Historical Background Horn of africa at least two millennia ago. By the seventh century, the indigenous Cushitic peoples had mixed eastern and southern africa known as gosha who have established http://www.chrismaier.net/phil/somalia/background.htm
Extractions: An understanding of the Somalia context is necessary for evaluating the suitability and operational readiness of the Canadian Airborne Regiment (CAR) and CARBG for service in Africa, as well as for judging the appropriateness of their training for the mission and the adequacy of Canadian military intelligence. Information about Somali society helps in the evaluation of decisions and actions taken in theatre and clarifies how cultural differences between CARBG members and the Somalis may have affected the conduct of operations.1 Winds can reach almost hurricane force. Between June and September, the swirling dust and sand create difficulties for vehicle and equipment maintenance, requiring special lubricants and fuels. Vehicles create huge dust clouds, restricting visibility to a few metres and making travel difficult. Sand irritates skin and eyes, endangering soldiers separated from their units. Desert conditions of radiant heat, humidity and wind create climatic stress on the body. Following the civil war, the towns between Ethiopia and the port of Bossasso in the Mudug region showed some increased economic activity, while the surrounding countryside showed signs of serious economic collapse.16 In the south, economic collapse followed inter-clan warfare. In towns visited by an assessment team in September 1991,17 many economically active persons were women engaged in petty trading, often separated from their husbands or widowed by war. Government wage employment (mostly benefitting men) had collapsed.
The Situation In Somalia By the seventh century, the indigenous Cushitic peoples had They include people of Arab descent who live in eastern and southern africa known as gosha who have http://www.dnd.ca/somalia/vol1/v1c11e.htm
Extractions: This chapter is about the political and socio-economic context in which the Canadian Airborne Regiment Battle Group (CARBG) carried out its mission to Somalia. It describes the region's geography, culture, political, and social structure, and surveys significant events leading to the civil war and the end of Siad Barre's regime. It also examines the situation in Somalia when the United Nations intervened and the social and political conditions in Belet Huen when the CARBG was deployed. An understanding of the Somalia context is necessary for evaluating the suitability and operational readiness of the Canadian Airborne Regiment (CAR) and CARBG for service in Africa, as well as for judging the appropriateness of their training for the mission and the adequacy of Canadian military intelligence. Information about Somali society helps in the evaluation of decisions and actions taken in theatre and clarifies how cultural differences between CARBG members and the Somalis may have affected the conduct of operations. Somalia occupies a strategic position in the Horn of Africa. In addition to ties with other African countries, it has close religious and historical links with the Arab and Islamic world and has a seat in both the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and the Arab League. At the time of the CARBG's arrival, Somalia had a population of approximately six million, including refugees.
New Titles Acquisitions Newsletter indigenous peoples Russia (Federation) Siberia africa, SubSaharan gosha (african people) Somalia Qossoldoor History Book DT791 .T48 1984 c.1 History of Botswana http://www.tcc.fl.edu/dept/library/tp/october2000.htm
CYBER INISTITUTE OF SOMALI STUDIES Somali News and Views! Asia from africa gosha, resident in the Dadaab and Kakuma camps in Kenya. The DigilRahawiin People (Maay-Speaking) of Somalia. Location The Maay-speaking peoples http://www.2garre.com/cioss
Extractions: Somali News, Views and Links... Government Internet Travel Shopping ... Contact Us CYBER INSTITUTE OF SOMALI STUDIES Top 100 Articles on Somalia Islam in Somalia Warlords All-Somalia ... Racial Mixing a Thing Of The Past 12 March '02 An American paleontologist studying the migration patterns of early humans and has used DNA analysis to overthrow several widely accepted assumptions about how and when people arrived on the continents of Europe and Asia from Africa. Disconnected Country Heads for Collapse 28 November '01 The United States government has shut down Somalia's only Internet service provider, fearing the company has connections with the terrorist organization al-Qaeda. Peace Talks Not As Loud As Expected 1 November '01 President Abdulkassim Salat Hassan and the leaders of several rival political factions have agreed to convene in Nairobi at the request of Kenyan president Daniel arap Moi. UN Withdraws Staff From Mogadishu 25 September '01 The United Nations (UN) has withdrawn dozens of foreign employees from Somalia in reaction to an announcement by international air carriers that flights in and out of the capital, Mogadishu, will no longer be insured. Violence Spreads Outside Capital 7 August '01 Violence in the northeastern port town of Bossaso has claimed the lives of seven and left dozens severely wounded. The strategic port of Bossaso, a key military and trade center in the state of Puntland, has been the site of aggressive clan warfare in recent days.
New Page 1 Report Prepared By OMAR A. ENO. Subject The Fifth Congress For Somali Studies In Boston. Title The Untold Apartheid In Somalia Imposed on. Somali Bantu/Jareer People. The Wazigwa Bantu or gosha people are the sedentary of of the remaining Sabaki peoples in Somalia had shifted south of East and Central africa during the first millennium A http://www.somalibantu.com/Hist_Sombantu1.htm
Extractions: Report Prepared By: OMAR A. ENO Subject: The Fifth Congress For Somali Studies In Boston Title: The Untold Apartheid In Somalia Imposed on Somali Bantu/Jareer People. Date: November 29, 1993 The Untold Apartheid Imposed On The Somali Bantu/Jareer People In Somalia INTRODUCTION On behalf of the Somali Bantu / Jareer people in Somalia, I would like to take this golden opportunity to congratulate you and to express my gratitude to the honorable College of Holy Cross for hosting this historic event of the 5 th Congress for Somali Studies. I would like to convey a special thanks to all the protagonists for their relentless effort, and to every staff member of the Holy Cross for their genuine support to the participants of this Congress. The significance and magnitude of this paper is intended to emphasis conspicuously and to elaborate in detail the perpetual and persistent atrocities committed against Bantu/Jarer people in Somalia. I appeal to every civilized person .to join me in the struggle to end the long-standing and on-going racism and discrimination which have caused untold sufferings to Bantu/Jarer people since Somalia was founded. This paper will also unveil some crucial information that has always been kept obscure and ambiguous to the outside world. The formidable history of Somali Bantu / Jarer people has been deliberately distorted and made insignificant by every Somali autarchy, as well as callous Somali scholars, who have deliberately contributed to misleading foreign writers.
Perouse De Montclose nearly one hundred thousand Swahilispeaking gosha that are Bantu, who are the true indigenous people and original the origins of the Bantu peoples in Somalia http://www.somalibantu.com/Perous de.htm
Extractions: Perouse de Montclose's History of Jareer-weyne/Somali Bantu The delegation met with a group of Bantu elders in Nairobi. These elders explained that normally a Somali of Bantu as well as of non-Bantu origin will refer to a Bantu as a "Jarer", which indicates that the person has strong curly hair. According to Perouse de Montclos the Bantus are also called habash (meaning servants) by the Somali and shanqila by the Ethiopian Oromo along the River Shabelle. The American anthropologist Catherine Besteman regards the term Gosha as referring to the geographical area in which the Bantu live in the Juba Valley area. Gosha is classed as "dense jungle" and denotes the forested banks of the Juba river in Southern Somalia, i.e. the area between Kismayo and the town of Saakow. She makes a distinction between the "Gosha" or Bantu populations of the Juba Valley and the other Bantu farmers of the Shabelle Valley. She claims that the farmers of the Shabelle Valley have a distinct history and a somewhat different position in Somali society. The majority of the riverine farmers of the Juba Valley are descendants of slaves acquired by Somalis in the 19 th century.
HISTORY africa's worst drought occurred in 1992, and coupled with the devastation is conducted by the gosha or Oromo people, but it The Somalirelated peoples accepted Islam in the 1400s http://www.isc1976.com/Somalia.htm
Extractions: HISTORY From the 7th to the 10th century, Arab and Persian trading posts were established along the coast of present-day Somalia. Nomadic tribes occupied the interior, occasionally pushing into Ethiopian territory. In the 16th century, Turkish rule extended to the northern coast and the Sultans of Zanzibar gained control in the south. After British occupation of Aden in 1839, the Somali coast became its source of food. The French established a coal mining station in 1862 at the site of Djibouti and the Italians planted a settlement in Eritrea. Egypt, which for a time claimed Turkish rights in the area, was succeeded by Britain. By 1920, a British protectorate and an Italian protectorate occupied what is now Somalia. The British ruled the entire area after 1941, with Italy returning in 1950 to serve as United Nations trustee for its former territory. By 1960, Britain and Italy granted independence to their respective sectors, enabling the two to join as the Republic of Somalia on July 1, 1960. Somalia broke diplomatic relations with Britain in 1963 when the British granted the Somali-populated Northern Frontier District of Kenya to the Republic of Kenya. On Oct. 15, 1969, President Abdi Rashid Ali Shermarke was assassinated and the army seized power, dissolving the legislature and arresting all government leaders. Maj. Gen. Mohamed Siad Barre, as president of a renamed Somali Democratic Republic, leaned heavily toward the U.S.S.R. In 1977, Somalia openly backed rebels in the easternmost area of Ethiopia, the Ogaden Desert, which had been seized by Ethiopia at the turn of the century. Somalia acknowledged defeat in an eight-month war against the Ethiopians that year, having lost much of its 32,000-man army and most of its tanks and planes. President Siad Barre fled the country in late Jan. 1991. His departure left Somalia in the hands of a number of clan-based guerrilla groups, none of which trusted each other.
Joshua Project - Peoples By Country Profiles People Name General Maay, gosha. Language. Primary Language Maay. Engaged / Targeted Yes. Onsite Church Planting Team Yes. indigenous Fellowship of 100+ http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php?rop3=103458&rog3=SO
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Extractions: Home About the Unit Countries Issues ... Site Map ARMED CONFLICT AND MINORITY AND INDIGENOUS CHILDREN IN THE HORN AND GREAT LAKES REGIONS OF AFRICA Report of an International Workshop 23-24 April 1998, Kampala, Uganda Workshop background and aims The Horn and Great Lakes regions of Africa have in recent decades been devastated by internal wars, and their civilian populations have suffered enormously. The UN (Machel) Report on The Impact of Armed Conflict on Children Through the UN Declaration on Minorities and other international instruments, the international community has emphasised the need to protect vulnerable communities, and through the UN (Machel) Report it has expressed grave concern about the impact of armed conflict on children. Recognizing that the welfare of minority and indigenous children is doubly jeopardized in armed conflict, the Human Rights and Peace Centre (HURIPEC), Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, and Minority Rights Group International (MRG), London, UK, jointly organized the Workshop on Armed Conflict and Minority and Indigenous Children in the Horn and Great Lakes Regions of Africa, held in Kampala on 23-24 April 1998. Child abductions in northern Uganda Aims and objectives The broad aim of the workshop was to address the special problems affecting minority and indigenous children in seven strife-torn countries in the Horn and Great Lakes regions: Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo (former Zaire), Ethiopia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda. The specific objectives were:
Peace Loving Community Page Besteman regards the term gosha as referring to the geographical who are the true indigenous people and original inhabitants more racist than South africa during its apartheid period http://community.benadir-islam.com/bantu.html
Extractions: Peace Loving Community Page The delegation met with a group of Bantu elders in Nairobi. These elders explained that normally a Somali of Bantu as well as of non-Bantu origin will refer to a Bantu as a "Jarer", which indicates that the person has strong curly hair. According to Perouse de Montclos the Bantus are also called habash (meaning servants) by the Somali and shanqila by the Ethiopian Oromo along the River Shabelle. The American anthropologist Catherine Besteman regards the term Gosha as referring to the geographical area in which the Bantu live in the Juba Valley area. Gosha is classed as "dense jungle" and denotes the forested banks of the Juba river in Southern Somalia, i.e. the area between Kismayo and the town of Saakow. She makes a distinction between the "Gosha" or Bantu populations of the Juba Valley and the other Bantu farmers of the Shabelle Valley. She claims that the farmers of the Shabelle Valley have a distinct history and a somewhat different position in Somali society. The majority of the riverine farmers of the Juba Valley are descendants of slaves acquired by Somalis in the 19 th century.
SOMALI BANTU - Their History And Culture the Bantu in southeast africa practiced indigenous ceremonies and motivated Islamic groups, the Bantu people from the In the gosha area, belonging to a dance http://www.culturalorientation.net/bantu/sbrelig.html
Extractions: SOMALI BANTU CULTURE PROFILE CHAPTER C ONTENTS P REFACE ... ORDER A PRINT COPY Many Bantu, whether Muslim or Christian, retain animist beliefs, including use of magic, curses, and possession dances. Religious Life Ancestors of the Bantu in southeast Africa practiced indigenous ceremonies and beliefs prior to their abduction into slavery. Since Muslims are prohibited from owning Muslim slaves, some Bantu freed themselves from slavery by converting to Islam. Over time, many others also converted to Islam. A small number of Bantu who resided in the Dadaab refugee camps recently converted to Christianity. Many Bantu, whether Muslim or Christian, retain animist beliefs, including use of magic, curses, and possession dances. Islamic influence among the escaped slaves in the Juba River valley gained momentum after the Bantu leader Nassib Bundo converted to Islam. Although the pre-Islamic traditions and ritual practices were not completely eliminated, most Bantu people in the Juba River valley had converted to Islam by the beginning of the 20 th century. Unlike some politically motivated Islamic groups, the Bantu people from the Juba River valley practice Islam for religious purposes and do not mix it with politics for personal or popular gain.
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Links To Resources U.S.A. africa. Somalia Mbongi and other indigenous african approaches to indigenous Science and Knowledge Systems" (good source for history of science and knowledge in africa) http http://www.somalishir.org/resources/links_to_resources.htm
Extractions: The Somali Civic Web A Virtual "Shir" in Cyberspace http://www.somalishir.org/ Relevant Hyperlinks Table of Contents Democracy Worldwide U.S.A. Africa Somalia Computer-Aided Democracy Conflict Resolution General Africa Somalia Politics Somalia History General African Afro-Centric Somalia General Africa Somalia U.S. Foreign Policy General Somalia United Nations General Somalia Virtual Libraries Top Bottom of Page 1 Democracy 1.1 Democracy Worldwide Journal Journal of Democracy ("Since its inception in 1990, the Journal of Democracy has become an influential international forum for scholarly analysis and competing democratic viewpoints. Focusing exclusively on democracy, the Journal monitors and analyzes democratic regimes and movements in scores of countries around the world.): http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_democracy/ and http://www.journalofdemocracy.org/ Is the Third Wave Over? Larry Diamond Journal of Democracy 7.3 (1996), pp. 20 - 37. : http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/jod/7.3diamond.html
Extractions: Home Contact us Links Archives Somalia And Survival In The Shadow Of The Global Economy - Part 3 ISSUE 60 FRONT PAGE Feature Somalia And Survival In The Shadow Of The Global Economy - Part 3 Headlines Campaigning for the Presidential Election Begins UCIDs Acting Secretary General Resigns ASAD Group Rewarded with 3 Cabinet Posts NOAA: Horn Of Africa Drought Concerning ... New Administrator Appointed for Hargeisa University International News Ethiopian-American Radio To Spread Information UNHCR Begins Integration of Somali Bantus German Navy Team Arrives In Mombasa Ethiopia Denies Troop Presence In Somalia ... Abdi Abdiraham Added to USA Men's 8K Championships Field Peace Talks TNG To Stay In Talks, Mediator Says UN Humanitarian Coordinator Deeply Concerned About Worsening Humanitarian Situation In Baidoa Security Council Condemns Violence Health Therapeutic Feeding For Somali Children Culture Ahmed Ali "Drum" Fraud Prevention in Next Elections Somaliland Presidential Election Chronicles: The Campaign A Little Reminder ... Who Armed Iraq? The top-down merging of political networks and official economic policies destroyed local customary authorities capacity to control resources. It also helped determine the contours of conflict in the 1990s, since it drew into the region outside elites of mixed origins, several of whom became important political actors in the river valleys by virtue of their positions in the hierarchy of the military dictatorship in the capital. Their economic power was tied to the coercive power of the state. As state control diminished in the 1980s, they developed their own capacity to act as political entrepreneurs to recruit and field armed forces. The significance of colonial and nationalist policies, however, lay in providing these actors with tools to become violent entrepreneurs as these policies weakened local capacity to resist this process.
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