Genotype Vs. Phenotype genotype vs. phenotype Copyright Thamnophis.com. phenotype - The appearance ofan organism, produced by the genotype in conjunction with the environment. http://www.thamnophis.com/genetics/glossary1.htm
Extractions: Allele - One of a series of possible alternative forms of a given gene. Alleles differ in DNA sequence. The difference affects the functioning of a single product (RNA and/or protein). Gene - A hereditary unit that, in the classical sense, occupies a specific position (locus) within the genome or chromosome; a unit that has one or more specific effects upon the appearance (phenotype) of the organism. Genotype - The genetic constitution of an organism. Locus (plural = loci) - The position that a gene occupies in a chromosome. Normally, that position does not change. Phenotype - The appearance of an organism, produced by the genotype in conjunction with the environment. For thousands of years, people have known that two cats or dogs or pigeons from the same litter can look different. People can just look at two creatures and see both the similarities and the differences in coat color, length of fur, pigment distribution, etc. This is the phenotype, which can be affected by disease, vitamin deficiencies, and a variety of other environmental influences. The words "gene" and "genotype" do not refer to visible things. The early genetics workers had seen visible differences in the phenotype. They postulated that invisible, physical units (genes) caused these differences. "Genotype" was the word coined for the list of mutant and normal genes that can be identified in a given individual from its phenotype and from its ancestors' and offsprings' phenotypes.
VIP: Mendelian Genetics P, phenotype genotype x, phenotype genotype F1 are all phenotypegenotype F1 x F1 F2, phenotype genotype phenotype genotype http://plantphys.info/plants_human/vipmendel.html
Extractions: URL: http://parallel.acsu.unsw.edu.au/rks Ecolab ] is a model system of an ecology that attempts to understand evolutionary processes. It makes a particular assumption about the embryology or genotype-phenotype map in order to generate the novel ecological interaction coefficients from the novel genotypes as they arise through mutation. The Eco-Tierra project [ ] examines this assumption using Tierra ] as a model ecosystem, which has an implicitly defined embryology. Ecolab ] is a model system of an ecology that attempts to understand evolutionary processes. Ecolab's dynamics is taken to be a generalised form of the Lotka-Volterra equation which is, in fact, the most general analytic two-term interaction model. Here n is the population density, the component being the number of individuals of species i r is the difference between reproduction and death
Extractions: Embryology in Tierra: A study of a genotype to phenotype map Abstract Ecolab [9, 7] is a model system of an ecology that attempts to understand evolutionary processes. It makes a particular assumption about the embryology or genotype-phenotype map in order to generate the novel ecological interaction coefficients from the novel genotypes as they arise through mutation. The Eco-Tierra project  examines this assumption using Tierra  as a model ecosystem, which has an implicitly defined embryology.
Science - Salters A-level Biology Chapter 2 Genes and health. genotype and phenotype. Recall the terms genotypeand phenotype and explain what is meant by monohybrid inheritance. http://sl.wi3k.com/sciencesaltersbio.php?id=137
Extractions: Next: Getting started Tutorial on using ADMIXMAP to model genotype and phenotype data from an admixed population C. J. Hoggart and P. M. McKeigue ADMIXMAP is available for download at www.lshtm.ac.uk/eu/genetics. If you have problems getting the program to run, email Clive.Hoggart@lshtm.ac.uk. To feed back comments on this tutorial, email firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
Genotype And Phenotype genotype and phenotype. AllelesYou has two chromosomes called homologues. O= no antigen on RBC; phenotype and genotype of A, B, O blood types. http://www.hartnell.cc.ca.us/faculty/asteinhardt/mywebs/Genetics.htm
Extractions: Genotype and Phenotype Alleles-You has two chromosomes called homologues. They carry alternative forms of the same gene, at the same locus, called alleles. A letter is used to represent a gene. A dominant gene is uppercase, a recessive is lowercase. One allele comes from each parent. This is your genotype. Dominant means it is the trait that is expressed or seen in the phenotype (what you look like) Recessive Homozygous EE, or ee Heterozygous Ee What are the chances of a child having a trait? Use a Punnett square. Dominant and Recessive Recessive disorders take two alleles Draw a pedigree chart to study patterns of inheritance. Males are squares and females are circles. If a recessive trait is seen in children of normal parents then the parents are heterozygous carriers. Example is cystic fibrosis. Lethal genetic disease among Caucasians. One in 5 is a carrier, 1 in 2500 kids have this disorder. Very thick mucus in lungs. The gene is located on chromosome 7. Someday they will put copies of the normal gene into lungs of the patients. Tay Sachs disease found in Jewish people. Development slows at age 4-8 months. Neurological impairment, motor difficulties, blindness, seizures, paralysis and death by age 3-4. In late onset symptoms are mental motor deterioration, depression, schizophrenia, premature death. In late onset disease the gene Hexaminidase A has a pair of bases wrong on Chromosome 1. Without Hex A too much glycosphingolipid in lysomsomes in the brain. Test for Hex A activity. Amniocentesis or chorionic villi sampling can detect carriers.
Extractions: MediConf World Calendar of Medical Events Correlation Entre Genotype, Proteotype et Phenotype / Genotype - Proteotype - Phenotype Relationships in Neurodegenerative Diseases neurology, neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimers disease, AD, dementia, Parkinsonism, biochemistry, molecular genetics, correlation between genotype, proteotype and phenotype, specificity, disease mutations and their phenotypes, molecular classification For details on this meeting and more meetings in the same field visit our Medical Specialty Calendar MediConf lists over 10000 future events including conferences, workshops, seminars, symposia and exhibitions in the fields of medicine, healthcare, pharmacology, and biotechnology. Every medical specialty is included, from allergy to zoonoses. MediConf is an excellent source of information for healthcare professionals and the pharmaceutical industry worldwide.
Extractions: Return to Table of Contents GENOTYPE OR PHENOTYPE? ROLE OF THESE STRATEGIES FOR INDIVIDUALIZED THERAPY FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS IN PATIENTS V Michaud, N Morin, D Brouillette, D Roy, L Verret, N Noel, I Taillon, G OHara, D Gossard, M Champagne, MC Vanier, J Turgeon Montreal, Quebec BACKGROUND: The cytochrome P450 isozyme CYP2C9 metabolizes a wide variety of drugs, including cardiovascular agents such as losartan and the narrow therapeutic index drug (S)-warfarin. CYP2C9 has been demonstrated to be polymorphic: hence, individuals can be categorized as extensive or poor metabolizers. So far, one wild-type (*1) and two variants alleles (*2,*3) associated with a decreased protein activity have been described in Caucasians. Despite their low incidence (3-10%), carriers of variant alleles may exhibit altered disposition of CYP2C9 substrates. Correlation between CYP2C9 phenotype and genotype had been demonstrated in healthy volunteers but not in patients undergoing treatment with various drugs under usual clinical conditions. PURPOSE: The overall objective of our study was to assess whether determination of CYP2C9 genotype correlates with CYP2C9 activity (phenotype) in patients as determined by the losartan urinary metabolic ratio.
Extractions: Hey Doc: I have three different friends who have taken Viracept and have all become resistent, with viral loads elevating in the presence of a compliant regimen. All three have gotten pheno and Genotype testing after becoming resistent to find that they were resistent specifically to those meds. (All normal so far). Now a year later when deciding what to go on this test was taken again and all three times (done three times because of the alarming results) they are now NOT resistent to Nelfinavir). This seems to be more common than once thought from what I have seen, where people can develop a resistance and actually be able to go back on medications they once used. All three are now undetectable on meds they have already taken before and were elevated in viral load for a full year on those same medications, riding them out sa long as possible.. I hope to get an answer to this question although something tells me I will not! Thanks!
The Body's Experts Answer Your Questions About Labs genotype or phenotype? Posted Jun 23, 1998. Please explain the difference betweena genotype and a phenotype test for resistance. Are either in common use? http://www.thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/Labs/Archive/Other/Q7564.html
Extractions: Please remember that this forum is designed for educational purposes only, and experts are not engaged through this forum in rendering legal or medical advice or professional services. Experts appearing on this page are independent and are solely responsible for editing and fact-checking their material. Neither The Body nor any sponsor is the publisher or speaker of posted visitors' questions or the experts' material.
ThinkQuest : Library : Gene School '99 genotype vs. phenotype. Have you noticed how the same recipe will turn outdifferently when two different people make it? genotype vs. phenotype. http://library.thinkquest.org/28599/analogies.htm
Extractions: 2001, Vol.22, No.3, pp. 221-228 Macular dystrophy with protan genotype and phenotype studied with cone type specific ERGs Hendrik P.N. Scholl , Jan Kremers and Bernd Wissinger University Eye Hospital Tübingen, Laboratories of Electrophysiology, Department of Experimental Ophthalmology, Germany University Eye Hospital Tübingen, Laboratories of Molecular Genetics, Department of Experimental Ophthalmology, Germany PURPOSE. To determine the L- and M-cone driven ERG responses in a male patient with macular dystrophy and a protan phenotype. METHODS. We measured large field ERG thresholds to stimuli which modulated exclusively the L- or the M-cones or the two in various combinations (both in-phase and in counterphase). In none of the stimuli, the S-cones were modulated. Additionally, standard and multifocal ERGs were measured. Analysis of the L- and M-cone pigment genes was performed by means of PCR, RFLP analysis and DNA sequencing techniques. RESULTS. Macular dystrophy was revealed by the markedly abnormal multifocal ERGs in presence of near normal standard ERGs. The large field ERG responses were exclusively driven by the M-cones with enlarged thresholds when compared with otherwise normal protanopes. In addition, the M-cone driven ERG response phases were abnormal. Pigment gene analysis confirmed a protan genotype with the presence of a single 5'red/3'green hybrid pigment gene. CONCLUSIONS. Our novel stimulus technique allows a reliable analysis of the separate cone pathways even in cases with macular dysfunction. The increased thresholds and the abnormal phase behavior of the M-cone driven ERGs reflect altered mechanisms of the retinal physiology in this patient. The data strongly suggest that the macular dystrophy and the protanopia have independent origins.