Missing Girl's Mother Fights For DNA Bank-Oct 12, 2002 be found through dna matching, but now her of dna identification has gained widespread media attention in the criminal investigation on in the collection and handling of dna samples http://www.missingpeople.net/missing_girl's_mother_fights-oct_12,_2002.htm
Extractions: National Post Saturday, October 12, 2002 VICTORIA - Lindsey Jill Nicholls, 14, planned to meet her friends in Courtenay on Aug. 2, 1993. Like many teenagers who live in rural communities with limited bus service, she decided to hitchhike. What should have been a 10-minute ride has turned into a nine-year nightmare for Lindsey's family, because the blond-haired, green-eyed teenager never made it to where she was going. Rob Kruyt, National Post. Judy Peterson with daughter Kim, is campaigning for a missing persons DNA data bank. Her daughter Lindsey disappeared in 1993. Since that day, Lindsey's mother, Judy Peterson, has struggled with the questions that surround her daughter's disappearance. Mrs. Peterson hoped answers about Lindsey's fate could be found through DNA matching, but now her hopes are on hold until Canada's DNA legislation catches up with technology. Canada's two-year-old DNA Identification Act has already been outpaced by DNA science and the ethical challenges that come with it, so the Justice Department has initiated a public consultation process that will continue until the end of this month.
Extractions: Table of Contents NOTE FROM THE DIRECTOR Since January 1, 1996, the law in New York State has required offenders convicted of certain felonies to submit biological samples (formerly blood and more recently buccal samples swabbed from the inside of the cheek) for DNA profiling through laboratory analysis. The resulting records of offender DNA profiles are organized into a centralized index within the State DNA Data Banka part of CODIS, the national Combined DNA Index System developed by the FBI. When matched against samples of forensic DNA gathered from crime scenes, these reference DNA profiles from the Offender Index can identifyor eliminatesuspects in criminal investigations. Forensic DNA analysis has been shown to be a highly efficient technique that assures a greater likelihood of detection than traditional forensic methods. This DCJS report compares two proposals to expand the State DNA Data Bank by indexing those offenders convicted of nonviolent felonies and less serious crimes as well. It offers policymakers information based on New York State data that can be used to assess the relative potential of these proposals to provide
Criminal Justice Resources Resources: Forensic Science Evidence collection in criminal Fact investigation. Forensic Scientists A Career in the Crime Lab. Forensic Tracking An Old Tool for Modern Law Enforcement. The Future of dna that matching a http://www.lib.msu.edu/harris23/crimjust/forsci.htm
Extractions: Forensic Science Associations Reference Tools Web Sites Articles and Publications Associations and Organizations American Academy of Forensic Sciences American Board of Criminalistics American Board of Forensic Anthropology American Board of Forensic Entomology ... Forensic Associations and Organizations Forensic Science Reference Tools Current News Related to Forensics (Total News) Forensic Science Graduate Education in the United States Zeno's Forensic Science Mailing Lists Locating Forensic Science Experts (Carpenter) ... Forensic Toxicology Laboratories (Alan Barbour) Forensic Science Web Links About.Com Crime Scene Page About.Com Forensics and other Evidence Page Alan Barbour's Forensic Toxicology Page California Criminalistics Institute (CCI) Forensic Science Virtual Laboratory ... Zeno's Forensic Page Forensic Science Articles and Publications Attorney General's Report on the DNA Evidence Backlog Automated DNA Typing: Method of the Future? Ballistics Fingerprinting: A Life Saver Ballistics : The Science of Guns ... When the Lab Gets it Wrong Source Links With Annotations About.Com Crime Scene Page
Extractions: "President's Fiscal Year 2000 Budget" This past year, the FBI celebrated its 90th anniversary. We acknowledged that occasion by reflecting upon the successes of our past and by dedicating ourselves to carrying the FBI's proud heritage into the future. Having reached the mid-point in my tenure as Director of the FBI, I want to be sure that the Bureau of the 21st Century is rooted solidly upon our successful past and that our mission and priorities, as well as our core values and competencies, prepare us for the challenges of today and the years to come. Challenges Facing the FBI Before discussing our fiscal year 2000 budget request, I would like to highlight for the Subcommittee several of the challenges facing the FBI, and the strategic planning and management initiatives that we are undertaking to prepare the FBI to enter the 21st Century. These initiatives are especially important given the challenges and changes facing the FBI.
Criminal Law Catalaw collection. Centre for criminal Law Publications. Curbing Prosecutorial Excess. Eleventh Amendment. Federal Bureau Of investigation Relevance of "matching dna Is the http://www.lexisone.com/legalresearch/legalguide/practice_areas/criminal_law.htm
Extractions: for Small Firms Forms ... Legal Web Site Directory LEGAL INTERNET GUIDE Criminal Law Practice Areas Practice Resources Legal Community Legal Subject Outlines ... Legal Research Practice Resources Academic Crime Statistics Link Guide American Bar Association (ABA) Commission on Domestic Violence Criminal Justice Section (American Bar Association)
Extractions: Home Donate Search Links document.write("Contact"); DNA Code Only a small fraction of our total DNA makes us diff... DNA Code Virginia if a matching profile is found. New York City Police Commissioner Howard Safir has proposed that all those convicted of any crime be required to submit a specimen of their cells for analysis and that their DNA profiles become part of the state's database. The city's mayor, Rudolph Giuliani, has gone even further and endorsed the idea of collecting DNA samples from everyone at birth. Both say the benefits associated with increased testing are well worth the cost to the taxpayer. But do we have anything to fear from universal DNA testing? Many argue that the innocent certainly have nothing to worry about. The perfect science? Forensic DNA analysis is held in such high esteem that it has developed a reputation of infallibility. But is it really the perfect science or can analysts make mistakes? A mistake could cost a suspect his liberty or even his life. This almost happened in England, where a DNA test matched an innocent man to a burglary crime scene. Based on a test using six genes, he was deemed the likely source of the crime scene evidence. He matched the evidentiary profile perfectly. But in a more rigorous 10-gene analysis, conducted because he presented a very strong alibi, he was excluded as a suspect. Britain's DNA database is the largest in the world, consisting of almost 700,000 profiles. When it comes to criminal matters, civil liberties in Britain are apparently less of a concern than they are in the United States. Most English subjects tend to volunteer specimens when police ask them to do so. As with any medical procedure, one must weigh the benefits of DNA testing against any potential downside. There are clearly a number of ethical and legal issues that must be addressed. How can we be sure that someone won't gain access to your genetic profile and sell it to a prospective employer or insurance company? It's a frightening thought, but political candidates may one day find themselves compelled to provide samples of their DNA. Genetic profiles could then influence the way people vote. The good, the bad and the ugly Everything we are is in our
Extractions: The BCCLA recognizes and supports the aim of amending the Criminal Code and the Identification of Criminals Act to allow law enforcement authorities to obtain a warrant to collect DNA samples from suspects in serious crimes, to demand DNA from those arrested for serious crimes, and to bank DNA information for legitimate law enforcement purposes. Framing policies and procedures to institute these practices and to identify their limits is a matter of some urgency, both because of the potential value of DNA printing as a law enforcement tool and because of the civil liberties issues that these practices raise. This brief is an attempt to put these issues in perspective and to make recommendations for policy that will put law enforcement and civil liberties interests in balance. DNA samples are now most frequently analyzed in North America by a technique called restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). For each sample, a DNA sequence from the same chromosomal region is cut, and a stain or picture of it is produced, which is called an autoradiograph. Autoradiographs look like bar codes. These are visually compared to discover if the patterns of DNA are identical. This process is typically repeated four other times for different chromosomal regions of the DNA molecule. If the DNA patterns for each of the five chromosomal regions are identical, a match has been found. The confidence that the two samples have been correctly matched (that they came from the same person) depends on the quality of the samples and the stringency with which the tests were applied. If there is a discrepancy in any of the five samples, the tissue samples did not come from the same person.
CrimTrac data is a critical element in the criminal investigation process, whether fingerprints, providing faster and more accurate data collection and matching. http://www.crimtrac.gov.au/fingerprints.htm
Extractions: The use of fingerprint data is a critical element in the criminal investigation process, whether the data is collected at a crime scene or from a suspect or from a convicted offender. In 1986 Australia led the world by establishing the first National Automated Fingerprint Identification System, known as NAFIS. Fifteen years later, that system had run out of capacity, and had been eclipsed by new technologies used by police services in Europe, the United States and New Zealand. CrimTrac's new NAFIS takes Australia's fingerprint technology into the twenty-first century. What happened previously? When police took a suspect's fingerprints, they used the same technology that their counterparts did at the start of the twentienth century - printer's ink, a roller and a slab. This process was time-consuming and could result in poor data quality, particularly if the person concerned was unwilling to cooperate with the police officer taking the prints. Having taken a charged person's fingerprints, police sent the fingerprint card to their Fingerprint Bureau. The prints were then scanned into the old NAFIS computer and searched against the 2.4 million records on the national database. If NAFIS found a 'match', a fingerprint expert then verified the identification. The relevant police officer was then notified of the match, along with the courts, where relevant.
Extractions: "The FBI's DNA Program" Attachment A Mr. Chairman, members of the Subcommittee, I would like to thank the members of the Subcommittee for inviting the FBI to provide an update on our activities relating to forensic DNA analysis specifically with respect to the Combined DNA Index System or CODIS, our National DNA database and our efforts to provide this technology and assistance to state and local forensic laboratories. The DNA Identification Act of 1994 [contained within the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 and hereinafter referred to as "DNA Act"] provided the statutory authority for creation of the National DNA Index System (NDIS) and specified the type of data that could be included in this national index. Only the following types of DNA data may be stored in the national index administered by the FBI Director:
Extractions: Job Opportunities The DCI DNA Profiling Section. The DNA Profiling Section provides examinations to law enforcement agencies at no cost. Items from criminal cases are examined for the presence of human DNA. DNA can be found in biological fluids, tissues and bones of the body. If DNA profiles are obtained from samples in question, comparisons may be made to known DNA profiles from individuals believed to be involved. The DNA Profiling Section also determines the DNA profiles of convicted offenders and stores their profiles in a computer database. Comparisons are made between the profiles found in the convicted offender database and the profiles obtained from criminal cases where no suspect has been identified. What is DNA? DNA is an acronym for the genetic material deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is found in all nucleated cells of the body. The DNA humans receive from their parents is unique with the exception of identical twins. The DNA found in an individual's blood is the same DNA that is found in their saliva, tissue, bone, etc. What is DNA testing?
Legally Scientific? (Errors At ESR) the chances of gaining a matching profile. a thorough investigation into the collection, transport, storage been accidentally contaminated with dna from Profile http://home.iprimus.com.au/dna_info/dna/JA_DNA_LegSci_6.html
Extractions: Errors at ESR Even New Zealand was soon caught up in the enthusiasm for forensic DNA testing, although it was initially ill equipped to carry it out. Nonetheless the Criminal Investigations (Blood Samples) Act was quickly passed in 1995 "in order that a DNA databank can be created for the investigation of criminal offences", according to Environmental Science & Research Ltd (ESR), the main proponent and beneficiary of the legislation. As has been the case in many other jurisdictions, enthusiasm for the new technology exceeded expertise and ESR's Mt Albert laboratories soon found themselves at the centre of two high profile cases which serve as textbook examples of what can go wrong in DNA testing laboratories, even those which are fully accredited and meet internationally accepted quality control guidelines. In 1996, Peter Robert Howse was arrested for the rape of a teenager on the basis of strong evidence which included identification by a witness. Samples taken from Howse and the victim were sent to ESR labs for SLP (RFLP) testing. ESR reported no match, apparently eliminating Howse as a suspect, and he was released. In 1999 Howse was arrested and tested again in connection with at least three further rapes. In the meantime ESR had switched to STR (PCR) testing. The results strongly implicated Howse in the 1996 rape as well as those being investigated.
Convicted By Juries, Exonerated By Science This project was supported under award number OJP95-215 by the National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. the Use of dna Evidence to Establish Innocence for the collection and preservation of dna evidence; ensuring the investigation and prosecution of criminal cases. While dna typing is http://www.ncjrs.org/txtfiles/dnaevid.txt
Genetic Privacy Act: File 7 or state law; (b) collection, storage and typing of such samples is limited to the purpose of matching dna samples in criminal investigations; and (c) access http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/resource/privacy/privacy7.htm
Extractions: Sec. 121. IDENTIFICATION OF DEAD BODIES Not withstanding any other provisions of this Act, a person may provide access to an individually identifiable DNA sample, or to data derived from DNA typing, to assist in the identification of a dead body, provided further that the analysis of any sample so provided and the analysis of a DNA sample from the dead body is limited to that which is necessary to determine the identity of the dead body. Sec. 122. IDENTIFICATION FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT PURPOSES. Nothing in this Act shall be construed to prohibit federal, state or local law enforcement authorities from collecting, storing or typing DNA samples, when:
The Genetic Privacy Act-Commentary [part C] (b) collection, storage and typing of such samples is limited to the purpose of matching dna samples in criminal investigations; and. http://www.bumc.bu.edu/www/sph/lw/gpa/GPA_cm_c.htm
Extractions: Sec. 121. IDENTIFICATION OF DEAD BODIES Not withstanding any other provisions of this Act, a person may provide access to an individually identifiable DNA sample, or to data derived from DNA typing, to assist in the identification of a dead body, provided further that the analysis of any sample so provided and the analysis of a DNA sample from the dead body is limited to that which is necessary to determine the identity of the dead body. Sec. 122. IDENTIFICATION FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT PURPOSES. Nothing in this Act shall be construed to prohibit federal, state or local law enforcement authorities from collecting, storing or typing DNA samples, when: (a) the collection, storage and typing of DNA samples is authorized under federal or state law; (b) collection, storage and typing of such samples is limited to the purpose of matching DNA samples in criminal investigations; and (c) access to such DNA samples is limited to authorized law enforcement agencies, prosecutors, defense counsel, defendants, accused individuals, suspects, and their authorized agents. These sections contain two related exceptions to the general rule which requires written authorization prior to the collection, storage and analysis of DNA. Both exceptions are allowed because of the limitation on the kind of DNA analysis which can be conducted and consequently on the kind of information that is created. The genetic analysis which is permitted is referred to in the statute as "DNA typing" and has been discussed in the comments on the definitions used in this statute. DNA typing is a method used for purposes of identification and should not create any other information about the person who is the source of the DNA. Consequently, the privacy concerns raised by creation and disclosure of other genetic information do not apply to this specific type of analysis and the resultant profile.
Extractions: States should collect DNA samples from convicted felons, arrestees, and suspects and should include these samples in a federally-mandated DNA database because the government's interests in solving and preventing crimes and seeking justice for victims far outweigh the minimal intrusion upon individuals by requiring submission to a DNA test. I. Introduction and Background States are authorized to collect DNA samples from their citizens under certain circumstances or with certain statutory limitations. Missouri's DNA profiling system and current Missouri law in this area will be discussed in the analysis section of this article. DNA databases are useful in solving past crimes that otherwise may remain unsolved. DNA databases also can be used in solving future crimes. For example, DNA samples taken from prisoners and entered into a DNA database proved useful in solving a Virginia case in which a woman was brutally attacked and raped in her home. Police had no physical description of the attacker, but the DNA sample in the database matched a sample of semen found at the scene of the crime. That sample helped police identify and convict a suspect who is now serving a life sentence in conjunction with an additional 30 years. DNA databases are also useful in exonerating suspects and those wrongly convicted.
DNA To Test Or Not To Test - Suite101.com of dna,samples from suspects in criminal investigations as such evidence collection may infringe relationship.Q;Would some form of dna, matching at birth http://www.suite101.com/discussion.cfm/101_fun_stuff/83721/latest/4
Extractions: Search The Web Member Central Join Our Community! Login What's New Become a SuiteU Affiliate ... MemberUpdate Suite University About Suite University Suite University News Visit the University Course Listing ... FREE Demo Course New Topics SpiritWell Travel Book Reviews Agora News Foraging Wild Foods ... More... Suite Events Teacher Appreciation Event 2004 Family Focus 2004 In Tune With Johann Sebastian Bach More about Suite101 About Suite101.com Advertise With Suite For more information D.N.A. To Test or not to Test Go To: 1 to Latest All Asmodeus Mandatory D.N.A.,testing of the plox Re: Mandatory D.N.A.,testing of Asmodeus Re: Re: Mandatory D.N.A.,testing Re: Re: Re: Mandatory D.N.A.,tes Author: Asmodeus Date: October 11, 2002 9:22 AM Subject: Mandatory D.N.A.,testing of the general population Growing older is unavoidable. Growinup is optional Author: plox Date: October 11, 2002 12:45 PM Subject: Re: Mandatory D.N.A.,testing of the general population
DHK: Pubs: DNA: Criminal Justice 2001 6 possible, a digitalized collection of identifying s dna matches the crime scene dna at the that eliminates the coincidentally matching individuals as http://homepages.law.asu.edu/~kayed/pubs/dna/01-CJ.htm
Extractions: Is a DNA Identification Database in Your Future? By David H. Kaye, Michael E. Smith, and Edward J. Imwinkelried* When law enforcement authorities began building DNA databases in the early 1990s, only individuals convicted of serious sexual crimes were included. Before long, though, many states authorized the sampling of DNA from those convicted of murder, and then other violent felonies. Some states now collect DNA from all felons and certain misdemeanants. Bills have been introduced in several states to expand the databases beyond convicted offenders, to include arrestees. Louisianas statutes already authorize it. These computer-searchable DNA databases help solve cases that have baffled police for decades, and they identify previously convicted offenders who commit new crimes. Examples abound. In Virginia, there was the rapist who blew out a candle before attacking his victim. The candle had his saliva. There was the burglar who wore a pair of socks on his hands and left no fingerprints. The discarded socks contained skin cells. There was the bank robber who dropped his ski mask. All were identified by checking the DNA profiles in these traces against the states database of convicted felons. (See Profile: Use of a DNA Data Bank to Catch Criminals in Virginia , Natl Public Radio Morning Edition, Mar. 8, 2001
CrimTrac Commonwealth, State and Territory legislation governing the collection and matching of dna in Australia Once convicted criminals have their dna profile in http://www.crimtrac.gov.au/dna.htm
Extractions: DNA profiling is the single most important advance in police investigation techniques since the development of fingerprint classification systems in the late nineteenth century. CrimTrac's new National Criminal Investigation DNA Database will offer Australia's police services the enhanced ability to solve more crimes more quickly. What is DNA? DNA - short for Deoxyribonucleic Acid (pronounced 'Dee-ox-ee-rye-bo-new-klee-ic Acid') - is the blueprint for life. It is a very long molecule that carries genetic information that governs a person's physical characteristics. Each individual inherits half their DNA from their mother and the other half from their father. With the exception of identical twins, no two individuals share the same DNA sequence. DNA is found in the nucleus of every cell in the body except red blood cells and is the same throughout the body. That is, for any individual, the DNA sequence recovered from white blood cells is identical to that found in other tissues, bones or bodily fluids. There are many regions of DNA molecules that do not hold any known genetic information, but that vary enormously from person to person. These are called non-coding or 'junk' DNA, and are used by forensic scientists to distinguish between individuals. Junk DNA cannot be used to build up a physical picture of an individual, or identify race or age.