GO BRITANNIA! Wales: Welsh Literature welsh literature, Tours An Introduction to welsh literature Much welsh literature is unknown outside the borders of the principality. Anglo http://www.britannia.com/wales/lit/intro.html
Extractions: Those of us who know better recognize that from evidence of surviving works by sixth century poets Taliesin and Aneirin, Welsh can claim to be the oldest attested vernacular literature in Europe. (Surviving literature from England is in Old English and thus not in the vernacular: only scholars can read it for understanding; Scottish literature is mainly written in Middle English). In addition, both Taliesin and Aneirin were inheritors of an already old and sophisticated bardic tradition that was common to the Celtic peoples of Europe. Wales possesses a rich literature that amply rewards its study. It has a long and impressive history.
Extractions: Select Search All Bartleby.com All Reference Columbia Encyclopedia World History Encyclopedia Cultural Literacy World Factbook Columbia Gazetteer American Heritage Coll. Dictionary Roget's Thesauri Roget's II: Thesaurus Roget's Int'l Thesaurus Quotations Bartlett's Quotations Columbia Quotations Simpson's Quotations Respectfully Quoted English Usage Modern Usage American English Fowler's King's English Strunk's Style Mencken's Language Cambridge History The King James Bible Oxford Shakespeare Gray's Anatomy Farmer's Cookbook Post's Etiquette Bulfinch's Mythology Frazer's Golden Bough All Verse Anthologies Dickinson, E. Eliot, T.S. Frost, R. Hopkins, G.M. Keats, J. Lawrence, D.H. Masters, E.L. Sandburg, C. Sassoon, S. Whitman, W. Wordsworth, W. Yeats, W.B. All Nonfiction Harvard Classics American Essays Einstein's Relativity Grant, U.S. Roosevelt, T. Wells's History Presidential Inaugurals All Fiction Shelf of Fiction Ghost Stories Short Stories Shaw, G.B. Stein, G. Stevenson, R.L. Wells, H.G. Reference Columbia Encyclopedia PREVIOUS NEXT ... BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Welsh literature literary writings in the Welsh language.
Cylch Llên Cymru: The Ring Of Welsh Literature Cylch Llên Cymru the Ring of welsh literature is a webring westablished to support We are inclusive on language too we welc. The Ring of welsh literature. http://www.webexcel.ndirect.co.uk/cylch/
Medieval Welsh Literature Medieval welsh literature. Last updated 9/27/2003 of the mythological medieval Irish and welsh literature, from a comparative (Dumezielian and occasionally quirky http://www.digitalmedievalist.com/bibs/welshlit.html
Extractions: Last updated 9/27/2003 Bromwich, Rachel, and D. Simon Evans. Eds. and trans. Culhwch and Olwen: An Edition and Study of the Oldest Arthurian Tale. Aberystwyth: University of Wales, 1988; Second edition, 1992. ISBN Study. The second edition has the Welsh text, but the Introduction and Notes are in English. There's no translation of the tale, but there is a glossary and the notes are quite helpful. Amazon UK catalog page for Culhwch and Olwen: An Edition and Study of the Oldest Arthurian Tale Bromwich, Rachel. Ed. and trans. Trioedd Ynys Prydein: The Welsh Triads. University of Wales Press: Cardiff, 1978; Second edition 1991. A standard resource, Bromwich includes an Introduction, notes, all the triads in Welsh and in English, and various indices of names, etc. The third edition has been "coming out any day now" for some time; it's currently scheduled for 1999. Ford, Patrick K. Trans. The Mabinogi and Other Medieval Welsh Tales. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977. ISBN 0520034147. Ford doesn't include the romances, but he includes the four branches, the native tales, and Taliessin material that is not available elsewhere in English. I think his introduction alone is worth the price of the book, and his translation is faithful to the tone of the Welsh, and easier to enjoy than any other.
Welsh Language And Literature Welsh Language and Literature. Last updated 3/1/2003. The National Library of Wales. The library offers the kinds of information visitors need, but also various indices and databases of library materials. number of interesting links. Medieval welsh literature. This useful topical survey of Medieval welsh literature to c.1400 including Arthurian http://www.digitalmedievalist.com/urls/welsh.html
Extractions: This site is maintained by Cymdeithas Madog, the Welsh Studies Institute of North America, Inc., a tax-exempt, non-profit organization dedicated to helping North Americans learn, use and enjoy the Welsh language. The Welsh learning material includes essays about Welsh and learning Welsh, an essay on the Welsh alphabet, a bibliography of material for learners, simple stories in Welsh, reviews of Welsh textbooks for learners, humor, and some JPEG images of Wales. There's an excellent essay by Alun Hughes on How to Use a Welsh Dictionary ; it's not as easy as you might think.
Extractions: Content on this web site is provided for informational purposes only. We accept no responsibility for any loss, injury or inconvenience sustained by any person resulting from information published on this site. We encourage you to verify any critical information with the relevant authorities. About Us Contact Us Privacy Links Directory ...
Extractions: Englynion y Beddau , "Stanzas of the Graves" (aka The Graves of the Warriors of Britain) are found in a number of Welsh manuscripts. The earliest and most important collection is in the"Black Book of Carmarthen" containing seventy-three stanzas; sixty-nine of which were copied in the second quarter of the thirteenth century and the other four (numbers 70 to 73) in the second half of the same century. Five such stanzas occur amongst the Llywarch verses in the "Red Book of Hergest" and it is known that these five were once in the earlier (fourteenth century) "White Book of Rhydderch."
GO BRITANNIA! Wales: Welsh Literature - Heroic Poetry Welcome to Wales on Britannia where you will find a wealth of information on Welsh culture, language, traditions and history presented by your guide Peter Williams. welsh literature. Tours, Travel Resources Chapter 2 The Saga Poems. welsh literature. An Introduction. Heroic Poetry http://www.britannia.com/wales/lit/lit1.html
Extractions: Surviving Welsh language poems, part of the heroic tradition, date all the way back to the late sixth century AD, making them part of the oldest attested vernacular in Europe. Two poets who continued what seems to have been an old Celtic bardic tradition of elaborate sound patterns and social ideals were Taliesin and Aneirin. Both these poets lived in northwestern Britain (Strathclyde) during the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasions. The Britons were desperately trying to hold on to their lands in the face of unrelenting pressure from the Germanic tribes now holding most of the eastern half of the island. Apart from what is now known as Wales, the British (or Brythonic) kingdoms that survived were Rheged, Gododdin and Strathclyde. These were cut off from Wales politically in the seventh century, but Strathclyde continued as a centre of the old poetic traditions for a few more centuries when the burden (and the honor) fell to Wales. Taliesin exemplified the image of the poet as sober craftsman and upholder of the social order. His poems are above all songs of praise to his lord, the ideal ruler Urien Rheged (King of Rheged), who protected his people by bravery and ferocity in battle, but who was magnanimous and generous in peace. The poems remind the king of his responsibilties at the same time they remind his followers of their duties to their leader. The vivid impressions of the poems are compressed into complex patterns of alliteration and internal rhyme that later developed into the peculiarly Welsh system known as cynghanedd in which key words are linked by repetition of consonants. In his elegy on the death of Urien, Taliesin incorporated Christian elements such as the prayer for the soul beginning and ending the poem, but also the pagan ideal of worship of the warrior leader.
Arts And Entertainment Directory: Welsh Arts and Entertainment Directory Welsh, including williams, william, clarke, gillian, dylan thomas, machen, arthur Includes a competition, poems and links. A welsh literature http//www.britannia.com/wales/lit/intro. html. Introduction to welsh literature. The Mabinogion http://artsandentertainment.us/directory/Top/Arts/Literature/World Literature/We
WLA welsh literature Abroad LITERATURE ACROSS FRONTIERS (LAF). welsh literature Abroad is one of 19 partners in the Literature Across Frontiers programme. http://www.welsh-lit-abroad.org/about.cfm?lan=e
Llys Arthur: Arthur In Welsh Literature Arthur in welsh literature. The following is a list of Arthurian references in medieval welsh literature. Wherever possible I have http://www.webexcel.ndirect.co.uk/gwarnant/arthur/arthurliterature.htm
Extractions: The following is a list of Arthurian references in medieval Welsh literature. Wherever possible I have given the date of both the source manuscript and the date of the reference. The Celtic Sources for the Arthurian Legend which contains translations of excerpts from most of the relevant Welsh and Irish texts. Llyfr Du Caerfryddin The Stanzas of the Graves are found in a number of Welsh manuscripts. The earliest and most important collection is in the Black Book of Carmarthen which contains seventy-three stanzas; sixty-nine of which were copied in the second quarter of the thirteen century and the other four (numbers 70 to 73) in the second half of the same century. Five more stanzas occur amongst the Llywarch verses in the Red Book of Hergest and it is known that these five were once in the earlier (fourteenth century) White Book of Rhydderch . Similar stanzas are found in two later manuscripts (Peniarth MS.98 and Wrexham MS.1); some of these are variants on Black Book stanzas.
Extractions: Updated: 02/11/98 Jeff The best resource on the web for medieval Welsh poetry. Gwarnant has the texts of poems by the famous (and the obscure) from the earliest surviving works up to the fifteenth century. Mostly in the original Welsh with notes on the manuscript sources, but with many translations as well. Gwarnant has already won a Culture Choice Award at its old website and has been redesigned for its new home. Besides the poetry, there are sections on Welsh history and Arthur. The What's New page will give you details of, and shortcuts to, the latest updates. You can get update notification by e-mail (or you can simply subscribe if you use Internet Explorer 4). This site is owned by Jeff
Medieval Welsh Literature Books still in print are linked to the relevent page on the catalogue. Medieval welsh literature to c.1400. including Arthurian Studies. http://www.uwp.co.uk/book_desc/rb1.html
Extractions: Meic Stephens (gol.), Cydymaith i Lenyddiaeth Cymru (1986, 1993); idem (ed.), A Companion to the Literature of Wales (Oxford, 1986). This is a Welsh literary encyclopedia and a useful factual guide to much else of contingent interest. The Cydymaith and the Companion Thomas Parry, Merfyn Morgan and Gareth Watts (goln), Llyfryddiaeth Llenyddiaeth Gymraeg J.E. Caerwyn Williams (gol.), Llyfryddiaeth yr Iaith Gymraeg: Llyfryddiaeth noted above by listing works which were published after 1986 relating to Welsh literature; included also are references to unpublished university theses. The sections relating to `Y Cyfnod Cynnar' (the early period) include works on the inscriptions, the early glosses and other survivals of Old Welsh, as well as on the Hengerdd (the earliest poetry); `Y Cyfnod Canol' (the middle period) details work on the Gogynfeirdd or Poets of the Princes (to 1988) as well as on the medieval tales, the Laws, and historical and religious works (there is, however, some intentional overlap here with the two previous volumes). Thomas Parry
King Arthur: Welsh Literature References The number three has a particular significance in welsh literature, as evidenced by the Triads, which contain several references to Arthur, including the Three http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/4186/Arthur/htmlpages/historicalliterature1
Extractions: Explorations in Arthurian History A Literature Review Part 1: Tales of Wales It starts with poems. It starts with the Welsh, in the Cornish town of Carmarthen , reputed birthplace of Merlin A firmer mention of Arthur can be found in a surviving manuscript, the Black Book of Carmarthen, which gives us tantalizing possibilities but only one historical clue: the Battle of Llongborth , the location of which can no longer be pinpointed. Arthur is mentioned by name as having been there. Other mentions of a man called Arthur within the poems of the Black Book include a tale of his trying to gain entrance to the castle guarded by Glewlwyd Gafaelfawr. He is also mentioned in the "Stanzas of the Graves," another poem included in the Black Book. The poem mentions his grave but says that its location is not known. This concept would grow into the notion that Arthur wasand isthe Once and Future King, who will come again to lead his people to victory over their oppressors. A fleeting reference to Arthur's greatness is contained in Y Gododdin, a poem by Aneirin extolling the braveness of the
Welsh Literature welsh literature. The term welsh literature may be used to refer to any literature originating from Wales or by Welsh writers. Overview of welsh literature. http://www.fact-index.com/w/we/welsh_literature.html
Extractions: Main Page See live article Alphabetical index The term Welsh literature may be used to refer to any literature originating from Wales or by Welsh writers. However, it more often refers to literature written in the Welsh language . Literature by Welsh writers in the English language is usually called Anglo-Welsh literature The fortunes of Welsh literature have fluctuated over the centuries, in line with those of the Welsh language. A Celtic language spoken in the western parts of Britain since pre- Roman times, and the language of the early Middle Ages is immediately recognisable to modern-day Welsh speakers. The Middle Ages One of the earliest known works of Welsh literature is the Gododdin , a narrative poem attributed to Aneirin (or Aneurin), a poet of the 7th century . The poem celebrates the victory of the native Britons over the Saxons at Catterick ("Cattraeth" in Welsh) in about the year . Since Catterick is in the north of England , this work demonstrates the existence of a uniformity of culture among the peoples of England, Wales and southern Scotland in the immediate post-Roman period.
Anglo-Welsh Literature Anglowelsh literature. The need for a separate identity for this kind of writing arose because of the parallel development of modern welsh literature, ie. http://www.fact-index.com/a/an/anglo_welsh_literature.html
Extractions: Main Page See live article Alphabetical index Anglo-Welsh literature is a term used to describe works written in the English language by Welsh writers, especially if they either have subject matter relating to Wales or (as in the case of Anglo-Welsh poetry in particular) are influenced by the Welsh language in terms of patterns of usage or syntax. It has been recognised as a distinctive entity only since the 20th century . The need for a separate identity for this kind of writing arose because of the parallel development of modern Welsh literature , ie. literature in the Welsh language. Many distinguished literary figures, such as Saunders Lewis , have written in both languages. The best known Anglo-Welsh poet is Dylan Thomas , followed by Ronald Stuart Thomas . Poets such as Robert Graves can be regarded as Anglo-Welsh, insofar as they write about or in Wales, even though they may not have Welsh blood. Anglo-Welsh novelists include Richard Llewellyn and Jack Jones . Their usage of language marks them out from writers of "standard" English, as demonstrated in the following extracts: My father moved his head, and I looked down at him, sideways to me, and tried to think what I could do to ease him, only for him to have a breath.
Extractions: Dictionaries: General Computing Medical Legal Encyclopedia Word: Word Starts with Ends with Definition Anglo-Welsh literature is a term used to describe works written in the English language The English language is a West Germanic language, originating from England, built from several local languages of 6th century Norse conquerors, with a strong French influence added following the Norman Conquest of 1066. English spread worldwide with the rise of British colonialism, from the British Isles to Australia, Canada, India, South Africa, New Zealand, the United States and elsewhere. Click the link for more information. by Welsh writers, especially if they either have subject matter relating to Wales For alternate meanings, see Wales (disambiguation) Wales (Welsh: Cymru ; pronounced /"k@mrI/ 'Kumree', ) is one of the nations that forms the United Kingdom. (The term 'Principality of Wales', Welsh: 'Tywysogaeth Cymru', though often used, is rejected by many in Wales, the Prince of Wales having no role in the governance of Wales.) Cymru