any profession, have a vast diversity of religious beliefs. Some of us attend houses of worship, others do not. Some of us consider ourselves very religious, others consider ourselves staunch atheists. Just because we study astronomy does not mean we have any more agreement as to the ``why'' questions than anyone else.

12. Before Big Bang - Physics Help And Math Help - Physics Forums
Physics Forums is a science and physics community a lot of really

13. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
observed abundances are well know, and the calculations of big bang Nucleosynthesis(BBN This site developed and maintained by the Astrophysics Theory Group of
The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Homepage
One of the principle predictions of the standard Hot Big Bang model is the synthesis of light elements in the primordial universe. The references showing that stellar processes cannot account for the observed abundances are well know, and the calculations of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) have been performed for decades. These calculations are very sensitive to some parameters that are measured in terrestrial experiments, and are constrained by the observations of astronomers. There has been rapid improvement in both sets of measurments in the recent past. The improvement has been rapid enough that a quickly responsive forum for the latest implications of these measurments is appropriate. The goal of this Web site is to provide the needed fourm, and to serve as a clearing house for the latest information and speculation regarding BBN. The organization of this site is simplistic, but it has not been written with a lay audience in mind. Since much of the information available is pictoral in nature, it is strongly suggested that a browser with graphic capabilities be used.

14. Graduate Study In Physics - The Ohio State University
physics Terry Walker, Professor Ph.D. Indiana University, 1988 Neutrino astrophysicsDark matter candidates and their detection big bang nucleosynthesis. .html
Graduate Study in Physics
The Department of Physics

Astrophysics Theory

Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics
... Department Graduate Page
Astrophysics Theory
Astrophysics is the application of physics and, more broadly, the physical sciences to questions concerning the nature, workings, origin, and evolution of the universe. At Ohio State, we have built a first-class astrophysics group, relying heavily on a strong rapport between the physics and astronomy departments.
Numerous advances in astrophysics recently have been made. We now understand the expansion of the universe in terms of the Big Bang. That model explains the three-degree background radiation as well as the measured cosmic abundances of helium and other light elements.
Present areas of research include studies of elemental abundances produced in the Big Bang nucleosynthesis, the viability and consequences
of possible candidates for the missing mass, the origins and evolution of structure in the universe, the relationship between stellar evolution and the age of the universe, and constraints on particle physics from cosmology.

15. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Home Page
big bang Nucleosynthesis Home Page. What's New? A new measurement yields larger primordial He4 abundance. Two D measurements in QSOs differ by an order of magnitude. Introduction What's BBN? inhomogeneous nucleosynthesis) as well as variations on the standard model of particle physics (e.g 458, 637 (1996), astro-ph/9412087. big bang Nucleosynthesis in Crisis
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Home Page
What's New? Introduction: What's BBN? Recent OSU papers Miscellaneous figures Links to other astrophysics/cosmology sites Last update: June 21, 1996

16. Introduction To The Big Bang Theory
thorough introduction to the big bang theory. URL. http// astro.1997/astro4/bigbang.html...... Introduction to the big bang Theory ( Reported broken)
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Introduction to the Big Bang Theory
A thorough introduction to the Big Bang theory.
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17. MSN Encarta - Related Items - Big Bang Theory
Astronomy The Universe. Astrophysics. Cosmology. background radiation. backgroundradiation as proof of the big bang. development of big bang theory.
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18. Cosmological Fads And Fallacies
Errors in some popular attacks on the big bang. Errors in Irving Segal's Errors in Eric Lerner's "The big bang Never Happened UCLA Astronomy Home Page. UCLA Physics Home Page
Errors in some popular attacks on the Big Bang
Errors in Irving Segal's Chronometric Cosmology
Errors in Eric Lerner's "The Big Bang Never Happened"
Errors in tired light models
Errors in the Steady State and QSSC Models ... Relativity Last modified 19-Jan-2000

19. MSN Encarta - Search Results - Big Bang Theory
Article—Encarta Encyclopedia. Section in the Cosmology article. 14. Physics astrophysics big bang theory*. Article—Encarta Encyclopedia.
MSN Home My MSN Hotmail Shopping ... Money Web Search: logoImg(''); Encarta Subscriber Sign In Help Home ... Upgrade to Encarta Premium Search Encarta Encarta Search results for "Big Bang Theory" Page of 2 next Exclusively for MSN Encarta Premium Subscribers Big Bang Theory Article—Encarta Encyclopedia Big Bang Theory , currently accepted explanation of the beginning of the universe. The big bang theory proposes that the universe was once extremely... article outline Introduction History The Theory Supporting Evidence ... Refining the Theory related items Understanding the Universe Astronomy: The Universe Astrophysics Cosmology ... Background Radiation, energy left over from the big bang Article—Encarta Encyclopedia Background Radiation , long wavelength electromagnetic radiation that hits Earth uniformly from all directions. Background radiation represents energy... Cosmology, big bang among major theories Article—Encarta Encyclopedia Found in the Cosmology article Inflationary Theory, rapid expansion of the universe after the big bang Article—Encarta Encyclopedia Inflationary Theory , in cosmology, theory that proposes that the universe expanded very rapidly for a fraction of the first second of life after the...

20. Astrophysics And Science Controversy
Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Munich, Germany. Arp deeply offended his Americanassociates by failing to fall into line about the bigbang theory (the
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Astrophysics and Science Controversy * HERETIC'S NOTEBOOK: EMOTIONS, PROTOCELLS, ETHER-DRIFT AND COSMIC LIFE ENERGY, edited by James DeMeo. Contains four different articles on the questions of the cosmological ether and ether-drift: "Dayton Miller's Ether-Drift Experimetns: A Fresh Look" by James DeMeo,
$24.00 Softcover * SEEING RED: Redshifts, Cosmology and Academic Science , by Halton Arp By the "Dean of American Astrophysics" who is currently living and working in exile at the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Munich, Germany. Arp deeply offended his American associates by failing to "fall into line" about the Big-Bang theory (the "New Creationism") for the origins of the universe. In this book, Arp recounts the evidence proving that extragalactic redshifts are not caused by universal expansion. He gives an empirical view of the birth and evolution of quasars and galaxies, recounts crucial observations long ignored and suppressed, and shows how modern academic science has failed in its ideals and potentials. 306 pp. illustrated with color plates. Import.
$28.00 Paperbound

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